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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 77-84, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190652

RESUMEN

Motivational strategies are among the most promising approaches to improve the effectiveness of batterer intervention programs (BIPs). An individualized motivational plan (IMP) is one of these motivational strategies. The present study aimed to explore whether adding an IMP to a standard BIP improved the participant-facilitator working alliance and participants' protherapeutic behaviors. To this end a randomized controlled trial was conducted. One hundred fifty-three men convicted of intimate partner violence were randomly assigned to either a standard BIP (control condition, n = 79) or a standard BIP plus IMP (experimental condition, n = 74). Working alliance (i.e., general working alliance, agreement, and bond) was assessed with the Working Alliance Inventory-Observer, short version. Protherapeutic behaviors (i.e., assumption of responsibility, participant role behavior, and group value) were assessed with the Observational Coding of Protherapeutic Group Behavior. Both working alliance and protherapeutic behaviors were assessed by an external observer early and late in intervention. Our results showed that both general working alliance and agreement and bond, were significantly higher in the standard BIP plus IMP intervention condition, both early and late in intervention. All protherapeutic behaviors were significantly higher in the standard BIP plus IMP early in intervention, and also late in intervention for assumption of responsibility and group value. Our findings have important practical implications as our results clearly showed that a motivational strategy tool such as the IMP improves key intervention processes (i.e., working alliance and protherapeutic behaviors) in BIPs, therefore increasing their effectiveness


Las estrategias motivacionales se encuentran entre los enfoques más prometedores para mejorar la eficacia de los programas de intervención con maltratadores. El plan motivacional individualizado (PMI) es una de estas estrategias motivacionales. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo explorar si añadir un plan motivacional individualizado a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores mejora la alianza de trabajo facilitador-participante y la conducta proterapéutica de los participantes. Para ello se realizó un ensayo clínico aleatorizado. Ciento cincuenta y tres hombres condenados por violencia de género fueron asignados aleatoriamente bien a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores (condición control, n = 79) o bien a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores más PMI (condición experimental, n = 74). La alianza de trabajo (i.e., alianza general, acuerdo y vínculo) se evaluó con la versión breve del Working Alliance Inventory-Observer. Las conductas proterapéuticas (i.e., asunción de responsabilidad, rol conductual del participante y valoración del grupo) fueron evaluadas con el Observational Coding of Protherapeutic Group Behavior. Tanto la alianza de trabajo como las conductas proterapéuticas fueron evaluadas por un observador externo al principio y al final de la intervención. Los resultados mostraron que tanto la alianza de trabajo general como el acuerdo y el vínculo fueron significativamente mayores en la condición experimental, tanto al principio como al final de la intervención. La expresión de todas las conductas proterapéuticas al inicio de la intervención fue significativamente mayor en la condición experimental, así como al final de la intervención para la asunción de responsabilidad y la valoración del grupo. Los resultados tienen importantes implicaciones prácticas, puesto que muestran con claridad que una estrategia motivacional como el PMI mejora procesos clave de la intervención con maltratadores (i.e., la alianza de trabajo y las conductas proterapéuticas), mejorando por lo tanto la efectividad de estos programas


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Procesos de Grupo , Motivación , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Factores Socioeconómicos
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20190002, Jan.-Dec. 2020. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1101978

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the elements of moral sensitivity held by nurses working in a medical clinic unit. Method: this exploratory-descriptive study with a qualitative approach addressed 18 nurses from a medical clinic of a university hospital located in southern Brazil using semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed using discursive textual analysis. Results: data were structured into six categories: relational orientation; experiencing moral dilemmas; following rules; benevolent motivation; structuring moral meaning; and autonomy. These categories enabled the identification of important elements of moral sensitivity, such as acknowledging the ethical dimension of one's attitudes, acknowledging the uniqueness of each patient, dealing with conflict between workers and patients and/or their companions, adapting to the workplace, empathy, dialogue, clinical decision-making, meeting the needs of patients, understanding patients' health condition, respect, welcoming patients' desires and providing guidance that concerns patients' requests and refusals. Conclusion: the elements of moral sensitivity identified in this study contribute to support nurses when making clinical decisions, especially when facing ethical issues arising in a medical clinic setting.


RESUMEN Objetivo: identificar los elementos de sensibilidad moral presentes en las enfermeras que trabajan en una Unidad de Clínica Médica. Método: investigación cualitativa, descriptiva exploratoria, desarrollada a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas analizadas mediante análisis discursivo textual, con 18 enfermeras trabajando en la unidad de clínica médica de un hospital universitario en el sur de Brasil. Resultados: se estructuran en seis categorías: orientación relacional; experimentando conflicto moral; seguir las reglas; motivación benevolente; Estructuración del significado moral y la autonomía que permitieron identificar elementos importantes de la sensibilidad moral, como el reconocimiento de la dimensión ética de las actitudes, el reconocimiento de la singularidad de los pacientes, la forma de hacer frente a los conflictos entre el profesional y el paciente y / o compañero, la adaptación en el entorno de trabajo. , empatía, diálogo, toma de decisiones clínicas, satisfacción de las necesidades de los pacientes, comprensión de su estado de salud, respeto, bienvenida a sus deseos y orientación con respecto a sus solicitudes y rechazos. Conclusión: los elementos de sensibilidad moral identificados en este estudio contribuyen a que las enfermeras puedan tomar decisiones clínicas, especialmente frente a problemas éticos experimentados en el entorno de la clínica médica.


RESUMO Objetivo: identificar os elementos da sensibilidade moral presentes em enfermeiros atuantes em uma Unidade de Clínica Médica. Método: pesquisa qualitativa, do tipo exploratório-descritiva, desenvolvida por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas analisadas mediante análise textual discursiva, com 18 enfermeiros atuantes na unidade de clínica médica de um hospital universitário do sul do Brasil. Resultados: se estruturam em seis categorias: orientação relacional; experimentando o conflito moral; seguir regras; motivação benevolente; estruturação do significado moral e autonomia a qual foi possível identificar importantes elementos da sensibilidade moral como reconhecimento a dimensão ética das atitudes, reconhecer a singularidade dos pacientes, a forma de enfrentamento dos conflitos entre profissional e paciente e/ou acompanhante, adaptação no ambiente de trabalho, empatia, diálogo, tomada de decisão clínica, atendimento as necessidades dos pacientes, compreensão da sua condição de saúde, respeito, acolhimento aos seus desejos e orientação quanto as suas solicitações e recusas. Conclusão: os elementos da sensibilidade moral identificados nesse estudo contribuem para habilitar os enfermeiros para a tomada de decisão clínica, principalmente diante de problemas éticos vivenciados no ambiente de clínica médica.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Salud del Adulto , Enfermería , Ética , Moral , Investigación Cualitativa , Ética en Enfermería , Motivación
3.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161665

RESUMEN

In actual conditions health care priority is in increasing population size and its life expectancy including duration of healthy life, reducing morbidity, mortality and disability of population, observance of rights of citizens related to health protection that can effectively be achieved by adherence of healthy lifestyle. In order to determine possibility of improving motivation of population to lead healthy lifestyle, through formation of leadership qualities in medical specialists, the study applied such methods as expert evaluation, questionnaire survey, interview, monographic and statistical techniques. The sampling consisted of 46 employees of the I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University as experts, 107 students of this educational organization were involved in questionnaire survey and interviewing, and 68 of them were included in the group with pronounced leadership qualities, and 39 respondents consisted the control group. Involving population into healthy lifestyle is priority task of all medical specialists that is regulated by work functions of their professional standards. The effective direction of this work is to influence internal motivation of citizens. The presence of leadership qualities in future medical specialists increases their ability to motivate the population to lead healthy lifestyle at the level of theoretical training by 33.3% and practical training by 65.5% as compared to control group. The main directions of improving motivational work to involve population into healthy lifestyle by future medical specialists is refusal by students' bad habits, teaching them specialized topics in all related disciplines, formation of students' leadership potential. To develop student's leadership skills, training program can be applied in the laboratory of excellence "Factory of health leaders", implemented at the N. A. Semashko Department of public health and health care.


Asunto(s)
Motivación , Especialización , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Humanos , Liderazgo , Moscú
4.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 115, 2020 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143748

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current study examined the predictors of the onset of alcohol use as well as predictors of remission and relapse, both from heavy drinking and from alcohol dependence. Similarities and differences in both clinical and psychosocial predictors across the transitions were examined. METHODS: A sample of men from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry (N = 1769) completed an assessment of lifetime drinking history, which allowed age markers for starting and stopping different drinking patterns. The men also completed various assessments regarding personality, alcohol motives, and psychiatric diagnoses. Survival analyses were used to examine the predictors of the three transitions of onset, remission, and relapse for the phenotypes of heavy drinking and of alcohol dependence, censoring the individuals who had not yet experienced an event. RESULTS: As expected, predictors of onset for drinking, heavy drinking, and alcohol dependence were largely consistent and included externalizing symptomology, nicotine dependence, and cotwin history of drinking as risk factors. Predictors of remission from heavy drinking, somewhat similarly to remission from alcohol dependence, included the risk factor of externalizing disorders but also, as predicted, included more risk and protective factors in the psychosocial realm that were not predictors of onset. Contrary to our prediction, relapse to heavy drinking and alcohol dependence were predicted largely by unique psychosocial risk and protective factors including social and coping motives. CONCLUSION: Current findings extend the findings of past research to remission and relapse in the later decades of life and have implications for treatment of alcohol use problems.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Alcoholismo/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Recurrencia , Sistema de Registros , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis de Supervivencia , Gemelos/psicología , Veteranos/psicología , Veteranos/estadística & datos numéricos , Guerra de Vietnam
5.
Brain Nerve ; 72(11): 1275-1282, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191305

RESUMEN

In order to analyze the dynamic behavior of neural systems such as oscillations or rhythms, an approach based on the dynamical systems theory may be useful. In the first part of this article, we present an elementary introduction to that approach based on the materials for an author's lecture. In the second part, we introduce our own study related to dopamine and reinforcement learning using that approach, in which we assumed the decay of learned values and propose a possible mechanism of the effects of dopamine depletion on motivation.


Asunto(s)
Dopamina , Refuerzo en Psicología , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Motivación
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143180

RESUMEN

In-service teachers have various emotional and motivational experiences that can influence their continuance intention towards online-only instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic, as a significant stress factor for their workplace. Derived from the Self-Determination Theory (SDT), Job Demands-Resources Model (JD-R), and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the present research model includes technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) self-efficacy (SE), intrinsic (IM) and extrinsic (EM) work motivation, and occupational stress (OS) (i.e., burnout and technostress which have been examined in tandem) as key dimensions to explain the better continuance intention among in-service teachers to use online-only instruction (CI). Data for the research model were collected from 980 in-service teachers during the COVID-19 outbreak between April and May 2020. Overall, the structural model explained 70% of the variance in teachers' CI. Motivational practices were directly and indirectly linked through OS with CI. The findings showed that IM has the most directly significant effect on teachers' CI, followed by TPK-SE, and OS as significant, but lower predictors. IM was positively associated with TPK-SE and negatively associated with EM. The results offered valuable insights into how motivation constructs were related to OS and to a better understanding online instruction in an unstable work context, in order to support teachers in coping during working remotely.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Intención , Motivación , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Maestros/psicología , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Educación a Distancia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Estrés Fisiológico
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1035-1038, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018162

RESUMEN

During gambling, humans often begin by making decisions based on expected rewards and expected risks. However, expectations may not match actual outcomes. As gamblers keep track of their performance, they may feel more or less lucky, which then influences future betting decisions. Studies have identified the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as a brain region that plays a significant role during risky decision making in humans. However, most human studies infer neural activation from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which has a poor temporal resolution. In particular, fMRI cannot detect activity from neuronal populations in the OFC, which may encode specific information about how a subject reacts to mismatched outcomes. In this preliminary study, four human subjects participated in a gambling task while local field potentials (LFPs), captured at a millisecond resolution, were recorded from the OFC. We analyzed high-frequency activity (HFA: >70 Hz) in the LFPs, as HFA has been shown to correlate to activation of neuronal populations. In 3 out of 4 subjects, HFA in OFC modulated between matched and mismatched trials as soon as the outcome of each bet was revealed, with modulations occurring at different times and directions depending on the anatomical location within the OFC.


Asunto(s)
Juego de Azar , Toma de Decisiones , Lóbulo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Motivación , Corteza Prefrontal
9.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 280-288, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004727

RESUMEN

Background/Introduction: Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in their childhood or adolescence. Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate the Group Motivational Therapy (GMT) and Individualised Motivational therapy (IMT) for tobacco cessation in adolescents. Methodology: Oral screening was done in a village named Vehra Khadi near Anand. One hundred and eight adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years were included in the study. They were randomly divided into three groups namely Group 1 - Interventional group consisting of 36 adolescents who were given GMT; Group 2 - Interventional group consisting of 36 adolescents who were given IMT; and Group 3 -3 6 age - matched Negative control group. Hence, a total sample size of 108 was evaluated for tobacco consumption frequency, passive smoking, gingival index, and stain index and followed up for 9 months for the effect of both interventional group as well as positive control. Results: Frequency of tobacco consumption was reduced from baseline to 9 months' follow-up for both the interventional groups, which was statistically significant with <0.001 percent P value showing 84.38% change by intervention 1 and 98.30% in intervention 2. Conclusion: Group and individualized motivation serves as an effective means for tobacco cessation among adolescents. Improvement in gingival health and reduction of the tobacco consumption was observed with motivational intervention.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Uso de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Salud Bucal , Índice Periodontal
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22910, 2020 10 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001838

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: First detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic stretched the medical system in Wuhan and posed a challenge to the state's risk communication efforts. Timely access to quality health care information during outbreaks of infectious diseases can be effective to curtail the spread of disease and feelings of anxiety. Although existing studies have extended our knowledge about online health information-seeking behavior, processes, and motivations, rarely have the findings been applied to an outbreak. Moreover, there is relatively little recent research on how people in China are using the internet for seeking health information during a pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore how people in China are using the internet for seeking health information during a pandemic. Drawing on previous research of online health information seeking, this study asks the following research questions: how was the "#COVID-19 Patient Seeking Help" hashtag being used by patients in Wuhan seeking health information on Weibo at the peak of the outbreak? and what kinds of health information were patients in Wuhan seeking on Weibo at the peak of the outbreak? METHODS: Using entity identification and textual analysis on 10,908 posts on Weibo, we identified 1496 patients with COVID-19 using "#COVID-19 Patient Seeking Help" and explored their online health information-seeking behavior. RESULTS: The curve of the hashtag posting provided a dynamic picture of public attention to the COVID-19 pandemic. Many patients faced difficulties accessing offline health care services. In general, our findings confirmed that the internet is used by the Chinese public as an important source of health information. The lockdown policy was found to cut off the patients' social support network, preventing them from seeking help from family members. The ability to seek information and help online, especially for those with young children or older adult members during the pandemic. A high proportion of female users were seeking health information and help for their parents or for older adults at home. The most searched information included accessing medical treatment, managing self-quarantine, and offline to online support. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings contribute to our understanding of health information-seeking behaviors during an outbreak and highlight the importance of paying attention to the information needs of vulnerable groups and the role social media may play.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , China , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Padres , Apoyo Social , Adulto Joven
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5757-5760, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019282

RESUMEN

In this paper, we present the design and development of a game-assisted stroke rehabilitation system RehabFork that allows a user to train their upper-limb to perform certain functions related to the task of eating. The task of eating is divided into several components: (i) grasping the eating utensils such as a fork and knife; (ii) lifting the eating utensils; (iii) using the eating utensils to cut a piece of food; (iv) transferring the food to the mouth; and (v) chewing the food. The RehabFork supports the user through sub-tasks (i)-(iii). The hardware components of RehabFork consist of an instrumented fork and knife, and a 3D printed pressure pad, that measure and communicate information on user performance to a gaming environment to render an integrated rehabilitation system. The gaming environment consists of an interactive game that utilizes sensory data as well as user information about the severity of their disability and current level of progress to adjust the difficulty levels of the game to maintain user motivation. Information pertaining to the user, including performance data, is stored and can be shared with care providers for ongoing oversight.


Asunto(s)
Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Motivación , Extremidad Superior
12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239524, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027268

RESUMEN

Experts are typically advised to avoid jargon when communicating with the general public, but previous research has not established whether avoiding jargon is necessary in a crisis. Using the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic as a backdrop, this online survey experiment (N = 393) examined the effect of jargon use across three different topics that varied in situational urgency: COVID-19 (high urgency), flood risk (low urgency), and federal emergency policy (control). Results revealed that although the use of jargon led to more difficult processing and reduced persuasion for the two less-urgent topics (flood risk, emergency policy), there was no effect of jargon in the COVID-19 condition. Theoretically, these findings suggest that the motivation to process information is an important moderator for crisis communication in particular and science communication in general. Practically, these findings suggest that science communicators, during times of crisis, do not need to "dumb down" their language in the same way they should during non-crises.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Comunicación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Difusión de la Información , Lenguaje , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Vocabulario , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Urgencias Médicas , Femenino , Inundaciones , Humanos , Masculino , Personal de Laboratorio Clínico/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239795, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027281

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social distancing measures (e.g., avoiding travel, limiting physical contact with people outside of one's household, and maintaining a 1 or 2-metre distance between self and others when in public, depending on the country) are the primary strategies used to prevent transmission of the SARS-Cov-2 virus that causes COVID-19. Given that there is no effective treatment or vaccine for COVID-19, it is important to identify barriers and facilitators to adherence to social distancing to inform ongoing and future public health campaigns. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted online with a convenience sample of English-speaking adults. The survey was administered over the course of three weeks (March 30 -April 16, 2020) when social distancing measures were well-enforced in North America and Europe. Participants were asked to complete measures assessing socio-demographic characteristics, psychological constructs, including motivations to engage in social distancing, prosocial attitudes, distress, and social distancing behaviors. Descriptive (mean, standard deviation, percentage) and inferential statistics (logistic regression) were used to describes endorsement rates for various motivations, rates of adherence to social distancing recommendations, and predictors of adherence. RESULTS: Data were collected from 2013 adults living primarily in North America and Europe. Most frequently endorsed motivations to engage in social distancing (or facilitators) included "I want to protect others" (86%), "I want to protect myself" (84%), and I feel a sense of responsibility to protect our community" (84%). Most frequently endorsed motivations against social distancing (or barriers) included "There are many people walking on the streets in my area" (31%), "I have friends or family who need me to run errands for them" (25%), "I don't trust the messages my government provides about the pandemic" (13%), and "I feel stressed when I am alone or in isolation" (13%). Adherence to social distancing recommendations ranged from 45% for "working from home or remotely" to 90% for "avoiding crowded places/non-essential travel", with men and younger individuals (18-24 years) showing lower adherence compared to women and older individuals. CONCLUSION: This study found that adherence to social distancing recommendations vary depending on the behaviour, with none of the surveyed behaviours showing perfect adherence. Strongest facilitators included wanting to protect the self, feeling a responsibility to protect the community, and being able to work/study remotely; strongest barriers included having friends or family who needed help with running errands and socializing in order to avoid feeling lonely. Future interventions to improve adherence to social distancing measures should couple individual-level strategies targeting key barriers to social distancing identified herein, with effective institutional measures and public health interventions. Public health campaigns should continue to highlight compassionate attitudes towards social distancing.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Adhesión a Directriz , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Cuarentena/métodos , Aislamiento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , América del Norte/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
14.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3384, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084780

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to validate the content and appearance of an educational manual for breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. METHOD: methodological research, which had the Theory of Psychometry as a theoretical-methodological reference. The minimum 80% Concordance Index was considered to ensure the adequacy of the material. The sample consisted of 17 experts in the subject area of the educational manual and 12 patients previously submitted to radiotherapy due to the diagnosis of breast cancer. RESULTS: two items of the expert evaluation tool were found to have a concordance index <80%. The other items were considered adequate and/or totally adequate in the three blocks of analysis proposed for the experts: objectives - 89.07%, structure and presentation - 92.94%, and relevance - 93.13%; and good and/or very good in the five blocks of analysis proposed for the patients: objectives, organization, writing style, appearance, and motivation, all with 100% agreement rate. CONCLUSION: the educational manual, after having been perfected based on the suggestions of the sample and the scientific literature, was considered valid according to its content and appearance, suggesting its contribution to the clinical practice of nursing and to the understanding of the treatment to which patients with breast cancer are submitted.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Neoplasias de la Mama/radioterapia , Humanos , Motivación , Psicometría , Proyectos de Investigación
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 85-90, 2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087595

RESUMEN

In healthcare settings, questionnaires are used to collect information from a patient. A standard method for this are paper-based questionnaires, but they are often complex to understand or long and frustrating to fill. To increase motivation, we developed a chatbot-based system Ana that asks questions that are normally asked using paper forms or in face-to-face encounters. Ana has been developed for the specific use case of collecting the music biography in the context of music therapy. In this paper, we compare user motivation, relevance of answers and time needed to answer the questions depending on the data entry method (i.e. app Ana versus paper-based questionnaire). A randomised trial was performed with 26 students of music therapy. The results show that the chatbot is more motivating and answers are given faster than on paper. No differences in answer relevance could be determined between the two means. We conclude that a chatbot could become an additional data entry method for collecting personal health information.


Asunto(s)
Registros de Salud Personal , Musicoterapia , Comprensión , Humanos , Motivación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 203-208, 2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087613

RESUMEN

A broad range of aspects are needed to be taken into consideration in the design and development of personalized coaching systems based on artificial intelligence methodologies. This research presents the initial phase of joining different professional and stakeholder perspectives on behavior change technologies into a flexible design proposal for a digital coaching system. The diversity and sometimes opposed views on content, behavior, purposes and context were managed using a structured argument-based design approach, which also feed into the behavior of the personalized system. Results include a set of personalization strategies that will be further elaborated with the target user group to manage sensitive issues such as ethics, social norms, privacy, motivation, autonomy and social relatedness.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Tutoría , Motivación , Atención Primaria de Salud , Privacidad
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 240-245, 2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087619

RESUMEN

Failing to follow up on the abnormal test results can cause serious health problems to patients. We conducted a retrospective medical record review of 3200 randomly selected patients aged 18 to 76 in 14 state clinics and two private laboratory services querying the common regional patient registry. One patient could be included (1 clinical case) in the study only once. We invited patients to take part in the interviews to gain a deeper understanding of the motives to follow up or not after receiving a recommendation and explanation of the role of the automatically generated interpretation in this decision. A qualitative study of the patients' motivation was performed with a group of 689 patients. All the patients who received their interpretations showed a much higher follow-up rate (68% average) than the patients who did not receive interpretations (49 % average). The results of our research demonstrated that there is a significant impact on the patients' decision to follow up on the tests. Patients consider time factor as an important advantage of the computer interpretations and are willing to get automatic interpretations if they can receive it faster than the ones from their doctor (question 4: median =3 out of 7). Discussing the reasons behind the decision to follow up, the patients do trust the computerized clinical decision support systems (question 5: median = 5 out of 7), however, they prefer to receive interpretations and recommendations from doctors (question 3: median = 7).


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Apoyo a Decisiones Clínicas , Médicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
18.
BMJ ; 371: m3797, 2020 10 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055176

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare several monetary incentive programmes for promoting smoking abstinence among employees who smoke at workplaces in a middle income country. DESIGN: Parallel group, open label, assessor blinded, cluster randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Large industrial workplaces in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. PARTICIPANTS: Employees who smoked cigarettes and planned to quit within six months recruited from 101 worksite clusters (84 different companies). INTERVENTIONS: Worksites were digitally cluster randomized by an independent investigator to usual care or usual care plus one of eight types of incentive programmes. Usual care consisted of one time group counseling and cessation support through a 28 day text messaging programme. The incentive programmes depended on abstinence at three months and varied on three intervention components: refundable deposits, assignment to a teammate, and bonus size ($20 (£15; €17) or $40). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was biochemically verified seven day point prevalence smoking abstinence at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were programme acceptance at enrollment and smoking abstinence at three months (end of intervention) and at six months. All randomized participants who had complete baseline information were included in intention-to-treat analyses; participants with missing outcomes were coded as continuing smokers. RESULTS: Between April 2015 and August 2016, the trial enrolled 4190 participants. Eighteen were omitted because of missing baseline covariates and death before the primary endpoint, therefore 4172 participants were included in the intention-to-treat analyses. Programme acceptance was relatively high across all groups: 58.7% (2451/4172) overall and 61.3% (271/442) in the usual care group. Abstinence rates at 12 months did not differ among deposit programmes (336/2253, 14.9%) and non-deposit programmes (280/1919, 14.6%; adjusted difference 0.8 points, 95% confidence interval -2.7 to 4.3, P=0.65), but were somewhat lower for team based programmes (176/1348, 13.1%) than individual based programmes (440/2824, 15.6%; -3.2 points, -6.6 to -0.2, P=0.07), and higher for $40 bonus programmes (322/1954, 16.5%) than programmes with no bonus (148/1198, 12.4%; 5.9 points, 2.1 to 9.7, P=0.002). The $40 individual bonus was the most efficacious randomization group at all endpoints. Intervention components did not strongly interact with each other. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptance of monetary incentive programmes for promoting smoking abstinence was high across all groups. The $40 individual bonus programmes increased long term smoking abstinence compared with usual care, although several other incentive designs did not, such as team based programmes and deposit programmes. Incentive design in workplace wellness programmes might influence their effectiveness at reducing smoking rates in low resource settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02421224).


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/terapia , Motivación , Servicios de Salud del Trabajador/métodos , Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Análisis por Conglomerados , Consejo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Método Simple Ciego , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Envío de Mensajes de Texto , Tailandia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología
19.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200312, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111778

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the fundamental aspects in the establishment of preventive measures to tackle covid-19 among indigenous people in view of the motivations for seeking health care in villages of the Terra Indígena Buriti, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Theoretical-reflective study based on assumptions of the National Health System and previous ethnographic research that enabled the identification of the motivations to seek health care in Buriti villages. RESULTS: Indigenous people seek health centers for health care programs assistance, treatment of cases they cannot resolve and to chat. Such motivations were the basis for discussing the indigenization process in the confrontation of the new coronavirus pandemic in indigenous lands. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The motivations for seeking health care show the physical and social vulnerability of the Terena ethnicity. The effectiveness of the social isolation measure in the villages depends on the dialogue with indigenous leaders, professional engagement and intersectoral actions.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Servicios de Salud del Indígena , Indios Sudamericanos/psicología , Motivación , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Brasil/epidemiología , Brasil/etnología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etnología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Servicios de Salud del Indígena/organización & administración , Humanos , Indios Sudamericanos/etnología , Medicina Tradicional , Evaluación de Necesidades , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/etnología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Poblaciones Vulnerables
20.
Science ; 370(6512): 46, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004507
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