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1.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114484, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220446

RESUMEN

Many countries, including Italy, have experienced significant social and spatial inequalities in mortality during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study applies a multiple exposures framework to investigate how joint place-based factors influence spatial inequalities of excess mortality during the first year of the Covid -19 pandemic in the Lombardy region of Italy. For the Lombardy region, we integrated municipality-level data on all-cause mortality between 2015 and 2020 with 13 spatial covariates, including 5-year average concentrations of six air pollutants, the average temperature in 2020, and multiple socio-demographic factors, and health facilities per capita. Using the clustering algorithm Bayesian profile regression, we fit spatial covariates jointly to identify clusters of municipalities with similar exposure profiles and estimated associations between clusters and excess mortality in 2020. Cluster analysis resulted in 13 clusters. Controlling for spatial autocorrelation of excess mortality and health-protective agency, two clusters had significantly elevated excess mortality than the rest of Lombardy. Municipalities in these highest-risk clusters are in Bergamo, Brescia, and Cremona provinces. The highest risk cluster (C11) had the highest long-term particulate matter air pollution levels (PM2.5 and PM10) and significantly elevated NO2 and CO air pollutants, temperature, proportion ≤18 years, and male-to-female ratio. This cluster is significantly lower for income and ≥65 years. The other high-risk cluster, Cluster 10 (C10), is elevated significantly for ozone but significantly lower for other air pollutants. Covariates with elevated levels for C10 include proportion 65 years or older and a male-to-female ratio. Cluster 10 is significantly lower for income, temperature, per capita health facilities, ≤18 years, and population density. Our results suggest that joint built, natural, and socio-demographic factors influenced spatial inequalities of excess mortality in Lombardy in 2020. Studies must apply a multiple exposures framework to guide policy decisions addressing the complex and multi-dimensional nature of spatial inequalities of Covid-19-related mortality.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias , Teorema de Bayes , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Mortalidad
2.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 3): 114676, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328229

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: Daily air pollution has been linked with mortality from urban studies. Associations in rural areas are still unclear and there is growing interest in testing the role that air pollution has on other causes of death. This study aims to evaluate the association between daily air pollution and cause-specific mortality in all 8092 Italian municipalities. METHODS: Natural, cardiovascular, cardiac, ischemic, cerebrovascular, respiratory, metabolic, diabetes, nervous and psychiatric causes of death occurred in Italy were extracted during 2013-2015. Daily ambient PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations were estimated through machine learning algorithms. The associations between air pollutants and cause-specific mortality were estimated with a time-series approach using a two-stage analytic protocol where area-specific over-dispersed Poisson regression models where fit in the first stage, followed by a meta-analysis in the second. We tested for effect modification by sex, age class and the degree of urbanisation of the municipality. RESULTS: We estimated a positive association between PM10 and PM2.5 and the mortality from natural, cardiovascular, cardiac, respiratory and nervous system causes, but not with metabolic or psychiatric causes of death. In particular, mortality from nervous diseases increased by 4.55% (95% CI: 2.51-6.63) and 9.64% (95% CI: 5.76-13.65) for increments of 10 µg/m3 in PM10 and PM2.5 (lag 0-5 days), respectively. NO2 was positively associated with respiratory (6.68% (95% CI: 1.04-12.62)) and metabolic (7.30% (95% CI: 1.03-13.95)) mortality for increments of 10 µg/m3 (lag 0-5). Higher associations with natural mortality were found among the elderly, while there were no differential effects between sex or between rural and urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exposure to particulate matter was associated with mortality from nervous diseases. Mortality from metabolic diseases was associated with NO2 exposure. Other associations are confirmed and updated, including the contribution of lowly urbanised areas. Health effects were also found in suburban and rural areas.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Humanos , Anciano , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Material Particulado/análisis , Ciudades/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Mortalidad
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158439, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113788

RESUMEN

Tumours are nowadays the second world­leading cause of death after cardiovascular diseases. During the last decades of cancer research, lifestyle and random/genetic factors have been blamed for cancer mortality, with obesity, sedentary habits, alcoholism, and smoking contributing as supposed major causes. However, there is an emerging consensus that environmental pollution should be considered one of the main triggers. Unfortunately, all this preliminary scientific evidence has not always been followed by governments and institutions, which still fail to pursue research on cancer's environmental connections. In this unprecedented national-scale detailed study, we analyzed the links between cancer mortality, socio-economic factors, and sources of environmental pollution in Italy, both at wider regional and finer provincial scales, with an artificial intelligence approach. Overall, we found that cancer mortality does not have a random or spatial distribution and exceeds the national average mainly when environmental pollution is also higher, despite healthier lifestyle habits. Our machine learning analysis of 35 environmental sources of pollution showed that air quality ranks first for importance concerning the average cancer mortality rate, followed by sites to be reclaimed, urban areas, and motor vehicle density. Moreover, other environmental sources of pollution proved to be relevant for the mortality of some specific cancer types. Given these alarming results, we call for a rearrangement of the priority of cancer research and care that sees the reduction and prevention of environmental contamination as a priority action to put in place in the tough struggle against cancer.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Neoplasias , Humanos , Inteligencia Artificial , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Vehículos a Motor , Italia/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Mortalidad
5.
Environ Pollut ; 302: 119070, 2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231538

RESUMEN

Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to lung cancer incidence and mortality, but limited evidence existed for other cancers. This study aimed to assess the association between PM2.5 on cancer specific mortality. An ecological study based on the cancer mortality data collected from 5,565 Brazilian cities during 2010-2018 using a difference-in-differences approach with quasi-Poisson regression, was applied to examine PM2.5-cancer mortality associations. Globally gridded annual average surface PM2.5 concentration was extracted and linked with the residential municipality of participants in this study. Sex, age stratified and exposure-response estimations were also conducted. Totalling 1,768,668 adult cancer deaths records of about 208 million population living across 5,565 municipalities were included in this study. The average PM2.5 concentration was 7.63 µg/m3 (standard deviation 3.32) with range from 2.95 µg/m3 to 28.5 µg/m3. With each 10 µg/m3 increase in three-year-average (current year and previous two years) concentrations of PM2.5, the relative risks (RR) of cancer mortality were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.20) for all-site cancers. The PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with several cancer-specific mortalities including oral, nasopharynx, oesophagus, and stomach, colon rectum, liver, gallbladder, larynx, lung, bone, skin, female breast, cervix, prostate, brain and leukaemia. No safe level of PM2.5 exposure was observed in the exposure-response curve for all types of cancer. In conclusion, with nationwide cancer death records in Brazil, we found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 increased risks of mortality for many cancer types. Even low level PM2.5 concentrations had significant impacts on cancer mortality.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Brasil/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidad , Material Particulado/análisis
6.
Artículo en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56773

RESUMEN

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Averiguar a associação entre sintomatologia depressiva e mortalidade em idosos da América Latina. Métodos. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática com metanálise de estudos indexados nas bases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus e Literatura Lati- no-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS). O estudo foi registrado na base PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews) e estruturado de acordo com o referencial meto- dológico PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). A metanálise foi realizada usando modelos de efeitos aleatórios, e os dados analisados incluíram as medidas de risco relativo (RR) bruto e heterogeneidade, com estimativas pontuais e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%). Resultados. Cinco estudos, realizados no Brasil e no México, foram incluídos na metanálise, abrangendo 8 954 idosos. O RR para mortalidade na presença de sintomatologia depressiva foi de 1,44 (IC95%: 1,16; 1,78). A heterogeneidade encontrada foi de 80,87%. As metarregressões mostraram que quanto maior a proporção de mulheres nas amostras dos estudos, maior o risco de mortalidade associada à sintomatologia depressiva, e quanto maior o tempo de acompanhamento do estudo, menor o risco de mortalidade associada à sintoma- tologia depressiva. Conclusão. A presença de sintomatologia depressiva associou-se positivamente à mortalidade em idosos latino-americanos, com RR de óbito 44% maior em relação aos idosos sem sintomatologia depressiva. As principais limitações do estudo foram o pequeno número de trabalhos encontrados na revisão sistemática e a variação entre as escalas utilizadas para determinar a presença de sintomatologia depressiva.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To determine the existence of association between depressive symptoms and mortality in older individuals in Latin America. Method. A systematic review with meta-analysis was performed based on published studies indexed in PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and LILACS (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde). The review protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), and structured according to the Pre- ferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Meta-analysis was performed using random effects models, and the data analyzed included crude relative risk (RR) and heterogeneity, with poin estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results. Five studies, performed in Brazil and Mexico, were included in the meta-analysis, for a total of 8 954 older individuals. RR for mortality in the presence of depressive symptoms was 1.44 (95%CI: 1.16; 1.78). Heterogeneity was 80.87%. Meta-regression showed that the higher the proportion of women in the sample, the higher the mortality risk associated with depressive symptoms; and that the longer the study follow-up, the lower the risk of mortality associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusion. The presence of depressive symptoms was positively associated with mortality in older Latin American individuals. The RR for death was 44.0% higher in individuals with depressive symptoms as com- pared to those without depressive symptoms. The main study limitations were the lower number of studies retrieved through systematic review and the variety of scales used to determine the presence of depressive symptoms.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Investigar la relación entre un cuadro sintomático de depresión y la mortalidad en personas mayo- res en América Latina. Métodos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática con metanálisis de los estudios indexados en las bases de datos PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus y Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS). El estudio se registró en la base de datos PROSPERO (Registro Prospectivo Internacional de Revisiones Sistemáticas) y se estructuró según la referen- cia metodológica PRISMA (Elementos preferidos de notificación para revisiones sistemáticas y metanálisis). El metanálisis se realizó con modelos de efectos aleatorios, y los datos analizados incluyeron los valores de riesgo relativo (RR) bruto y de heterogeneidad, con estimaciones puntuales e intervalos de confianza de 95% (IC 95%). Resultados. En el metanálisis se incluyeron cinco estudios realizados en Brasil y México con 8 954 personas mayores. El RR de mortalidad en presencia de un cuadro sintomático de depresión fue de 1,44 (IC 95%: 1,16; 1,78). La heterogeneidad fue de 80,87%. Las metarregresiones mostraron que cuanto mayor era la proporción de mujeres en las muestras de los estudios, mayor era el riesgo de mortalidad relacionada con el cuadro sin- tomático de depresión, y que cuanto mayor era el tiempo de seguimiento del estudio, menor era el riesgo de mortalidad relacionada con dicho cuadro sintomático. Conclusión. La presencia de un cuadro sintomático de depresión guardó una relación positiva con la mor- talidad de personas mayores en América Latina, con un RR de muerte 44% mayor en comparación con las personas sin síntomas. Las principales limitaciones del estudio fueron el reducido número de estudios encon- trados en la revisión sistemática y la variación entre las escalas utilizadas para determinar la presencia de un cuadro sintomático de depresión.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Revisión Sistemática , Anciano , Mortalidad , Depresión , Revisión Sistemática , Anciano , Mortalidad , Depresión , Revisión Sistemática , Anciano , Mortalidad
7.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-8, 01/jan./2022. tab, graf, ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378478

RESUMEN

Objetivos: descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos, espaciais e temporais da leishmaniose visceral humana, no município de Sobral, no período de 2007 a 2019. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico descritivo e ecológico de análise espacial e temporal, com uso dos programas Quantum-Gis e Joinpoint. Resultados: foram confirmados 316 casos novos, predominantemente, no sexo masculino, nas faixas etárias de 1 a 4 anos (26,3%) e de 20 a 39 anos (24,0%), na zona urbana. Febre (95,9%), fraqueza (85,1%), emagrecimento (80,1%), palidez (73,7%), esplenomegalia (75,6%) e hepatomegalia (69,3%) foram os sinais clínicos mais frequentes. A doença se concentrou em quatro bairros: Terrenos Novos, Centro, Expectativa e Sinhá Saboia, expressando áreas mais densas (quentes). A incidência e a letalidade foram crescentes no início do período e decrescentes no final, com uma inversão destes indicadores no ano de 2014. Conclusão: em Sobral, a leishmaniose visceral humana é um agravo considerado relevante para o serviço de vigilância em saúde com necessidade de intensificação das ações de controle entomológico, zoonótico e de manejo ambiental, principalmente nas áreas mais densas.


Objectives: the objective was to describe the epidemiological, spatial, and temporal aspects of human visceral leishmaniasis, in the municipality of Sobral, from 2007 to 2019. Methods: A descriptive, spatial and temporal ecological study was carried out using Quantum-Gis and Joinpoint programs. Results: 316 new cases were confirmed, predominantly in males, in the age groups of 1 to 4 years (26.3%) and 20 to 39 years (24.0%), mainly in the urban area. Fever (95.9%), weakness (85.1%), weight loss (80.1%), pallor (73.7%), splenomegaly (75.6%), and hepatomegaly (69.3%) were the most frequent clinical signs. The disease was concentrated in four neighborhoods (Terrenos Novos, Centro, Expectativa, and Sinhá Saboia), hot spots. The incidence and case-fatality increased at the beginning of the period but decreased at the end, with an inversion in these in the year 2014. Conclusion: In Sobral, human visceral leishmaniasis is a disease considered relevant to the health surveillance service, with the need to intensify entomological, zoonotic, and environmental management actions, especially in denser areas.


Asunto(s)
Leishmaniasis Visceral , Signos y Síntomas , Vigilancia Sanitaria , Epidemiología , Mortalidad , Indicadores y Reactivos , Grupos de Edad
8.
Washington, D.C.; Organisation panaméricaine de la Santé; 2022-11-23. (OPS/NMH/MH/21-0038).
en Francés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56755

RESUMEN

Cette fiche d’information présente des faits sur l’épidémiologie de l’alcool ventilés par population totale, chez les buveurs et entre les hommes et les femmes dans la Région des Amériques. Il comprend des statistiques relatives à la consommation d’alcool, à la morbidité et à la mortalité. La fiche d’information met ensuite en évidence l’indicateur de consommation d’alcool par habitant et fournit des informations au public sur ce que cet indicateur nous dit en termes de boissons consommées par an et par jour. Il se termine par quelques recommandations et comprend une courte liste de références utilisées pour élaborer le contenu.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Industria del Alcohol , Estadística , Morbilidad , Mortalidad , Indicadores de Morbimortalidad , Epidemiología Analítica , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis de Datos , Américas
9.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56706

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To assess factors associated with admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and death from corona- virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in fully vaccinated patients with severe COVID-19 in Brazil and the association between ICU admission and death from COVID-19. Methods. This was retrospective study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from February 12, 2021 to Jan- uary 10, 2022 across Brazil who were fully vaccinated against COVID-19 before hospitalization. Outcomes were admission in an ICU for COVID-19 and death from COVID-19. Variables evaluated were: sex; age; self-re- ported skin color; macroregion; comorbidities; time between full vaccination and onset of symptoms; and time between onset of symptoms and hospitalization. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate crude and adjusted risk ratios. Results. Of 74 991 patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19, 67.28% were ≥ 70 years and 68.32% had at least one comorbidity. Men, patients aged 60–69 years, and patients aged 18–39 years with obesity had the greatest risk of ICU admission. Patients aged 18–39 years with obesity, diabetes, or renal diseases had the highest risk of death from COVID-19. When age and time between onset of symptoms and hospitalization were considered effect modifiers, patients admitted to an ICU 9–13 days after symptom onset in each age category had the greatest risk of death from COVID-19. Conclusion. Although older patients were at greatest risk of ICU admission and death from COVID-19, the difference in the risk of dying from COVID-19 between patients admitted to an ICU and those not admitted was greatest for young adults.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Evaluar los factores asociados con el ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) y la muerte por la enfermedad del coronavirus del 2019 (COVID-19) en pacientes con el esquema completo de vacunación que presentan un cuadro grave de COVID-19, así como la relación entre el ingreso en la UCI y la muerte por esta enfermedad en Brasil. Métodos. Se realizó en Brasil un estudio retrospectivo de pacientes hospitalizados con COVID-19 del 12 de febrero del 2021 al 10 de enero del 2022 que habían recibido el esquema completo de vacunación contra la COVID-19 antes de ser hospitalizados. Los resultados fueron el ingreso en la UCI debido a la COVID-19 y la muerte por esta enfermedad. Las variables evaluadas fueron sexo, edad, color de piel autonotificado, mac- rorregión, comorbilidades, período entre el esquema completo de vacunación y la aparición de los síntomas y período entre el inicio de los síntomas y la hospitalización. Se utilizó un modelo de regresión de Poisson para estimar los cocientes de riesgo crudo y ajustado. Resultados. De los 74 991 pacientes hospitalizados con un cuadro grave de COVID-19, 67,28% tenía 70 años o más y 68,32% tenía al menos una comorbilidad. Los varones, los pacientes de 60 a 69 años y los paci- entes de 18 a 39 años con obesidad presentaron el mayor riesgo de ingreso en la UCI. Los pacientes de 18 a 39 años con obesidad, diabetes o enfermedades renales presentaban el mayor riesgo de muerte por esta enfermedad. Cuando la edad y el período entre el inicio de los síntomas y la hospitalización se consideraron modificadores del efecto, los pacientes ingresados en la UCI entre 9 y 13 días después del inicio de los sín- tomas en cada categoría de edad presentaron el mayor riesgo de muerte debido a la COVID-19. Conclusión. Aunque los pacientes de mayor edad presentaron el mayor riesgo de ingreso en la UCI y muerte debido a la COVID-19, la diferencia en el riesgo de morir por esta enfermedad entre pacientes ingresados en la UCI y pacientes no ingresados fue más elevada en adultos jóvenes.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Avaliar fatores associados à admissão em unidade de tratamento intensivo (UTI) e óbito por doença do coronavírus 2019 em pacientes com COVID-19 grave, totalmente vacinados, no Brasil, bem como a relação entre a entrada na UTI e a morte por COVID-19. Métodos. Estudo retrospectivo de pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19, de 12 de fevereiro de 2021 a 10 de janeiro de 2022, em todo o Brasil, que tinham o esquema vacinal completo contra a COVID-19 antes da hospitalização. Os desfechos foram a admissão em UTI devido à COVID-19 e a morte em decorrência da doença. As variáveis avaliadas foram sexo, idade, cor da pele autodeclarada, macrorregião, comorbidades, tempo entre a vacinação completa e o início dos sintomas, e tempo entre o início dos sintomas e a internação. Para estimar os coeficientes de risco bruto e ajustado foi usado um modelo de regressão de Poisson. Resultados. Dos 74.991 pacientes internados com quadro de COVID-19 grave, 67,28% tinham ≥ 70 anos e 68,32% apresentavam pelo menos uma comorbidade. Os homens, pacientes entre 60-69 anos e pacientes entre 18-39 anos com obesidade tinham o maior risco de internação na UTI. Os pacientes de 18-39 anos de idade com obesidade, diabetes ou doenças renais apresentavam o maior risco de morte por COVID-19. Quando a idade e o intervalo entre o início dos sintomas e a hospitalização foram considerados modificadores de efeito, os pacientes admitidos em UTI entre 9 e 13 dias após o início dos sintomas em cada categoria de idade tinham o maior risco de morte devido à COVID-19. Conclusão. Embora os pacientes mais velhos tivessem maior risco de admissão na UTI e morte por COVID- 19, a diferença no risco de óbito pelo coronavírus entre os pacientes admitidos em uma UTI e aqueles não admitidos foi maior para os adultos jovens.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunación , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Mortalidad , Brasil , Vacunación , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Mortalidad , Brasil , Vacunación , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Mortalidad
10.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; Nov. 2022. 106 p. tab.
Monografía en Español | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1399675

RESUMEN

La norma contiene el esquema completo, ordenado y cronológico de vacunación, de cumplimiento obligatorio a nivel nacional para disminuir las tasas de mortalidad y morbilidad causadas por enfermedades inmunoprevenibles, logrando el control, la eliminación y erradicación de estas enfermedades


Asunto(s)
Salud , Morbilidad , Mortalidad , Vacunación , Erradicación de la Enfermedad
11.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; Nov. 2022. 37 p. tab.
Monografía en Español | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1399990

RESUMEN

El documento contiene la estrategia de preparación y respuesta frente a la viruela del mono, para reducir el impacto en la morbilidad y mortalidad por viruela del mono en la población del país. Deroga R.M 421-2022-MINSA.


Asunto(s)
Morbilidad , Mortalidad , Preparación ante Desastres , Viruela del Mono , Frente
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277441, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378655

RESUMEN

Socioeconomic factors have exacerbated the impact of COVID-19 worldwide. Brazil, already marked by significant economic inequalities, is one of the most affected countries, with one of the highest mortality rates. Understanding how inequality and income segregation contribute to excess mortality by COVID-19 in Brazilian cities is essential for designing public health policies to mitigate the impact of the disease. This paper aims to fill in this gap by analyzing the effect of income inequality and income segregation on COVID-19 mortality in large urban centers in Brazil. We compiled weekly COVID-19 mortality rates from March 2020 to February 2021 in a longitudinal ecological design, aggregating data at the city level for 152 Brazilian cities. Mortality rates from COVID-19 were compared across weeks, cities and states using mixed linear models. We estimated the associations between COVID-19 mortality rates with income inequality and income segregation using mixed negative binomial models including city and week-level random intercepts. We measured income inequality using the Gini index and income segregation using the dissimilarity index using data from the 2010 Brazilian demographic census. We found that 88.2% of COVID-19 mortality rates variability was between weeks, 8.5% between cities, and 3.3% between states. Higher-income inequality and higher-income segregation values were associated with higher COVID-19 mortality rates before and after accounting for all adjustment factors. In our main adjusted model, rate ratios (RR) per 1 SD increases in income inequality and income segregation were associated with 17% (95% CI 9% to 26%) and 11% (95% CI 4% to 19%) higher mortality. Income inequality and income segregation are long-standing hallmarks of large Brazilian cities. Risk factors related to the socioeconomic context affected the course of the pandemic in the country and contributed to high mortality rates. Pre-existing social vulnerabilities were critical factors in the aggravation of COVID-19, as supported by the observed associations in this study.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Segregación Social , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Renta , Factores Socioeconómicos , Mortalidad
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2003, 2022 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36320013

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The number of women in Japan who continue working after childbirth is on the rise. Over the past few years, Japan's cancer mortality rate has increased. About 50% of all cancer deaths among Japanese women aged 25-64 are caused by lung, gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancers. This study aims to examine the difference in mortality risk for key cancers among women and explore the effect of the economic crisis in the mid-1990s separately for occupational and industrial categories. METHODS: Data from 1980 to 2015 were gathered from the Japanese Population Census and National Vital Statistics conducted in the same year. A Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate mortality risk and mortality trends for lung, gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancer among Japanese working women aged 25-64 years. RESULTS: Across most industrial and occupational groups, the trends in age-standardised cancer mortality rate for women have declined. Workers in management, security and transportation have a higher cancer mortality risk than sales workers. The risk of death from all four cancers is higher for workers in the mining and electricity industries than for wholesale and retail workers. CONCLUSION: To improve the health and well-being of employed Japanese women, it is crucial to monitor cancer mortality trends. Using these population-level quantitative risk estimates, industry- and occupation-specific prevention programmes can be developed to target women at higher cancer risk and enable the early detection and treatment of cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Ocupaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Industrias , Factores de Riesgo , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Mortalidad
14.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 25: e220034, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383844

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the trend in incidence, mortality and Disability Adjusted Life Years of oral cancer in Latin America according to sex between 2000 and 2020. METHODS: This ecological study extracted oral cancer information from 20 Latin American countries from the GBD-2020 database. Oral cancer burden was described by age-standardized rate (ASR) of incidence, mortality, and DALYs. The data was compared according to sex and countries. Trends (Average Annual Percentage Change-AAPC) were estimated for each indicator, sex, and country between 2000 and 2020 using Joint-point software. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2020, the highest incidence of oral cancer (ASR) occurred in Cuba (5.18), Brazil (4.38) and Uruguay (4.62). The countries with the highest mortality for both sexes were (ASR): Cuba (2.89), Brazil (2.71) and the Dominican Republic (2.58). The DALYs registered an average of 37.52 (Women: 22.39; Men: 52.62). The Dominican Republic reports increasing trends in incidence (AAPC: Men: 2.2; Women: 1.4), in mortality (AAPC: Men: 1.8; Women: 1.1), and in DALYs (AAPC: Men: 1.0; Women: 2.0). Costa Rica shows decreasing trends in men in incidence (AAPC: -1.3), mortality (AAPC: -1.6), and DALYs (AAPC: -1.8). CONCLUSION: Oral cancer shows increasing trends in: the incidence in both sexes in 10 countries, in mortality and DALYs in 6 countries, while the affectation between sexes does not show differences in trends.


Asunto(s)
Años de Vida Ajustados por Discapacidad , Neoplasias de la Boca , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Incidencia , América Latina/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Boca/epidemiología , Mortalidad
15.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1559-1561, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343322

RESUMEN

A detailed examination of deaths in the US by cause and age suggests that the 2020 recession did not contribute to excess deaths overall. However, high excess mortality occurred because of drug overdoses both from recession effects and from COVID-19 pandemic effects. Understanding the risk for heightened substance use mortality can help mitigate this risk in the next pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Sobredosis de Droga , Humanos , Pandemias , Salud Pública , Mortalidad
16.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1550-1558, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343324

RESUMEN

There were almost 700,000 excess deaths in the US from March 1, 2020, through February 28, 2021, resulting from two often counterbalancing mechanisms: those predicted by changes in unemployment rates occurring during this period, referred to here as the "recession effect," and those predicted by the "pandemic effect," which reflects direct consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19, accompanying impacts on health and medical care, and other changes in mortality not caused by greater joblessness. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, this study decomposed total mortality in this period into pandemic and recession effects, with additional estimates by sex, race and ethnicity, age, and fourteen causes. Although the pandemic effect increased many types of mortality, the recession effect reduced most types of mortality. Without the recession effect, there would have been nearly 40,000 more deaths than actually occurred. However, there were disparate impacts, particularly for external causes. Vehicular and alcohol-related fatalities and homicides rose because of strong pandemic effects. In contrast, the recession effect accounted for a greater share of the rise in drug mortality. Offsetting pandemic and recession effects resulted in a decrease in the number of suicides. Understanding these diverse impacts provides useful lessons for policy efforts to mitigate the current and future health pandemics.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidio , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Causas de Muerte , Mortalidad
17.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 449, 2022 11 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397104

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that moderate coffee and tea consumption are associated with lower risk of mortality. However, the association between the combination of coffee and tea consumption with the risk of mortality remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the separate and combined associations of coffee and tea consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 498,158 participants (37-73 years) from the UK Biobank between 2006 and 2010. Coffee and tea consumption were assessed at baseline using a self-reported questionnaire. All-cause and cause-specific mortalities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, and digestive disease mortality, were obtained from the national death registries. Cox regression analyses were conducted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 12.1 years, 34,699 deaths were identified. The associations of coffee and tea consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality attributable to CVD, respiratory disease, and digestive disease were nonlinear (all P nonlinear < 0.001). The association between separate coffee consumption and the risk of all-cause mortality was J-shaped, whereas that of separate tea consumption was reverse J-shaped. Drinking one cup of coffee or three cups of tea per day seemed to link with the lowest risk of mortality. In joint analyses, compared to neither coffee nor tea consumption, the combination of < 1-2 cups/day of coffee and 2-4 cups/day of tea had lower mortality risks for all-cause (HR, 0.78; 95% CI: 0.73-0.85), CVD (HR, 0.76; 95% CI: 0.64-0.91), and respiratory disease (HR, 0.69; 95% CI: 0.57-0.83) mortality. Nevertheless, the lowest HR (95% CI) of drinking both < 1-2 cup/day of coffee and ≥ 5 cups/day of tea for digestive disease mortality was 0.42 (0.34-0.53). CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study, separate and combined coffee and tea consumption were inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality.


Asunto(s)
Café , Mortalidad , , Humanos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedades Respiratorias/mortalidad , Enfermedades del Sistema Digestivo/mortalidad , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Reino Unido
18.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 299, 2022 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316676

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The effect of ambient temperature on respiratory mortality has been consistently observed throughout the world under different climate change scenarios. Countries experiencing greater inter-annual variability in winter temperatures (and may not be lowest winter temperatures) have greater excess winter mortality compared to countries with colder winters. This study investigates the association between temperature and respiratory deaths in Malta which has one of the highest population densities in the world with a climate that is very hot in summer and mild in winter. METHODS: Daily number of respiratory deaths (7679 deaths) and meteorological data (daily average temperature, daily average humidity) were obtained from January 1992 to December 2017. The hot and cold effects were estimated at different temperatures using distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM) with a Poisson distribution, controlling for time trend, relative humidity and holidays. The reference temperature (MMT) for the minimum response-exposure relationship was estimated and the harvesting effects of daily temperature (0-27 lag days) were investigated for daily respiratory mortality. Effects were also explored for different age groups, gender and time periods. RESULTS: Cooler temperatures (8-15 °C) were significantly related to higher respiratory mortality. At 8.9 °C (1st percentile), the overall effect of daily mean temperature was related to respiratory deaths (RR 2.24, 95%CI 1.10-4.54). These effects were also found for males (95%CI 1.06-7.77) and males across different age groups (Males Over 65 years: RR 4.85, 95%CI 2.02-11.63 vs Males between 16 and 64 years: RR 5.00, 95%CI 2.08-12.03) but not for females. Interestingly, colder temperatures were related to respiratory deaths in the earliest time period (1992-2000), however, no strong cold effect was observed for later periods (2000-2017). In contrast, no heat effect was observed during the study period and across other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk for cold-related respiratory mortality observed in this study could be due to greater inter-annual variability in winter temperatures which needs further exploration after adjusting for potential physical and socio-demographic attributes. The study provides useful evidence for policymakers to improve local warning systems, adaptation, and intervention strategies to reduce the impact of cold temperatures.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos , Enfermedades Respiratorias , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Anciano , Temperatura , Densidad de Población , Calor , Malta , Enfermedad Iatrogénica , Enfermedades Respiratorias/diagnóstico , Mortalidad
19.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 1123, 2022 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319987

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer incidence is rising globally, while mortality rates show a geographical heterogenous pattern. Early detection and treatment have been proven to have a profound impact on breast cancer prognosis. The aim of his study was to compare breast cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates in two contrasting corners of Europe, Sweden and Crete, to better understand cancer determinants with focus on disease burden and sociocultural factors. METHODS: Breast cancer data from Sweden and Crete was derived from registries. Incidence and mortality were expressed as Age-Standardized Incidence Rates (ASIR), Age-Standardized Mortality Rates (ASMR). FINDINGS: Breast cancer incidence has for decades risen in Sweden and on Crete. In 2019, ASIR was 217.5 in Sweden and 58.9 on Crete, (p < 0.001). Mortality rates showed opposite trends. ASMR in Sweden was reduced from 25.5 to 16.8 (2005-2019) while on Crete, ASMR increased from 22.1 to 25.3. A successive rise in survival rate in Sweden with a 5-year survival rate of 92% since 2015, but a converse development on Crete with 85% 5-year survival rate the same year. INTERPRETATION: The incidence of breast cancer is slowly rising in both studied regions, but mortality increases on Crete in contrast to Sweden with sinking mortality rates. The interpretation of these findings is that differences in health care systems and health policies including differences in early detection like screening programs and early treatment, as well as sociocultural factors in the two countries might play an important role on the differences found in breast cancer burden.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/mortalidad , Incidencia , Mortalidad , Sistema de Registros , Tasa de Supervivencia , Suecia/epidemiología , Grecia/epidemiología
20.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275967, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322565

RESUMEN

Accurately counting the human cost of the COVID-19 at both the national and regional level is a policy priority. The Russian Federation currently reports one of the higher COVID-19 mortality rates in the world; but estimates of mortality differ significantly. Using a statistical method accounting for changes in the population age structure, we present the first national and regional estimates of excess mortality for 2021; calculations of excess mortality by age, gender, and urban/rural status for 2020; and mean remaining years of life expectancy lost at the regional level. We estimate that there were 351,158 excess deaths in 2020 and 678,022 in 2021 in the Russian Federation; and, in 2020, around 2.0 years of life expectancy lost. While the Russian Federation exhibits very high levels of excess mortality compared to other countries, there is a wide degree of regional variation: in 2021, excess deaths expressed as a percentage of expected deaths at the regional level range from 27% to 52%. Life expectancy loss is generally greater for males; while excess mortality is greater in urban areas. For Russia as whole, an average person who died due to the pandemic in 2020 would have otherwise lived for a further 14 more years (and as high as 18 years in some regions), disproving the widely held view that excess mortality during the pandemic period was concentrated among those with few years of life remaining-especially for females. At a regional level, less densely populated, more remote regions, rural regions appear to have fared better regarding excess mortality and life expectancy loss-however, a part of this differential could be owing to measurement issues. The calculations demonstrate more clearly the true degree of the human cost of the pandemic in the Russian Federation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Esperanza de Vida , Federación de Rusia/epidemiología , Mortalidad
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