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1.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 217, ago. 2020. ilus, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103536

RESUMEN

Los primeros mil días de vida son parte del Curso de Vida, al tomar en consideración la Epigenética, término postulado por Waddington en 1942: modifica la expresión genética SIN cambiar la secuencia de las bases de ADN. El proyecto internacional llamado DOHaD (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease) u ODSE (Orígenes del Desarrollo de la Salud y Enfermedad), está inserto dentro de la Transición Alimentaria y Nutricional (TAN), que, en países en desarrollo­ocurre en forma muy rápida ­produce tanto la malnutrición por déficit como por exceso; es decir la doble carga nutricional. La TAN es producto en nuestro país, de una urbanización acelerada y anárquica, y de cambios socioculturales, como la incorporación de la mujer al mercado de trabajo con menos tiempo para cocinar; está acompañada de una transición epidemiológica con la emergencia y prevalencia de la obesidad y de las enfermedades crónicas como morbiletalidad. Esta doble carga nutricional se modificó, por la situación país, y prevalece más el déficit que el exceso. Se presenta el PROYECTO FUNDACIÓN BENGOA ­ SVPP ­ SOGV ­ CANIA, cuya meta es: Elaborar una agenda preventiva común contra la malnutrición tanto por déficit como por exceso y sus comorbilidades, bajo el enfoque de los primeros mil días de vida y su efecto sobre todo el curso de vida. Se realizó el diseño y aplicación de tres cuestionarios digitales, que se utilizaran para la elaboración de esta meta. Se consolidó un CONSENSO NACIONAL formado por profesionales de la salud involucrados en los primeros mil días de vida(AU)


The first 1000 days of life is the new paradigm that determines health and nutrition during the life course, based on epidemiological models that incorporate the concept of Epigenetics, term introduced by Waddington, that refers to changes that affect the genetic expression without changing the DNA sequence, within the international program DOHaD/ODSE as well as the Food and Nutrition Transition(FNT). This FNT, product of an accelerated and anarchic urbanization that led to sedentary activities, plus the incorporation of women to the work media, with less time for cooking, with the substitution of the traditional diet for one much more practical and efficient in time and effort. It is accompanied by demographic and epidemiologic changes and transitions. The Double Burden of Nutrition in VENEZUELA has changed due to the effect of the recent crisis with a rise in malnutrition and a fall in obesity/overweight. The current project: Fundación Bengoa- Pediatric Society Venezuela (SVPP) ­ CANIA - Obstetric Society of Venezuela (SOGV) is called Developmental Origins of Health and Disease in Venezuela (DOHaD Venezuela): and by means of a national consensus of medical societies and institutions, its goal is "To elaborate a Preventive Agenda both for Malnutrition and for Overweight and Obesity and its comorbidities, considering the First 1000 Days of life and its effect over the life course"


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Embarazo en Adolescencia , Características de la Población , Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso , Mortalidad Materna , Epigenómica , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Epidemiología , Desnutrición , Transición Nutricional
2.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52591

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Describir las desigualdades sanitarias y sociales en indicadores de salud materna y del niño definidos en las metas del Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) 3.1 y ODS 3.2 a partir de datos administrativos, entre los departamentos de Paraguay en 2017. Métodos. Diseño ecológico de carácter descriptivo cuantitativo. Se utilizaron medidas simples de brechas y medidas complejas de gradiente basadas en el ajuste de modelos de regresión binomial negativo y logístico. Resultados. Cincuenta por ciento de los departamentos de Paraguay tienen valores estimados de razón de mortalidad materna (RMM) mayores que el valor nacional. El porcentaje de partos atendidos por profesional calificado en el país alcanza 98,1% con valores que fluctúan entre 82,4% y 99,9%. Hay 13 de 18 departamentos con valores de la tasa de mortalidad en menores de 5 años (TMM5) mayores que el promedio nacional, con un rango entre 4,2 y 49,2 muertes por cada 1 000 nacidos vivos. Los valores de la tasa de mortalidad neonatal (TMN) en los departamentos varían entre 2,6 y 45,1 muertes por cada 1 000 nacidos vivos. Existen grandes desigualdades sanitarias y sociales en la RMM, la TMM5 y la TMN entre los departamentos. No se detectan desigualdades elevadas en el porcentaje de partos atendidos por profesional calificado entre los departamentos. Conclusiones. Paraguay debe hacer esfuerzos importantes para disminuir las desigualdades sanitarias y sociales que existen en la RMM, la TMM5 y la TNN entre los departamentos. Se deben establecer metas numéricas de mejoría de los valores nacionales y reducción de las desigualdades en estos indicadores, lo cual permitirá rendir cuentas sobre el compromiso de “no dejar a nadie atrás” establecido en los ODS, y ayudará a generar estrategias que permitan mejorar la salud de la mujer y el niño en Paraguay.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To describe health and social inequalities in maternal and child health indicators defined in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3.1 and SDG 3.2 targets based on administrative data among the departments of Paraguay in 2017. Methods. Quantitative descriptive study with ecological design. Simple gap measures and complex gradient measures based on the adjustment of negative binomial and logistic regression models were used. Results. Fifty percent of Paraguay’s departments have estimated maternal mortality ratio (MMR) values higher than the national value. The percentage of births attended by a qualified professional in the country is 98.1%, with a range between 82.4% and 99.9%. In 13 of 18 departments, under-five mortality rate (U5MR) is higher than the national average, ranging from 4.2 to 49.2 deaths per 1 000 live births. Neonatal mortality rates (NMR) in the departments vary from 2.6 to 45.1 deaths per 1 000 live births. There are major health and social inequalities in the MMR, U5MR and NMR between the departments. There are no high inequalities in the percentage of births attended by a qualified professional between the departments. Conclusions. Paraguay needs to make significant efforts to reduce the health and social inequalities that exist in the MMR, U5MR and NMR between departments. Numerical targets must be established to improve national values and reduce inequalities in these indicators, which will allow for accountability on the commitment to “leave no one behind” established in the SDG, and will help generate strategies to improve the health of women and children in Paraguay.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Sostenible , Mortalidad Materna , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Mortalidad Infantil , Paraguay , Desarrollo Sostenible , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Mortalidad Materna , Mortalidad Infantil
3.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(4): 612-617, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628411

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Internationally there has been increased interest in maternal morbidity; both as a strategy to reduce maternal deaths and also because of the significant impact on a woman's life as a result of suffering from maternal morbidity. The present review will evaluate the current knowledge of, and strategies to reduce maternal morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: The study of maternal morbidity and how to reduce it has been hampered for many years by the lack of a standard approach to measurement and evaluation. The World Health Organization has attempted to standardize the approach to maternal morbidity with the development of a new definition that recognizes the multiple dimensions of maternal morbidity, including external factors such as socioeconomic factors. This approach will assist with a more accurate evaluation of maternal morbidity. Maternal morbidity arises from many and varied causes. Many of these are amenable to quality improvement with an associated reduction in maternal morbidity. SUMMARY: There have been significant advances in the understanding of maternal morbidity: incidence causes and management. Future research should aim to establish accurate rates for maternal morbidity and further develop ways for healthcare professionals, including anaesthesia care providers, to reduce it.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad Materna/tendencias , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Embarazo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Organización Mundial de la Salud
4.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 161, 2020 07 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682444

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Over 4.2 million confirmed cases and more than 285,000 deaths, COVID-19 pandemic continues to harm significant number of people worldwide. Several studies have reported the impact of COVID-19 in general population; however, there is scarcity of information related to pharmacological management and maternal and perinatal outcomes during the pandemic. Altered physiological, anatomical, and immunological response during pregnancy makes it more susceptible to infections. Furthermore, during pregnancy, a woman undergoes multiple interactions with the health care system that increases her chance of getting infected; therefore, managing pregnant population presents a unique challenge. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: This systematic review seeks to answer the following questions in relation to COVID-19: What are the different clinical characteristics presented in maternal and perinatal population? What are the different maternal and perinatal outcome measures reported? What are the distinct therapeutic interventions reported to treat COVID-19? Is it safe to use "medications" used in the treatment of COVID-19 during antenatal, perinatal, postnatal, and breastfeeding? METHOD: The search will follow a comprehensive, sequential three step search strategy. Several databases relevant to COVID-19 and its impact on pregnancy including Medline, CINAHL, and LitCovid will be searched from the inception of the disease until the completion of data collection. The quality of this search strategy will be assessed using Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies Evidence-Based Checklist (PRESS EBC). An eligibility form will be developed for a transparent screening and inclusion/exclusion of studies. All studies will be sent to RefWorks, and abstraction will be independently performed by two researchers. Risk of bias will be assessed using Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for randomized controlled trials, Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for non-randomized studies, and for case reports, Murad et al. tool will be used. Decision to conduct meta-analysis will be based on several factors including homogeneity and outcome measures reported; otherwise, a narrative synthesis will be deemed appropriate. DISCUSSION: This systematic review will summarize the existing data on effect of COVID-19 on maternal and perinatal population. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review addressing therapeutic management and safety of medicines to treat COVID-19 during pregnancy and breastfeeding. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This systematic review has been registered and published with Prospero ( CRD42020172773 ).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Mortalidad Materna , Mortalidad Perinatal , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Puntaje de Apgar , Betacoronavirus , Lactancia Materna , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Pandemias , Hemorragia Posparto/epidemiología , Preeclampsia/epidemiología , Embarazo , Sepsis/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 64, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609276

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate maternal mortality ratio according to occupation in Brazil. METHODS: This is a mortality study conducted with national data from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and the Live Birth Information System (SINASC) in 2015. Maternal mortality ratios were estimated according to the occupation recorded in death certificates, using the Brazilian Classification of Occupation (CBO), version 2002. RESULTS: A total of 1,738 maternal deaths records were found, corresponding to a maternal mortality ratio of 57.6/100,000 live births. It varied among occupational groups, with higher estimates among service and agricultural workers, particularly for domestic workers (123.2/100,000 live births), followed by general agricultural workers (88.3/100,000 live births). Manicurists and nursing technicians also presented high maternal mortality ratio. Maternal occupation was not reported in 17.0% of SIM registers and in 13.2% of SINASC data. Inconsistent records of occupation were found."Housewife" prevailed in SIM (35.5%) and SINASC (39.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mortality ratio differs by occupation, suggesting a work contribution, which requires further research focusing occupational risk factors. Socioeconomic factors are closely related to occupation, and their combination with work exposures and the poor access to health services need to be also addressed.


Asunto(s)
Certificado de Defunción , Mortalidad Materna , Ocupaciones , Certificado de Nacimiento , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo
6.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52463

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. This study summarizes the findings of a training needs and priority assessment completed in Haiti. Its objective is to describe the characteristics of nursing and allied professions providing first level maternal health care and identify training needs and priorities to inform planning of Human Resources for Health interventions. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was completed between October 2016 and March 2017 by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Haiti office in collaboration with national health authorities. Participants reached consensus to submit one finalized version of the survey. Data were collected on composition, capacities, and training needs and priorities of traditional birth attendants, community health workers, registered nurses, professional midwives, and auxiliary nurses. Results. Haiti relies heavily on community level workers including community health workers, auxiliary nurses, and traditional birth attendants. Traditional birth attendants attend the majority of Haiti’s births, despite having low education levels and not being regulated by the Ministry of Public Health and Population. All professional categories prioritize preventive capacities such as timely identification of complications, while none are trained to manage postpartum hemorrhage, preeclampsia, or eclampsia. Management of obstetric emergencies is a training priority for Haiti but is not part of the scope of work of the nursing and allied health professions included in this study. Conclusions. Community level health workers are key in providing preventive care and referral of complicated pregnancies, but lack of access to providers qualified to treat obstetric complications remains a challenge to reducing maternal mortality.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. En este estudio se resumen los resultados de la evaluación de necesidades y prioridades de capacitación realizada en Haití. Su objetivo es describir las características de la enfermería y las profesiones auxiliares que prestan el primer nivel de atención de salud materna, y establecer las necesidades y las prioridades de capacitación a fin de diseñar la planificación de recursos humanos para las intervenciones de la salud. Métodos. La Representación de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud/Organización Mundial de la Salud en Haití realizó una encuesta transversal entre octubre del 2016 y marzo del 2017, en colaboración con las autoridades nacionales de salud. Los participantes consensuaron presentar una versión ultimada de la encuesta. Se recopilaron datos sobre la composición, las capacidades y las necesidades y las prioridades de capacitación de las parteras tradicionales, los agentes comunitarios de salud, las enfermeras tituladas, las parteras profesionales y las enfermeras auxiliares. Resultados. Haití depende en gran medida de trabajadores comunitarios, entre los que se incluyen los agentes comunitarios de salud, las enfermeras auxiliares y las parteras tradicionales. Las parteras tradicionales atienden la mayoría de los nacimientos en Haití, a pesar de disponer de un nivel bajo de formación y no estar reguladas por el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Población. Todas las categorías profesionales priorizan las capacidades preventivas, como la detección temprana de las complicaciones, si bien no están capacitadas para controlar la hemorragia posparto, la preeclampsia o la eclampsia. El tratamiento de las urgencias obstétricas es una prioridad de la capacitación en Haití, pero no forma parte del ámbito de trabajo de la enfermería y las profesiones auxiliares incluidas en este estudio. Conclusiones. Los trabajadores de salud a nivel comunitario son clave para la prestación de atención preventiva y derivación de los embarazos complicados, pero la falta de acceso a prestadores cualificados para tratar las complicaciones obstétricas es todavía un obstáculo para reducir la mortalidad materna.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Este estudo resume os resultados de uma avaliação sobre as necessidades prioritárias na formação de profissionais da saúde no Haiti. Seu objetivo é descrever as características do trabalho de enfermeiros e profissionais da saúde auxiliares na prestação de atenção primária para a saúde materna e identificar as necessidades prioritárias de formação, a fim de fundamentar o planejamento de intervenções voltadas aos recursos humanos para a saúde. Métodos. O Escritório da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde/Organização Mundial da Saúde no Haiti, em colaboração com as autoridades nacionais de saúde, realizou um inquérito transversal entre outubro de 2016 e março de 2017. Os participantes chegaram a um consenso, apresentando uma versão finalizada do inquérito. Foram coletados dados sobre a composição, as capacidades e as necessidades prioritárias de formação de parteiras tradicionais, agentes comunitários de saúde, enfermeiros, parteiras profissionais e auxiliares de enfermagem. Resultados. O Haiti é muito dependente de trabalhadores de nível comunitário, como agentes comunitários de saúde, auxiliares de enfermagem e parteiras tradicionais. As parteiras tradicionais atendem a maioria dos partos no Haiti, apesar de terem um baixo nível de escolaridade e não serem regulamentadas pelo Ministério de Saúde Pública e População. Todas as categorias profissionais priorizam as capacidades preventivas, como a rápida identificação de complicações, e nenhuma recebe formação para lidar com hemorragia pós-parto, pré-eclâmpsia ou eclâmpsia. A formação para o tratamento de emergências obstétricas é uma prioridade no Haiti, mas não faz parte do escopo de trabalho dos enfermeiros e profissionais da saúde auxiliares incluídos neste estudo. Conclusões. Os profissionais da saúde de nível comunitário são fundamentais na prestação de cuidados preventivos e no encaminhamento de gestações complicadas, mas a falta de acesso a profissionais qualificados para tratar complicações obstétricas ainda é um obstáculo nos esforços para reduzir a mortalidade materna.


Asunto(s)
Recursos Humanos , Servicios de Salud Materna , Mortalidad Materna , Atención Primaria de Salud , Creación de Capacidad , Planificación Estratégica , Haití , Recursos Humanos , Servicios de Salud Materna , Mortalidad Materna , Atención Primaria de Salud , Creación de Capacidad , Planificación Estratégica , Haití , Servicios de Salud Materna , Mortalidad Materna , Atención Primaria de Salud , Creación de Capacidad , Planificación Estratégica
7.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 27(3): 177-183, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687116

RESUMEN

Background: There is uncertainty in the trend of ectopic pregnancy incidence in the Southwest region, though the region has a lower fertility rate and a higher contraceptive use than some other regions of Nigeria. The study objective was to determine the temporal trends, presentation and management outcome of ectopic pregnancy at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, South-Western Nigeria over a decade. Subjects and Methods: This is a retrospective study of ectopic pregnancies at LUTH, Lagos, Nigeria, from January 2005 to December 2014. Participants' medical records were used to extract socio-demographic, clinical characteristics, management and outcome data. Joinpoint regression modelling (version 4.7.1) was used to evaluate the trends while descriptive statistics were conducted using Stata version 14 software. Results: There were 434 cases of ectopic pregnancies giving an overall incidence of 2.2/100 deliveries and 3.50/100 gynaecological admissions. Overall, there was a 59.7% increase in the ectopic pregnancy rate from 1.81/100 deliveries in 2005 to 2.89/100 deliveries in 2014. Join point regression revealed two trends. There was an initial non-significant decrease in incidence of ectopic pregnancy from 2005 to 2010 (annual percent change [APC] = -1.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.1% to 5.6%, P = 0.6). However, there was a statistically significant increase in incidence of ectopic pregnancy at an average of 11.6% per annum from 8.6/100 deliveries in 2011 to 25.4/100 deliveries in 2014 (APC = 11.6%, 95% CI: 1.2% to 23.1% P < 0.001). About one-third (33.9%) of the patients with ectopic pregnancy were within the age range 25-29 years while the majority (68.0%) presented at 9-10 weeks of gestational age. The most common identifiable risk factor was previous pelvic infection (35.71%). Majority (96.5%) had tubal pregnancy and all the cases had laparotomy. There were six maternal deaths giving a case fatality rate of 1.4%. Conclusion: The hospital had an increased trend in the incidence of ectopic pregnancy from 2005 to 2014. Frontline health workers need high index of suspicion in the prompt diagnosis and intervention of ectopic pregnancy among women in the reproductive age.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido/efectos adversos , Enfermedad Inflamatoria Pélvica/complicaciones , Embarazo Ectópico/epidemiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/complicaciones , Adulto , Femenino , Hospitales de Enseñanza , Humanos , Incidencia , Mortalidad Materna , Nigeria/epidemiología , Enfermedad Inflamatoria Pélvica/epidemiología , Embarazo , Embarazo Ectópico/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sexual , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
8.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(9): 1093-1098, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696248

RESUMEN

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and related policies have led to an unequal distribution of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. For Black women and birthing people, endemic vulnerabilities and disparities may exacerbate deleterious COVID-19 impacts. Historical and ongoing macro-level policies and forces over time have induced disproportionately higher rates of maternal morbidity and mortality among Black women and birthing people, and contemporary macroeconomic and healthcare policies and factors continue to hold particular consequence. These factors induce detrimental psychological, health, and behavioral responses that contribute to maternal health disparities. The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to disproportionately impact Black women and birthing people, as policy responses have failed to account for the their unique socioeconomic and healthcare contexts. The resulting consequences may form a 'vicious cycle', with upstream impacts that exacerbate upstream macro-level policies and forces that can further perpetuate the clustering of maternal morbidity and mortality in this population. Understanding the impacts of COVID-19 among Black women and birthing people requires theoretical frameworks that can sufficiently conceptualize their multi-level, interacting, and dynamic nature. Thus, we advocate for the proliferation of syndemic perspectives to guide maternal disparities research and prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic. These perspectives can enable a holistic and nuanced understanding of the intersection of endemic and COVID-19-specific vulnerabilities and disparities experienced by Black women and birthing people. Syndemic-informed research can then lead to impactful multi-level prevention strategies that simultaneously tackle both endemic and COVID-19-specific factors and outcomes that lead to the clustering of vulnerabilities and disparities over time.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Coronavirus , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Humanos , Salud Materna , Mortalidad Materna , Morbilidad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Investigación , Factores Socioeconómicos , Sindémico , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
10.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 2793960, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566298

RESUMEN

Maternal mortality rate (MMR) is one of the main worldwide public health challenges. Presently, the high levels of MMR are a common problem in the world public health and especially, in developing countries. Half of these maternal deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or nothing progress has been made. South Sudan is one of the developing countries which has the highest MMR. Thus, this paper deploys statistical analysis to identify the significant physiological causes of MMR in South Sudan. Prediction models based on Poisson Regression are then developed to predict MMR in terms of the significant physiological causes. Coefficients of determination and variance inflation factor are deployed to assess the influence of the individual causes on MMR. Efficacy of the models is assessed by analyzing their prediction errors. The paper for the first time has used optimization procedures to develop yearly lower and upper profile limits for MMR. Hemorrhaging and unsafe abortion are used to achieve UN 2030 lower and upper MMR targets. The statistical analysis indicates that reducing haemorrhaging by 1.91% per year would reduce MMR by 1.91% (95% CI (42.85-52.53)), reducing unsafe abortion by 0.49% per year would reduce MMR by 0.49% (95% CI (11.06-13.56)). The results indicate that the most influential predictors of MMR are; hemorrhaging (38%), sepsis (11.5%), obstructed labour (11.5%), unsafe abortion (10%), and indirect causes such as anaemia, malaria, and HIV/AIDs virus (29%). The results also show that to obtain the UN recommended MMR levels of minimum 21 and maximum 42 by 2030, the Government and other stakeholders should simultaneously, reduce haemorrhaging from the current value of 62 to 33.38 and 16.69, reduce unsafe abortion from the current value of 16 to 8.62 and 4.31. Thirty years of data is used to develop the optimal reduced Poisson Model based on hemorrhaging and unsafe abortion. The model with R 2 of 92.68% can predict MMR with mean error of -0.42329 and SE-mean of 0.02268. The yearly optimal level of hemorrhage, unsafe abortion, and MMR can aid the government and other stakeholders on resources allocation to reduce the risk of maternal death.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido/efectos adversos , Aborto Inducido/estadística & datos numéricos , Hemorragia , Mortalidad Materna , Femenino , Hemorragia/epidemiología , Humanos , Embarazo , Sudán/epidemiología
11.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 6596394, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566299

RESUMEN

Background: Utilization of perinatal services in Uganda remains low, with correspondingly high rates of unskilled home deliveries, which can be life-threatening. We explored psychosocial and cultural factors influencing birthing choices for unskilled home delivery among postpartum women in rural southwestern Uganda. Methods: We conducted in-depth qualitative face-to-face interviews with 30 purposively selected women between December 2018 and March 2019 to include adult women who delivered from their homes and health facility within the past three months. Women were recruited from 10 villages within 20 km from a referral hospital. Using the constructs of the Health Utilization Model (HUM), interview topics were developed. Interviews were conducted and digitally recorded in a private setting by a native speaker to elicit choices and experiences during pregnancy and childbirth. Translated transcripts were generated and coded. Coded data were iteratively reviewed and sorted to derive categories using inductive content analytic approach. Results: Eighteen women (60%) preferred to deliver from home. Women's referent birth location was largely intentional. Overall, the data suggest women choose home delivery (1) because of their financial dependency and expectation for a "natural" and normal childbirth, affecting their ability and need to seek skilled facility delivery; (2) as a means of controlling their own birth processes; (3) out of dissatisfaction with facility-based care; (4) out of strong belief in fate regarding birth outcomes; (5) because they have access to alternative sources of birthing help within their communities, perceived as "affordable," "supportive," and "convenient"; and (6) as a result of existing gender and traditional norms that limit their ability and freedom to make family or health decisions as women. Conclusion: Women's psychosocial and cultural understandings of pregnancy and child birth, their established traditions, birth expectations, and perceptions of control, need, and quality of maternity care at a particular birthing location influenced their past and future decisions to pursue home delivery. Interventions to address barriers to healthcare utilization through a multipronged approach could help to debunk misconceptions, increase perceived need, and motivate women to seek facility delivery.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección , Cultura , Parto Domiciliario , Embarazo/psicología , Psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Mortalidad Materna , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Perinatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Uganda/epidemiología
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234320, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530940

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization (WHO) Safe Childbirth Checklist (SCC) is a 29-item checklist based on essential childbirth practices to help health-care workers to deliver consistently high quality maternal and perinatal care. The Checklist was intended to reduce maternal and perinatal mortality and address the primary cause of maternal death, intrapartum stillbirth, and early neonatal death. The objective of this review was to locate international literature reporting on the effectiveness of utilizing the WHO safe childbirth checklist on improving essential childbirth practices, early neonatal death, stillbirth, maternal mortality, and morbidity. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, google scholar, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), met-Register of Controlled Trials (m-RCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/stop/search/en) to retrieve all available comparative studieshttp://www.opengrey.eu/ published in English after 2008. Two reviewers did study selection, critical appraisal, and data extraction independently. We did a random or fixed-effect meta-analysis to pool studies together and effect estimates were expressed as an odds ratio. Quality of evidence for major outcomes was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, development, and evaluation(GRADE). RESULTS: We retained three cluster randomized trials and six pre-and-post intervention studies reporting on WHO SCC's. The WHO SCC utilization improved quality of preeclampsia management(moderate quality of evidence) (OR = 7.05 [95% CI 2.34-21.29]), maternal infection management(moderate quality of evidence) (OR = 7.29[95%CI 2.29-23.27]), Partograph utilization(moderate quality of evidence) (OR = 3.81 [95% 1.72-8.43]), postpartum counselling(low quality of evidence) (RR = 132.51[95% 49.27-356.36]) and still birth(moderate quality of evidence) (OR = 0.92[95% CI 0.87-0.96]). However, the utilization of the checklist had no impact on early neonatal death (very low quality of evidence) (OR = 1.07[95%CI [1.01-1.13]) and maternal death (low quality of evidence) (OR = 1.06[95% CI 0.77-1.45]). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate quality of evidence indicates that WHO SCC utilization is effective in reducing stillbirth and Improving preeclampsia management, maternal infection management and partograph utilization Low quality of evidence indicates that WHO SCC is effective in enhancing postpartum danger sign counseling. Low and very low quality of evidence suggests that WHO SCC has no impact on maternal and early neonatal death, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Parto , Atención Perinatal/normas , Lista de Verificación , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Mortalidad Materna , Atención Perinatal/métodos , Mortalidad Perinatal , Preeclampsia/terapia , Embarazo , Mortinato , Organización Mundial de la Salud
13.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 69(1): 1-25, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510312

RESUMEN

Objectives-This report quantifies the impact of the inclusion of a pregnancy status checkbox item on the U.S. Standard Certificate of Death on the number of deaths classified as maternal. Maternal mortality rates calculated with and without using the checkbox information for deaths in 2015 and 2016 are presented. Methods-This report is based on cause-of-death information from 2015 and 2016 death certificates collected through the National Vital Statistics System. Records originally assigned to a specified range of ICD-10 codes (i.e., A34, O00-O99) when using information from the checkbox item were recoded without using the checkbox item. Ratios of deaths assigned as maternal deaths using checkbox item information to deaths assigned without checkbox item information were calculated to quantify the impact of the pregnancy status checkbox item on the classification of maternal deaths for 47 states and the District of Columbia. Maternal mortality rates for all jurisdictions calculated using cause-of-death information entered on the certificate with and without the checkbox were compared overall and by characteristics of the decedent. Results-Use of information from the checkbox, along with information from the cause-of-death section of the certificate, identified 1,527 deaths as maternal compared with 498 without the checkbox in 2015 and 2016 (ratio = 3.07), with the impact varying by characteristics of the decedent such as age at death. The ratio for women under age 25 was 2.15 (204 compared with 95 deaths) but was 14.14 (523 compared with 37 deaths) for women aged 40-54. Without the adoption of the checkbox item, maternal mortality rates in both 2015 and 2016 would have been reported as 8.7 deaths per 100,000 live births compared with 8.9 in 2002. With the checkbox, the maternal mortality rate would be reported as 20.9 and 21.8 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2015 and 2016.


Asunto(s)
Certificado de Defunción , Muerte Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad Materna/tendencias , Adulto , Causas de Muerte , Femenino , Humanos , Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Estadísticas Vitales , Adulto Joven
14.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 69(2): 1-18, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510319

RESUMEN

This report describes changes in how the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) will code, publish, and release maternal mortality data and presents official 2018 maternal mortality estimates using a new coding method. Due to the incremental implementation of the pregnancy status checkbox item on the 2003 revised U.S. Standard Certificate of Death, NCHS last published an official estimate of the U.S. maternal mortality rate in 2007. As of 2018, implementation of the revised certificate, including its pregnancy checkbox, is complete for all 50 states (noting that California implemented a different checkbox than that on the U.S. Standard Certificate of Death), allowing NCHS to resume the routine publication of maternal mortality statistics. However, an evaluation of data quality indicated some errors with the reporting of maternal deaths (deaths within 42 days of pregnancy) following adoption of the checkbox, including overreporting of maternal deaths among older women. Therefore, NCHS has adopted a new method (to be called the 2018 method) for coding maternal deaths to mitigate these probable errors. The 2018 method involves further restricting application of the pregnancy checkbox to decedents aged 10-44 years from the previous age group of 10-54. In addition, the 2018 method restricts assignment of maternal codes to the underlying cause alone when the checkbox is the only indication of pregnancy on the death certificate, and such coding would be applied only to decedents aged 10-44 based solely on the checkbox when no other pregnancy information is provided in the cause-of-death statement. Based on the new method, a total of 658 deaths were identified in 2018 as maternal deaths. The maternal mortality rate for 2018 was 17.4 deaths per 100,000 live births, and the rate for non-Hispanic black women (37.1) was 2.5 to 3.1 times the rates for non-Hispanic white (14.7) and Hispanic (11.8) women. Rates also increased with age. Maternal mortality rates calculated without using information obtained from the checkbox are also presented for 2002, 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018 to provide comparisons over time using a comparable coding approach across all states.


Asunto(s)
Certificado de Defunción , Mortalidad Materna/tendencias , National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. , Adolescente , Adulto , Causas de Muerte , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Difusión de la Información , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Publicaciones , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
Ceska Gynekol ; 85(2): 139-143, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527109

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To informed about international surveillance network severe maternal morbidity and mortality - INOSS. DESIGN: Literature review. SETTINGS: 1st Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University and University Hospital, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. METHODS: Literate review of articles published till august 2019. RESULTS: The International Network of Obstetric Survey Systems (INOSS) is an international network that connects countries with the same or similar system of surveillance of acute severe maternal morbidity and mortality. The INOSS was established in year 2010 by twelve countries. Nowadays 19 countries are involved in the INOSS. The cooperation between member countries is focused on the acquisition of relevant data about rare severe acute maternal morbidities. INOSS in 2017 year unified definitions of 8 severe acute maternal morbidities according Delphi method: eclampsia, amniotic fluid embolism, peripartum hysterectomy, severe primary postpartum haemorrhage, uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, spontaneous hemoperitoneum in pregnancy, and cardiac arrest in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The international cooperation allows the acquisition of relevant epidemiologic data and the optimalization of the treatment according the evidence-based medicine.


Asunto(s)
Recolección de Datos/métodos , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/organización & administración , Mortalidad Materna , Morbilidad , Complicaciones del Trabajo de Parto , Vigilancia de la Población , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Complicaciones del Trabajo de Parto/epidemiología , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología , Sistema de Registros , Eslovaquia/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(7): e965-e972, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562652

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although an increasing number of pregnant women in resource-limited areas deliver in health-care facilities, maternal mortality remains high in these settings. Inadequate diagnosis and management of common life-threatening conditions is an important determinant of maternal mortality. We analysed the clinicopathological discrepancies in a series of maternal deaths from Mozambique and assessed changes over 10 years in the diagnostic process. We aimed to provide data on clinical diagnostic accuracy to be used for improving quality of care and reducing maternal mortality. METHODS: We did a retrospective analysis of clinicopathological discrepancies in 91 maternal deaths occurring from Nov 1, 2013, to March 31, 2015 (17 month-long period), at a tertiary-level hospital in Mozambique, using complete diagnostic autopsies as the gold standard to ascertain cause of death. We estimated the performance of the clinical diagnosis and classified clinicopathological discrepancies as major and minor errors. We compared the findings of this analysis with those of a similar study done in the same setting 10 years earlier. FINDINGS: We identified a clinicopathological discrepancy in 35 (38%) of 91 women. All diagnostic errors observed were classified as major discrepancies. The sensitivity of the clinical diagnosis for puerperal infections was 17% and the positive predictive value was 50%. The sensitivity for non-obstetric infections was 48%. The sensitivity for eclampsia was 100% but the positive predictive value was 33%. Over the 10-year period, the performance of clinical diagnosis did not improve, and worsened for some diagnoses, such as puerperal infection. INTERPRETATION: Decreasing maternal mortality requires improvement of the pre-mortem diagnostic process and avoidance of clinical errors by refining clinical skills and increasing the availability and quality of diagnostic tests. Comparison of post-mortem information with clinical diagnosis will help monitor the reduction of clinical errors and thus improve the quality of care. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Instituto de Salud Carlos III.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad Hospitalaria/tendencias , Mortalidad Materna/tendencias , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Centros de Atención Terciaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Autopsia , Femenino , Humanos , Mozambique/epidemiología , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
18.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 46(8): 1235-1245, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500549

RESUMEN

The data pertaining to the COVID-19 pandemic has been rapidly evolving since the first confirmed case in December 2019. This review article presents a comprehensive analysis of the current data in relation to COVID-19 and its effect on pregnant women, including symptoms, disease severity and the risk of vertical transmission. We also review the recommended management of pregnant women with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and the various pharmacological agents that are being investigated and may have a role in the treatment of this disease. At present, it does not appear that pregnant women are at increased risk of severe infection than the general population, although there are vulnerable groups within both the pregnant and nonpregnant populations, and clinicians should be cognizant of these high-risk groups and manage them accordingly. Approximately 85% of women will experience mild disease, 10% more severe disease and 5% critical disease. The most common reported symptoms are fever, cough, shortness of breath and diarrhea. Neither vaginal delivery nor cesarean section confers additional risks, and there is minimal risk of vertical transmission to the neonate from either mode of delivery. We acknowledge that the true effect of the virus on both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality will only be evident over time. We also discuss the impact of social isolation can have on the mental health and well-being of both patients and colleagues, and as clinicians, we must be mindful of this and offer support as necessary.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Costo de Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Mortalidad Materna , Salud Mental , Morbilidad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal , Tromboembolia/prevención & control
19.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520933021, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578516

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy has been identified as a risk factor for poor outcomes after traumatic injury, but prior outcome analyses are conflicting and dated. We sought to examine outcomes in a contemporary cohort. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis at a level I trauma center's institutional registry from 2009 to 2018, with comparison to population-level demographic trends in women of reproductive age and pregnancy prevalence. Unadjusted cohorts of pregnant versus nonpregnant trauma patients were compared. Pregnant patients then were matched on age, mechanism of injury, year, and injury severity score with nonpregnant controls for adjusted analysis with a primary outcome of maternal mortality. RESULTS: Despite declining birth and pregnancy rates in the population, pregnant women comprised a stable 5.3% of female trauma patients of reproductive age without decline over the study period (p = 0.53). Compared with nonpregnant women, pregnant trauma patients had a lower injury severity score (1 [1-5] vs 5 [1-10] p < 0.0001) and a shorter length of stay (1 [1-2] vs 1 [1-4] p = 0.04), were less likely to have CT imaging (48.8% vs 67.4%, p < 0.0001) and more likely to be admitted (89.3% vs 79.2%, p = 0.003). Positive toxicology screens were less prevalent in pregnant women, but only for ethanol (5.4% vs 31.4%, p < 0.0001); there was no difference in rates of cannabis, opiates, or cocaine. After matching to adjust for age, year, mechanism of injury, and injury severity score, mortality occurred significantly more frequently in the pregnant cohort (2.1% vs 0.2%, OR = 13.5 [1.39-130.9], p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Pregnant trauma patients have not declined in our population despite population-level declines in pregnancy. After adjusting for lower injury severity, pregnant women were at substantially greater risk of mortality. This supports ongoing concern for pregnant trauma patients as a vulnerable population. Further efforts should optimize systems of care to maximize the chances of rescue for both mother and fetus.


Asunto(s)
Complicaciones del Embarazo/mortalidad , Centros Traumatológicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas y Traumatismos/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Mortalidad Materna , Oregon/epidemiología , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233845, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479522

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: As facility-based deliveries increase globally, maternity registers offer a promising way of documenting pregnancy outcomes and understanding opportunities for perinatal mortality prevention. This study aims to contribute to global quality improvement efforts by characterizing facility-based pregnancy outcomes in Kenya and Uganda including maternal, neonatal, and fetal outcomes at the time of delivery and neonatal discharge outcomes using strengthened maternity registers. METHODS: Cross sectional data were collected from strengthened maternity registers at 23 facilities over 18 months. Data strengthening efforts included provision of supplies, training on standard indicator definitions, and monthly feedback on completeness. Pregnancy outcomes were classified as live births, early stillbirths, late stillbirths, or spontaneous abortions according to birth weight or gestational age. Discharge outcomes were assessed for all live births. Outcomes were assessed by country and by infant, maternal, and facility characteristics. Maternal mortality was also examined. RESULTS: Among 50,981 deliveries, 91.3% were live born and, of those, 1.6% died before discharge. An additional 0.5% of deliveries were early stillbirths, 3.6% late stillbirths, and 4.7% spontaneous abortions. There were 64 documented maternal deaths (0.1%). Preterm and low birthweight infants represented a disproportionate number of stillbirths and pre-discharge deaths, yet very few were born at ≤1500g or <28w. More pre-discharge deaths and stillbirths occurred after maternal referral and with cesarean section. Half of maternal deaths occurred in women who had undergone cesarean section. CONCLUSION: Maternity registers are a valuable data source for understanding pregnancy outcomes including those mothers and infants at highest risk of perinatal mortality. Strengthened register data in Kenya and Uganda highlight the need for renewed focus on improving care of preterm and low birthweight infants and expanding access to emergency obstetric care. Registers also permit enumeration of pregnancy loss <28 weeks. Documenting these earlier losses is an important step towards further mortality reduction for the most vulnerable infants.


Asunto(s)
Maternidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Maternidades/normas , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Kenia , Masculino , Mortalidad Materna , Embarazo , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Uganda
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