Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 292
Filtrar
1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 104-107, 2020 Jan 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914577

RESUMEN

From 1987 to 2017, cardiovascular disease (CVD) had been ranking the first cause of death in Suzhou, and the mortality rate showed an upward trend annual percentage changes (APC=0.62%, P=0.001), while the standardized mortality rate showed a downward trend (APC=-2.65%, P<0.001). The probability of premature death of CVD declined consistently from 7.06% in 1987 to 2.00% in 2017 (APC=-4.45%, P<0.001). When the life expectancy was set at 70, the potential years of life lost rate (PYLLR) decreased from 6.35‰ in 1987 to 3.30‰ in 2017, and the standardized PYLLR decreased from 7.30‰ to 2.68‰. When the life expectancy was set at 75, the PYLLR decreased from 10.12‰ to 5.19‰, and the standardized PYLLR decreased from 11.44‰ to 3.88‰. With the increase of years, all PYLLR and standardized PYLLR showed a significantly downward trend (APC=-2.51%--3.89%, P<0.001).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Esperanza de Vida/tendencias , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Probabilidad
3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(7): 2961-2966, 2019 Jul 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854692

RESUMEN

To quantitatively assess the health benefits brought by the implementation of the Action Plan of Air Pollution Prevention and Control, we firstly analyzed the spatial and temporal changes of PM2.5 population-weighted concentrations over China from 2013 to 2017. The BenMAP model was used to analyze the differences in premature death between the PM2.5 baseline scenario in 2013 and the control scenario in 2017 in 338 prefecture-level cities nationwide, so as to quantitatively analyze the number of premature deaths in 31 provinces. The results show that compared with other provinces, the largest reduction in premature deaths due to the significant decrease of PM2.5 concentration occurred in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and its surrounding regions, and the environmental health benefits from air quality have been greatly improved. The results show that from 2013 to 2017 the population weighted PM2.5 concentration was decreasing year by year due to the significant decrease in PM2.5 concentration; Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, and the surrounding areas witnessed the largest reduction in premature deaths. In 2017, the number of avoided premature deaths in 280 prefecture-level cities nationwide increased, but declined in 58 cities. Taking the target value of the first phase of the WHO transition period (an annual average PM2.5 concentration of 35 µg·m-3) as the control scenario, it is estimated that the number of premature deaths in 2013 was approximately 101293, and in 2017 was approximately 41080. The implementation of the Action Plan helped to avoid approximately 60213 premature deaths. According to the method of 'willingness to pay', the monetary benefits are estimated to be approximately 54.97 billion yuan.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , China , Ciudades , Humanos , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Material Particulado/análisis
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1523, 2019 Nov 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727042

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It has been 8 years since the first case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was reported in Saudi Arabia and the disease is still being reported in 27 countries; however, there is no international study to estimate the overall burden related of this emerging infectious disease. The present study was conducted to assess the burden of premature mortality due to Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) worldwide. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, we have utilized publicly available data from the WHO website related to 1789 MERS patients reported between September 23, 2012 and May 17, 2019. To calculate the standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL), life expectancy at birth was set according to the 2000 global burden of disease study on levels 25 and 26 of West model life tables from Coale-Demeny at 82.5 and 80 years for females and males, respectively. RESULTS: Overall, the total SEYLL in males and females was 10,702 and 3817.5 years, respectively. The MERS patients within the age range of 30-59 year-olds had the highest SEYLL (8305.5 years) in comparison to the patients within the age groups 0-29 (SEYLL = 3744.5 years) and ≥ 60 years (SEYLL = 2466.5 years). The total SEYLL in all age groups in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019 were 71.5, 2006.5, 3162, 4425.5, 1809.5, 878, 1257.5 and 909 years, respectively. The most SEYLL related to MERS-CoV infection was in the early four years of the onset of the pandemic (2012 to 2015) and in the last four years of the MERS-CoV pandemic (216 to 2019), a significant reduction was observed in the SEYLL related to MERS-CoV infection in the MERS patients. CONCLUSION: We believe that the findings of this study will shed light about the burden of premature mortality due to MERS infection in the world and the results may provide necessary information for policy-makers to prevent, control, and make a quick response to the outbreak of MERS-CoV disease.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Salud Global , Esperanza de Vida , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal Administrativo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Tablas de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
BMJ ; 367: l5584, 2019 10 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619383

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between weight changes across adulthood and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-94 and 1999-2014. PARTICIPANTS: 36 051 people aged 40 years or over with measured body weight and height at baseline and recalled weight at young adulthood (25 years old) and middle adulthood (10 years before baseline). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause and cause specific mortality from baseline until 31 December 2015. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.3 years, 10 500 deaths occurred. Compared with participants who remained at normal weight, those moving from the non-obese to obese category between young and middle adulthood had a 22% (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.33) and 49% (1.49, 1.21 to 1.83) higher risk of all cause mortality and heart disease mortality, respectively. Changing from obese to non-obese body mass index over this period was not significantly associated with mortality risk. An obese to non-obese weight change pattern from middle to late adulthood was associated with increased risk of all cause mortality (1.30, 1.16 to 1.45) and heart disease mortality (1.48, 1.14 to 1.92), whereas moving from the non-obese to obese category over this period was not significantly associated with mortality risk. Maintaining obesity across adulthood was consistently associated with increased risk of all cause mortality; the hazard ratio was 1.72 (1.52 to 1.95) from young to middle adulthood, 1.61 (1.41 to 1.84) from young to late adulthood, and 1.20 (1.09 to 1.32) from middle to late adulthood. Maximum overweight had a very modest or null association with mortality across adulthood. No significant associations were found between various weight change patterns and cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Stable obesity across adulthood, weight gain from young to middle adulthood, and weight loss from middle to late adulthood were associated with increased risks of mortality. The findings imply that maintaining normal weight across adulthood, especially preventing weight gain in early adulthood, is important for preventing premature deaths in later life.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Causas de Muerte , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Mortalidad/tendencias , Neoplasias , Aumento de Peso , Pérdida de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/mortalidad , Encuestas Nutricionales , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/mortalidad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Relación Cintura-Estatura
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4337, 2019 09 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554811

RESUMEN

Substantial quantities of air pollution and related health impacts are ultimately attributable to household consumption. However, how consumption pattern affects air pollution impacts remains unclear. Here we show, of the 1.08 (0.74-1.42) million premature deaths due to anthropogenic PM2.5 exposure in China in 2012, 20% are related to household direct emissions through fuel use and 24% are related to household indirect emissions embodied in consumption of goods and services. Income is strongly associated with air pollution-related deaths for urban residents in which health impacts are dominated by indirect emissions. Despite a larger and wealthier urban population, the number of deaths related to rural consumption is higher than that related to urban consumption, largely due to direct emissions from solid fuel combustion in rural China. Our results provide quantitative insight to consumption-based accounting of air pollution and related deaths and may inform more effective and equitable clean air policies in China.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Salud Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Salud Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , China , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Política Ambiental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política Ambiental/tendencias , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Mortalidad Prematura/etnología , Material Particulado/análisis
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1109, 2019 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412835

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To estimate the relationship of the degree of urbanization to cardiovascular mortality and to risk behaviours before, during and after the 2008 economic crisis in Spain. METHODS: In three areas of residence - large urban areas, small urban areas and rural areas - we calculated the rate of premature mortality (0-74 years) from cardiovascular diseases before the crisis (2005-2007), during the crisis (2008-2010 and 2011-2013) and after the crisis (2014-2016), and the prevalence of risk behaviours in 2006, 2011 and 2016. In each period we estimated the mortality rate ratio (MRR) and the prevalence ratio, taking large urban areas as the reference. RESULTS: In men, no significant differences were observed in mortality between the two urban areas, while the MRR in rural areas went from 0.92 [95% confidence interval, 0.90-0.94) in 2005-2007 to 0.94 (0.92-0.96) in 2014-2016. In women, no significant differences were observed in mortality between the rural and large urban areas, whereas the MRR in small urban areas decreased from 1.11 (1.08-1.14) in 2005-2007 to 1.06 (1.02-1.09) in 2014-2016. The rural areas had the lowest prevalence of smoking, obesity and physical inactivity in men, and of obesity in women. No significant differences were observed in smoking or physical inactivity by area of residence in women. CONCLUSION: The pattern of cardiovascular mortality by degree of urbanization was similar before and after the crisis, although in women the excess mortality in small urban areas with respect to large urban areas was smaller after the crisis. The different pattern of risk behaviours in men and women, according to area of residence, could explain these findings.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Recesión Económica/estadística & datos numéricos , Asunción de Riesgos , Urbanización , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Prevalencia , España/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
Bull World Health Organ ; 97(7): 450-459, 2019 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258214

RESUMEN

Objective: To model the reduction in premature deaths attributed to noncommunicable diseases if targets for reformulation of processed food agreed between the Portuguese health ministry and the food industry were met. Methods: The 2015 co-regulation agreement sets voluntary targets for reducing sugar, salt and trans-fatty acids in a range of products by 2021. We obtained government data on dietary intake in 2015-2016 and on population structure and deaths from four major noncommunicable diseases over 1990-2016. We used the Preventable Risk Integrated ModEl tool to estimate the deaths averted if reformulation targets were met in full. We projected future trends in noncommunicable disease deaths using regression modelling and assessed whether Portugal was on track to reduce baseline premature deaths from noncommunicable diseases in the year 2010 by 25% by 2025, and by 30% before 2030. Findings: If reformulation targets were met, we projected reductions in intake in 2015-2016 for salt from 7.6 g/day to 7.1 g/day; in total energy from 1911 kcal/day to 1897 kcal/day due to reduced sugar intake; and in total fat (% total energy) from 30.4% to 30.3% due to reduced trans-fat intake. This consumption profile would result in 248 fewer premature noncommunicable disease deaths (95% CI: 178 to 318) in 2016. We projected that full implementation of the industry agreement would reduce the risk of premature death from 11.0% in 2016 to 10.7% by 2021. Conclusion: The co-regulation agreement could save lives and reduce the risk of premature death in Portugal. Nevertheless, the projected impact on mortality was insufficient to meet international targets.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Industria de Alimentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/mortalidad , Humanos , Portugal/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 248-260, 2019 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288116

RESUMEN

Severe air pollution in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of southern China has increased attention of both the scientific community and policy makers. Air quality data collected at the PRD Regional Air Quality Monitoring Network during 2006-2015 were analyzed for assessing the effectiveness of pollution control measures and for estimating the trends of premature mortality attributable to ambient PM2.5 and O3. Statistically significant decreasing trends were detected for PM2.5 (-1.74 to -1.83 µg m-3 yr-1), PM10 (-2.70 to -2.78 µg m-3 yr-1), NO (-0.61 to -0.74 µg m-3 yr-1), NO2 (-1.20 to -1.22 µg m-3 yr-1), and SO2 (-3.46 to -4.01 µg m-3 yr-1), while an increasing trend was found for O3 (0.70-0.86 µg m-3 yr-1) during the study period. The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of control measures implemented in the last decade for primary pollutants and also indicate the challenges for controlling secondary pollutants. The PM2.5-related premature deaths varied little, e.g., from 40.6 thousand deaths in 2006 to 40.4 thousand deaths in 2015, due to the two contrasting factors, i.e., the decreased PM2.5 concentration and increased population. The increases in both O3 concentration and exposed population resulted in a significant rising trend for the O3-related premature deaths, which increased from 2.7 thousand deaths in 2006 to 4.5 thousand deaths in 2015, at a rate of 165 deaths yr-1. Consistent with the spatial distribution of air pollution and population density, high levels of premature deaths from PM2.5 and O3 were located in the central PRD including Guangzhou, Foshan, Dongguan, and Shenzhen. Decreasing PM2.5 concentration is the most effective way in reducing the regional mortality burden from air pollution in the near future. Besides controlling primary emissions of PM2.5, reducing VOCs emissions is also important for limiting atmospheric oxidizing capacity and associated secondary PM2.5 formation.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , China , Ríos
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 719, 2019 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182076

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The incidence and associated risk factors for premature death were investigated in a population-based cohort study in Iran. METHODS: A total of 7245 participants (3216 men), aged 30-70 years, were included. We conducted Cox proportional hazards models to identify the risk factors for premature death. For each risk factor, hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and population attributable fraction (PAF) were calculated. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 13.8 years, 262 premature deaths (153 in men) occurred. Underlying causes of premature deaths were cardiovascular disease (CVD) (n = 126), cancer (n = 51), road injuries (n = 15), sepsis and pneumonia (n = 9) and miscellaneous reasons (n = 61). The age-standardized incident rate of premature death was 2.35 per 1000 person years based on WHO standard population. Hypertension [HR 1.40, 95% CI (1.07-1.83)], diabetes (2.53, 1.94-3.29) and current smoking (1.58, 1.16-2.17) were significant risk factors for premature mortality; corresponding PAFs were 12.3, 22.4 and 9.2%, respectively. Overweight (body mass index (BMI): 25-29.9 kg/m2) (0.65, 0.49-0.87) and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) (0.67, 0.48-0.94) were associated with decreased premature mortality. After replacing general adiposity with central adiposity, we found no significant risk for the latter (0.92, 0.71-1.18). Moreover, when we excluded current smokers, those with prevalent cancer/cardiovascular disease and those with survival of less than 3 years, the inverse association between overweight (0.59, 0.39-0.88) and obesity (0.67, 0.43-1.04), generally remained unchanged; although, diabetes still showed a significant risk (2.62, 1.84-3.72). CONCLUSIONS: Controlling three modifiable risk factors including diabetes, hypertension and smoking might potentially reduce mortality events by over 40%, and among these, prevention of diabetes should be prioritized to decrease burden of events. We didn't confirm a negative impact of overweight and obesity status on premature mortality events.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Causas de Muerte , Estudios de Cohortes , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidad , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/mortalidad , Incidencia , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/mortalidad , Sobrepeso/mortalidad , Neumonía/mortalidad , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Factores de Riesgo , Sepsis/mortalidad , Fumar/mortalidad , Heridas y Traumatismos/mortalidad
11.
Kardiol Pol ; 77(7-8): 683-687, 2019 Aug 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113926

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pacemakers have become the standard of care in patients with severe bradycardia and conduction abnormalities. The survival and premature mortality can be assessed using the years of life lost (YLLs). AIMS: The aim of the study was to analyze mortality trends over the period from 1999 to 2015 among patients implanted with a dual­chamber (DDD) pacemaker who were inhabitants of Malopolska Province. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of records collected from consecutive patients who underwent de novo DDD pacemaker implantation at a single center between 1984 and 2014. Inclusion criteria were residence status in Malopolska Province at the latest follow­up visit and death between 1999 and 2015. The standard expected years of life lost per death was used to calculate YLLs. Time trends were evaluated with joinpoint models and presented as an average annual percentage change (AAPC). RESULTS: Among a total of 3932 consecutive patients implanted with a DDD pacemaker, 1211 patients met the inclusion criteria. We noted an increase in the mean age at implant from 70 years in 1999 to 75.5 years in 2015 (AAPC, 0.6%; P <0.05), the number of years lived after DDD pacemaker implantation from 2.6 years to 8.2 years (AAPC, 7.4%; P <0.05), and the mean age at death from 72.6 years to 83.8 years (AAPC, 0.89%; P <0.05). Finally, we observed a reduction of the YLLs per death from 17.4 years in 1999 to 9 years in 2015 (AAPC, -4%; P <0.05). All trends were significant for both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: In the 17­year follow­up, we showed significant changes in analyzed trends, in particular a reduction in the YLLs per death.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Marcapaso Artificial , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Polonia , Estudios Retrospectivos
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 627, 2019 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118020

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Area-level measures of socioeconomic deprivation are important for understanding and describing health inequalities. The aim of this study was the development and validation of a small-area index of socioeconomic deprivation for Cypriot communities and the investigation of its association with the spatial distribution of all-cause premature adult mortality. METHODS: Six area-level socioeconomic indicators were used from the 2011 national population census (low educational attainment, unemployment, not owner occupied household, single-person household, divorced or widowed and single-parent households). After normalization and standardization of the geographically smoothed indicators, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to construct indicator weights. The association between deprivation indices and the spatial distribution of all-cause premature adult mortality was estimated in Poisson log-linear spatial models. RESULTS: PCA resulted in two principal components explaining the 65.7% of the total variance. The first principal component included four indicators (low educational attainment, single-person households, divorced or widowed and single-parent households, the latter however with a negative loading) and it thought more likely to capture rural-related aspects of deprivation. The second principal component included the other two indicators (unemployment and not owner occupied households) and it is more likely to capture urban-related aspects of material deprivation. Restricting the analysis in the metropolitan areas of the island resulted in a different set of indicators for the urban-specific deprivation index. All developed indices were linearly associated with all-cause premature adult mortality. The all-cause premature adult mortality increased by 17% per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in rural-related socioeconomic deprivation (95% CrI: 8-27%) and 8% per 1 SD increase in urban-related aspects of material deprivation (95% CrI: 3-15%) in the nationwide analysis and 9% per 1 SD increase in urban-specific socioeconomic deprivation (95% CrI: 4-15%) across metropolitan areas. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that a set of small-area indices of socioeconomic deprivation across Cypriot communities have good construct and predictive validity. However, the study indicates that different aspects of socioeconomic deprivation may be important in rural and urban areas in Cyprus. The developed socioeconomic deprivation indices could offer a valid new tool for Cypriot public health research and policy in terms of identifying areas in greatest need, guiding resource allocation and developing area-targeted public health programmes and policies.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Indicadores de Salud , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Censos , Chipre/epidemiología , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Componente Principal , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Padres Solteros , Análisis de Área Pequeña , Desempleo , Viudez
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 580, 2019 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096950

RESUMEN

In 2017 Public Health England were asked to assist with investigating why 1-year cancer survival rates appeared lower than expected in a local area. We identified 50 premature deaths that surveillance data suggested we would not expect. These deaths highlighted a gap in recognising and responding to this kind of systematic non communicable disease (NCD) outcome variation. We hypothesise that the lack of a universally agreed systematic response to variations is not only counter-intuitive, but wholly unacceptable where non-communicable diseases (NCDs) rather than infectious diseases have become the leading causes of illness and death worldwide. In the United Kingdom (UK) alone over 89% of mortality in 2014 was attributable to NCDs. We argue that a new approach is urgently needed to turn the curve on NCD outcome variation to protect and improve the public's health. We set out a definition of an NCD "incident" and propose a phased approach that could be used to respond to local variation in NCD outcomes.Establishing parity of response for local variations in NCD outcomes and CD control is critically important. Although evidence shows that prevention and early intervention will make the biggest difference to NCD incidence, collective local whole health economy response, exploiting the wealth of surveillance data in real time, needs to be at the heart of responding to variations in NCD outcomes at a population level. We argue that local and national public health agencies should mandate a standardised 'incident' response to significant changes in outcomes from NCD to mitigate and reduce the loss of quality life.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/mortalidad , Salud Poblacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Vigilancia de la Población , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido/epidemiología
14.
Econ Hum Biol ; 34: 257-273, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047818

RESUMEN

Despite a close relationship between the childrens' anthropometric status and mortality rates, the highest mortality rates are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa, while the lowest anthropometric indicators, in particular the height-for-age z-scores, are concentrated in South Asia. This discrepancy should, however, be expected to decrease when one accounts for the survivorship bias, i.e. selective mortality. We analyse whether the survivorship bias can explain these observed differences in three standard anthropometric indicators (stunting, underweight and wasting) by using individual data of children from six waves of Demographic and Health Surveys for a large cross-section of 37 low- and middle-income countries between 1991 and 2016. We use both a matching approach and semi-parametric regression to estimate the values for the anthropometric status of deceased children. The results are twofold: first, both methods reveal that the imputed values for the anthropometric indicators are, on average, between 0.10 and 0.25 standard deviations lower than the observed anthropometric indicators. Second, since the share of deceased children in our sample is below ten per cent, the contribution of the anthropometric status of deceased children to overall anthropometric indicators is small and therefore only influences it marginally.


Asunto(s)
Pesos y Medidas Corporales/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad del Niño/tendencias , Países en Desarrollo/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad Infantil/tendencias , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Estatura , Niño , Preescolar , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Delgadez
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(4): 400-405, 2019 Apr 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006198

RESUMEN

Objectives: To analyze the status quo and trends on the burden of cerebrovascular diseases between 1990 and 2016 in China. Methods: Morbidity mortality, years of life lost (YLL), years of lived with disability (YLD) and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) related to cerebrovascular diseases between 1990 and 2016, were collated and analyzed, according to the results of the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2016 (GBD 2016). Numbers on incidence and morbidity were used to assess the incidence of diseases, while the numbers of death and mortality were used to assess the death of diseases. Years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years lost due to disability (YLD) and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) were used to assess the burden of diseases. Changing trend on the burden of cerebrovascular disease from 1990 to 2016 was also analyzed. Results: In 2016 and 1990, the numbers of new cases/morbidity and the number of deaths/mortality on cerebrovascular diseases in the country showed an upward trend. Rates regarding YLL and DALY on cerebrovascular diseases remained stable from 1990 to 2016, however, the YLD rate showed a slow upward trend. The changing rate of DALY was mainly influenced by YLL. Both DALY and YLL crude rates in males showed a slow upward trend, with the highest DALY rate appearing in the ≥70 age group. Disease burden on males was heavier than that of the females and in the 50-60 age group, which taking the largest proportion. As for the composition in DALY, YLL appearing much larger than YLD and slowly increasing. Analysis on the subtypes of diseases, proportions of YLL and DALY in hemorrhagic stroke were greater than that in ischemic stroke while the proportion of YLD in ischemic stroke was in the opposite. Conclusions: The burden of disease on cerebrovascular diseases remained heavy and the differences appeared in age, gender and subtypes of diseases. Our findings called for the adoption of measures including screening, intervention and rehabilitation to be taken on target populations, in order to reduce the burden on both individuals and the society.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidad , Costo de Enfermedad , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad Prematura , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Trastornos Cerebrovasculares/etnología , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad/tendencias , Mortalidad Prematura/etnología , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 418, 2019 Apr 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999882

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Past research has shown that individuals who have had experiences of out-of-home care (OHC) in childhood have increased risks of premature mortality. Prior studies also suggest that these individuals are more likely to follow long-term trajectories that are characterised by economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages, compared to majority population peers. Yet, we do not know the extent to which such trajectories may explain their elevated mortality risks. The aim of this study is therefore to examine whether trajectories of economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages in midlife mediate the association between OHC experience in childhood and subsequent all-cause mortality. METHODS: Utilising longitudinal Swedish data from a 1953 cohort (n = 14,294), followed from birth up until 2008 (age 55), this study applies gender-specific logistic regression analysis to analyse the association between OHC experience in childhood (ages 0-19; 1953-1972) and all-cause mortality (ages 47-55; 2000-2008). A decomposition method developed for non-linear regression models is used to estimate mediation by trajectories of economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages (ages 39-46; 1992-1999), as indicated by social welfare receipt, unemployment, and mental health problems. To account for selection processes underlying placement in OHC, an alternative comparison group of children who were investigated by the child welfare committee but not placed, is included. RESULTS: The results confirm that individuals with experience of OHC have more than a two-fold increased risk of all-cause mortality, for men (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.42-3.11) and women (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.39-3.59) alike. Approximately one-third (31.1%) of the association among men, and one-fourth (27.4%) of the association among women, is mediated by the long-term trajectories of economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages. The group who were investigated but not placed shows similar, yet overall weaker, associations. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who come to the attention of the child welfare services, regardless of whether they are placed in out-of-home care or not, continue to be at risk of adverse outcomes across the life course. Preventing them from following trajectories of economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages could potentially reduce their risk of premature death.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Niño/estadística & datos numéricos , Esperanza de Vida/tendencias , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Poblaciones Vulnerables/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupo Paritario , Estudios Prospectivos , Suecia/epidemiología , Desempleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
17.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190014, 2019 Apr 01.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942325

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mortality trend of children under five years of age living in Brazil and regions, using the "Brazilian List of Preventable Causes of Death." METHOD: Ecological time-series study of mortality rate due to preventable and non-preventable causes, with corrections for ill-defined causes and underreporting of deaths from 2000 to 2013. RESULTS: In Brazil, preventable death rates (5.1% per year) had a higher decrease compared with non-preventable ones (2.5% per year). Preventable causes associated with proper care during pregnancy had the highest concentration of deaths in 2013 (12,267) and the second lowest average percentage reduction in the year (2.1%) and for the period (24.4%). The South and Southeast regions had the lowest mortality rates in childhood. However, the Northeast region had the highest decrease in reducible child mortality (6.1% per year) and the Midwest, the lowest (3.5% per year). CONCLUSION: The decrease in childhood mortality rates was expected in the last decade, suggesting the progress in the response of health systems, in addition to improvements in health conditions and social determinants. Special attention should be given to pregnancy-related causes, i.e., expand the quality of prenatal care, in particular, due to fetal and newborn deaths resulted from maternal conditions, which increased significantly in the period (8,3% per year).


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad del Niño/tendencias , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Brasil/epidemiología , Causas de Muerte , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Atención Prenatal , Servicios Preventivos de Salud , Características de la Residencia
18.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190030, 2019 Apr 01.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942336

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Objective: To analyze the mortality trends for Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) in the period 2000-2013 and its probability of death until 2025. METHOD: time series analysis of mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory disease, with correction for ill-defined causes and underreporting of deaths and calculation of probability of death. RESULTS: There was an average decline of 2.5% per year in all four major NCDs in Brazil. There was a decline in all regions and federal units. The reduced likelihood of death by 30% in 2000 to 26.1% in 2013 and expected decline to 20.5% in 2025. CONCLUSION: From the trend of reduction is expected to reach Brazil reducing overall goal 25% by 2025.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/mortalidad , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Causas de Muerte , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedad Crónica/clasificación , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Carga Global de Enfermedades , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
19.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1580973, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947624

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Understanding the impact of obesity on premature mortality is critical, as obesity has become a global health issue. OBJECTIVE: To contrast the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and premature death (all-cause; circulatory causes) in New York State (USA) and Northern Sweden. METHODS: Baseline data were obtained between 1989 and 1999 via questionnaires (USA) and health exams (Sweden), with mortality data from health departments, public sources (USA) and the Swedish Death Register. Premature death was death before life expectancy based on sex and year of birth. Within country and sex, time to premature death was compared across BMI groups (18.5-24.9 kg/m2 (reference), 25-29.9 kg/m2, 30.0-34.9 kg/m2, ≥35.0 kg/m2) using Proportional Hazards regression. Absolute risk (deaths/100,000 person-years) was compared for the same stratifications among nonsmokers. RESULTS: 60,600 Swedish (47.8% male) and 31,198 US subjects (47.7% male) were included. Swedish males with BMI≥30 had increased hazards (HR) of all-cause premature death relative to BMI 18.5-24.9 (BMI 30-34.9, HR = 1.71 (95% CI: 1.44, 2.02); BMI≥35, HR = 2.89 (2.16, 3.88)). BMI≥25 had increased hazards of premature circulatory death (BMI 25-29.9, HR = 1.66 (1.32, 2.08); BMI 30-34.9, HR = 3.02 (2.26, 4.03); BMI≥35, HR = 4.91 (3.05, 7.90)). Among US males, only BMI≥35 had increased hazards of all-cause death (HR = 1.63 (1.25, 2.14)), while BMI 30-34.9 (HR = 1.83 (1.20, 2.79)) and BMI≥35 (HR = 3.18 (1.96, 5.15)) had increased hazards for circulatory death. Swedish females showed elevated hazards with BMI≥30 for all-cause (BMI 30-34.9, HR = 1.42 (1.18, 1.71) and BMI≥35, HR = 1.61 (1.21, 2.15) and with BMI≥35 (HR = 3.11 (1.72, 5.63)) for circulatory death. For US women, increased hazards were observed among BMI≥35 (HR = 2.10 (1.60, 2.76) for all-cause and circulatory HR = 3.04 (1.75, 5.30)). Swedish males with BMI≥35 had the highest absolute risk of premature death (762/100,000 person-years). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a markedly increased risk of premature death associated with increasing BMI among Swedish males, a pattern not duplicated among females.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Esperanza de Vida , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Obesidad/mortalidad , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Causas de Muerte , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Salud Global , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , New York/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Factores Sexuales , Suecia/epidemiología
20.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 100, 2019 04 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961524

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many adults are living longer with health conditions in the United States. Understanding the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for such health conditions may help to inform healthcare providers and their patients, guide health interventions, reduce healthcare costs, improve quality of life, and increase longevity for aging Americans. The purpose of this study was to determine the burden of 10 health conditions for a nationally-representative sample of adults aged 50 years and older in the United States. METHODS: Data from the 1998-2014 waves of the Health and Retirement Study were analyzed. At each wave, participants indicated if they were diagnosed with the following 10 conditions: cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure, diabetes, back pain, hypertension, a fractured hip, myocardial infarction, rheumatism or arthritis, and a stroke. Years lived with a disability and years of life lost to premature mortality were summed for calculating DALYs. Sample weights were utilized in the analyses to make the DALY estimates nationally-representative. Results for the DALYs were presented in thousands. RESULTS: There were 30,101 participants included. Sex stratified DALY estimates ranged from 4092 (fractured hip)-to-178,055 (hypertension) for men and 13,621 (fractured hip)-to-200,794 (hypertension) for women. The weighted overall DALYs were: 17,660 for hip fractures, 62,630 for congestive heart failure, 64,710 for myocardial infarction, 90,337 for COPD, 93,996 for stroke, 142,012 for cancer, 117,534 for diabetes, 186,586 for back pain, 333,420 for arthritis, and 378,849 for hypertension. In total, there were an estimated 1,487,734 years of healthy life lost from the 10 health conditions examined over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of these health conditions accounted for over a million years of healthy life lost for middle-aged and older Americans over the 16 year study period. Our results should be used to inform healthcare providers and guide health interventions aiming to improve the health of middle-aged and older adults. Moreover, shifting health policy and resources to match DALY trends may help to improve quality of life during aging and longevity.


Asunto(s)
Costo de Enfermedad , Estado de Salud , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Costos de la Atención en Salud/tendencias , Fracturas de Cadera/epidemiología , Fracturas de Cadera/psicología , Humanos , Longevidad/fisiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA