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2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6626, 2021 03 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758218

RESUMEN

Misinformation is usually adjusted to fit distinct narratives and propagates rapidly through social networks. False beliefs, once adopted, are rarely corrected. Amidst the COVID-19 crisis, pandemic-deniers and people who oppose wearing face masks or quarantine have already been a substantial aspect of the development of the pandemic. With the vaccine for COVID-19, different anti-vaccine narratives are being created and are probably being adopted by large population groups with critical consequences. Assuming full adherence to vaccine administration, we use a diffusion model to analyse epidemic spreading and the impact of different vaccination strategies, measured with the average years of life lost, in three network topologies (a proximity, a scale-free and a small-world network). Then, using a similar diffusion model, we consider the spread of anti-vaccine views in the network, which are adopted based on a persuasiveness parameter of anti-vaccine views. Results show that even if anti-vaccine narratives have a small persuasiveness, a large part of the population will be rapidly exposed to them. Assuming that all individuals are equally likely to adopt anti-vaccine views after being exposed, more central nodes in the network, which are more exposed to these views, are more likely to adopt them. Comparing years of life lost, anti-vaccine views could have a significant cost not only on those who share them, since the core social benefits of a limited vaccination strategy (reduction of susceptible hosts, network disruptions and slowing the spread of the disease) are substantially shortened.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , /prevención & control , Actitud , /virología , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Red Social , Vacunación
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247642, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657152

RESUMEN

Vaccinations are without doubt one of the greatest achievements of modern medicine, and there is hope that they can constitute a solution to halt the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. However, the anti-vaccination movement is currently on the rise, spreading online misinformation about vaccine safety and causing a worrying reduction in vaccination rates worldwide. In this historical time, it is imperative to understand the reasons of vaccine hesitancy, and to find effective strategies to dismantle the rhetoric of anti-vaccination supporters. For this reason, we analyzed the behavior of anti-vaccination supporters on the platform Twitter. Here we identify that anti-vaccination supporters, in comparison with pro-vaccination supporters, share conspiracy theories and make use of emotional language. We demonstrate that anti-vaccination supporters are more engaged in discussions on Twitter and share their contents from a pull of strong influencers. We show that the movement's success relies on a strong sense of community, based on the contents produced by a small fraction of profiles, with the community at large serving as a sounding board for anti-vaccination discourse to circulate online. Our data demonstrate that Donald Trump, before his profile was suspended, was the main driver of vaccine misinformation on Twitter. Based on these results, we welcome policies that aim at halting the circulation of false information about vaccines by targeting the anti-vaccination community on Twitter. Based on our data, we also propose solutions to improve the communication strategy of health organizations and build a community of engaged influencers that support the dissemination of scientific insights, including issues related to vaccines and their safety.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Vacunación/psicología , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/tendencias , Escala de Evaluación de la Conducta , Comunicación , Humanos , Salud Pública , /patogenicidad , Vacunas/inmunología
6.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 12, 2021 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502602

RESUMEN

Even before it had been developed there had already been skepticism among the general public concerning a vaccine for COVID-19. What are the factors that drive this skepticism? While much has been said about how political differences are at play, in this article I draw attention to two additional factors that have not received as much attention: witnessing the fallibility of the scientific process play out in real time, and a perceived breakdown of the distinction between experts and non-experts.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Testimonio de Experto , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Política , Ciencia/métodos
7.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(4): 544-552, 2020 Dec 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356059

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Vaccinations are a way accepted by science of preventing infectious diseases. Because of their epidemiological significance, vaccinations are considered compulsory in many countries and their evasion is penalized. Anti-vaccine movements may pose a threat to the epidemiological situation in many countries. The study presents the arguments formulated by opponents of vaccination and provides counter-arguments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is based on the analysis of data stored in scientific databases, information obtained from Google, Bing and Yahoo on the Internet, as well as newspapers, magazines and opinion-forming websites. RESULTS: The slogans propagated by anti-vaccination movements are usually based on easily proven erroneous theories and lies, although there are also arguments expressing belief in the conspiracy of governments, politicians and vaccine manufacturers, or incompetence of scientists and practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: In recent years in Poland, the activity of movements against vaccination has increased significantly, and their propaganda, through its negative impact on social attitudes, threatens to destabilize the epidemiological situation. Analysis of arguments used by the opponents of vaccination suggests a lack of reliable knowledge, religious overtones (addressed to people with fundamentalist personalities), or the ill-will attitudes of anti-vaccine individuals/groups used for their own purposes. Familiarization with the arguments of anti-vaccine propaganda is necessary in order to implement effective methods of fighting such attitudes and beliefs.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Vacunación/psicología , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Prestación de Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Miedo , Humanos , Polonia , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
8.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(4): 553-561, 2020 Dec 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356060

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Vaccinations are a way accepted by science of the struggle against infectious diseases. Because of their epidemiological significance, vaccinations are considered compulsory in many countries and their evasion is penalized. The WHO experts list anti-vaccine attitudes and movements among the top 10 threats to human health. Most people's refusals are mainly due to fears of anti-vaccine propaganda. Understanding this phenomenon will be the basis for improving the epidemiological situation in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is based on the analysis of data stored in scientific databases, as well as information obtained from Google, Bing and Yahoo and newspapers, magazines and opinion-forming websites. RESULTS: The anti-vaccine movements occur due different motivations, such as ignorance, fear and religious beliefs. Sometimes they can be supported by foreign services aimed at destabilization in selected areas of the globe. CONCLUSIONS: Increased activity and effective propaganda carried out by anti-vaccination movements is possible, among others, thanks to the development of the so-called 2nd generation of the Internet (Web2), enabling the free and difficult to control flow of information. Increasing data indicate that the activity of anti-vaccine movements may be a form of organized action (diversion in cyberspace) aimed at social, epidemiological, and economic destabilization of selected countries and regions. Among the various forms of combating anti-vaccination movements currently used are awareness-raising activities and restrictions on freedom on the Internet by monitoring information flow, blocking materials containing selected phrases or keywords associated with anti-vaccine propaganda, and sanctions imposed on people avoiding vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Vacunación/psicología , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Prestación de Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Miedo , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Polonia , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
9.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Feb 13.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051392

RESUMEN

The rapid diffusion of the jennerian method was founded in simplicity to practice, in its apparent effectiveness in combating smallpox and its epidemiological opportunity, as it appeared at the time of greatest recrudescence of the disease. The initial impulse for it's propagation, which originated a recognized movement to protect population health, was not without controversy. At the same time that defenders of the vaccine were added, opposite opinions appeared that used diverse critics to discredit it. The most common was to reveal their alleged failures using the media of the time, so cases were reported that occurred in the children of notable people in society. Ignacio María Ruiz de Luzuriaga (1763-1822), as secretary of the Royal Academy of Medicine he assumed a catalytic role, becoming the protagonist of the initial history of vaccination in Spain. It has been considered as an introducer, disseminator and ardent defender of the vaccine, as can be seen from the analysis of the bulky correspondence generated between 1801 and 1802 cataloged as "Papeles sobre la vacuna". These documents, preserved in the Academy library, show their activity as a propagator of the method and its capacity to respond to the doubts and concerns related to their possible adverse effects, avoiding jeopardizing the continuity of vaccines.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/historia , Negativa a la Vacunación/historia , Vacunación/historia , Vacunas/historia , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , España , Vacunación/efectos adversos , Vacunación/psicología , Negativa a la Vacunación/psicología , Vacunas/efectos adversos
10.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 31(11): 624-626, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688502

RESUMEN

Vaccines have been recognized as one of the top 10 public health achievements of the 20th century. In 1998, a study on the connection between measles, mumps, rubella vaccine and autism was published by the now discredited Andrew Wakefield. That study was retracted in 2010, but the damage was already done. The purpose of this article is to review the history of vaccine hesitancy and discuss a successful paradigm for speaking with vaccine-hesitant parents. Discussion of immunizations related to public health law and religious exemptions will also be reviewed.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/tendencias , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Seguridad del Paciente/normas , Seguridad del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación/historia , Vacunación/psicología , Vacunación/normas
11.
HEC Forum ; 31(4): 325-344, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606869

RESUMEN

Many parents are hesitant about, or face motivational barriers to, vaccinating their children. In this paper, we propose a type of vaccination policy that could be implemented either in addition to coercive vaccination or as an alternative to it in order to increase paediatric vaccination uptake in a non-coercive way. We propose the use of vaccination nudges that exploit the very same decision biases that often undermine vaccination uptake. In particular, we propose a policy under which children would be vaccinated at school or day-care by default, without requiring parental authorization, but with parents retaining the right to opt their children out of vaccination. We show that such a policy is (1) likely to be effective, at least in cases in which non-vaccination is due to practical obstacles, rather than to strong beliefs about vaccines, (2) ethically acceptable and less controversial than some alternatives because it is not coercive and affects individual autonomy only in a morally unproblematic way, and (3) likely to receive support from the UK public, on the basis of original empirical research we have conducted on the lay public.


Asunto(s)
Centros de Día/métodos , Política de Salud , Instituciones Académicas/normas , Vacunación/métodos , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Centros de Día/normas , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas/tendencias , Vacunación/psicología , Vacunación/tendencias
12.
Vaccine ; 37(35): 4867-4871, 2019 08 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300292

RESUMEN

Despite vaccination's role in preventing communicable diseases, misinformation threatens uptake. Social media may disseminate such anti-vaccination messages. We characterized trends in pro- and anti-vaccination discourse on Twitter. All tweets between 2010 and 2019 containing vaccine-related hashtags were identified. Pro- and anti-vaccine tweets and users per quarter (3-months) were tabulated; discussion subcommunities were identified with network analysis. 1,637,712 vaccine-related tweets were identified from 154 pro-vaccine and 125 anti-vaccine hashtags, with 86% of users posting exclusively pro-vaccine and 12% posting exclusively anti-vaccine hashtags. Pro-vaccine tweet volumes are larger than anti-vaccine tweets and consistently increase over time. In contrast, anti-vaccine tweet volumes have decreased since 2014, despite an increasing anti-vaccine user-base. Users infrequently responded across pro/anti-vaccine alignment (0.2%). Despite greater volumes of pro-vaccination discourse in recent years, and the anti-vaccination content userbase being smaller, the anti-vaccine community continues to grow in size. This finding coupled with the minimal inter-communication between communities suggests possible ideological isolation.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/tendencias , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Vacunación/psicología , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Humanos , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas/administración & dosificación
14.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(9): 931-939, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235861

RESUMEN

Science deniers question scientific milestones and spread misinformation, contradicting decades of scientific endeavour. Advocates for science need effective rebuttal strategies and are concerned about backfire effects in public debates. We conducted six experiments to assess how to mitigate the influence of a denier on the audience. An internal meta-analysis across all the experiments revealed that not responding to science deniers has a negative effect on attitudes towards behaviours favoured by science (for example, vaccination) and intentions to perform these behaviours. Providing the facts about the topic or uncovering the rhetorical techniques typical for denialism had positive effects. We found no evidence that complex combinations of topic and technique rebuttals are more effective than single strategies, nor that rebutting science denialism in public discussions backfires, not even in vulnerable groups (for example, US conservatives). As science deniers use the same rhetoric across domains, uncovering their rhetorical techniques is an effective and economic addition to the advocates' toolbox.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Disentimientos y Disputas , Ciencia , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Actitud , Humanos , Política
15.
Child Care Health Dev ; 45(3): 364-370, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874322

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the European context the awareness of societal responsibility for children's health has increased with greater attention to children's rights and child empowerment processes. Child health issues are considered particularly sensitive; thus, they often provoke strong societal reactions, which, as a consequence, influence national health policies across Europe. Effectiveness of societal influences increases with the involvement of various actors in the context. METHODS: A qualitative approach was used to identify the level of societal involvement in health decision-making. A questionnaire was sent to the Country Agents (CAs) of the Models of Child Health Appraised (MOCHA) project. CAs are contact points in each of the 30 participating in the project countries and were asked to identify strong public and professional discussions related to child health services in their countries. Data collection was undertaken between July and December 2016. RESULTS: Based on 71 case studies, we identified eight thematic patterns, which characterize societal reactions to the currently worrisome child health issues across Europe. We devoted our attention to the three most controversial: child vaccination, child poverty and child abuse. The cases described by the CAs show the broad perspective in the perception of child health problems. Child health issues involve the public and raise nationwide debates. Public concerns were directly or indirectly related to child health and depicted the national overtone. CONCLUSIONS: Concerns in Europe about child health care are twofold: they are devoted to systemic issues (indirect patient orientation) and to child health and well-being (direct patient orientation). The phenomenon of societal responsibility for children's health is important for the support of public acceptance of child health policy.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Servicios de Salud del Niño/organización & administración , Salud del Niño , Opinión Pública , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Bienestar del Niño/psicología , Toma de Decisiones , Europa (Continente) , Política de Salud , Humanos , Pobreza , Investigación Cualitativa , Responsabilidad Social
16.
Mo Med ; 115(3): 180-181, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228713

RESUMEN

There are many things that, as physicians, we universally take for granted. One does not need a background in medical statistics to understand that seat belts save lives and reduce injuries in car accidents. Nor do you need to have an epidemiology degree to know that tobacco smoking is causative for lung cancer. At some point in your undergraduate classes, you almost certainly heard the story of Edward Jenner, the milkmaids, and the resulting smallpox vaccine. Thanks to Dr. Jonas Salk, a true hero of the 20th Century, the last U.S. polio case was in 1979.1 The benefits of vaccination clearly outweigh the risks. Therefore measles, mumps, rubella and diphtheria should be nearly unknown today … right?


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Vacunación/psicología , Humanos
17.
Soc Sci Med ; 215: 23-27, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199743

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Although vaccines are an invaluable weapon in combatting diseases, they are often surrounded by controversy. Vaccine controversies usually arise with the claims of some parents or doctors who link vaccines to harmful outcomes. These controversies often negatively affect vaccination coverage. OBJECTIVES: This experiment simulated a vaccine controversy to understand which content features of vaccination-related information are well transmitted and how this transmission affects vaccine intention. METHOD: All participants (N = 64) read two conflicting views (pro- and anti-) about a fictional vaccine ('dipherpox vaccine'). These conflicting views were held by a parent and a doctor, whose views varied across conditions. This information was transmitted along linear chains of four participants who recalled it and the product of their recall was passed to the next participant within their chain. They also responded whether they would vaccinate or not. RESULTS: The experience-based view held by the parent was better transmitted than the medical-based view held by the doctor, while the pro-vaccine and anti-vaccine views were similarly transmitted. Despite all the participants having neutral or positive attitudes towards vaccines in general, 39.1% of them decided not to vaccinate. Nevertheless, vaccination attitude was the strongest predictor of vaccination intention. The less positive participants' attitudes were towards vaccines in general, the less likely they were to vaccinate against dipherpox after exposure to the controversy. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that vaccination campaigns may be made more effective by including personal experiences of the negative consequences of non-vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Programas de Inmunización/normas , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización/métodos , Masculino , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/tendencias , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunación/psicología
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 211: 274-281, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966822

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Although the benefits of vaccines are widely recognized by medical experts, public opinion about vaccination policies is mixed. We analyze public opinion about vaccination policies to assess whether Dunning-Kruger effects can help to explain anti-vaccination policy attitudes. RATIONALE: People low in autism awareness - that is, the knowledge of basic facts and dismissal of misinformation about autism - should be the most likely to think that they are better informed than medical experts about the causes of autism (a Dunning-Kruger effect). This "overconfidence" should be associated with decreased support for mandatory vaccination policies and skepticism about the role that medical professionals play in the policymaking process. METHOD: In an original survey of U.S. adults (N = 1310), we modeled self-reported overconfidence as a function of responses to a knowledge test about the causes of autism, and the endorsement of misinformation about a link between vaccines and autism. We then modeled anti-vaccination policy support and attitudes toward the role that experts play in the policymaking process as a function of overconfidence and the autism awareness indicators while controlling for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: More than a third of respondents in our sample thought that they knew as much or more than doctors (36%) and scientists (34%) about the causes of autism. Our analysis indicates that this overconfidence is highest among those with low levels of knowledge about the causes of autism and those with high levels of misinformation endorsement. Further, our results suggest that this overconfidence is associated with opposition to mandatory vaccination policy. Overconfidence is also associated with increased support for the role that non-experts (e.g., celebrities) play in the policymaking process. CONCLUSION: Dunning-Kruger effects can help to explain public opposition to vaccination policies and should be carefully considered in future research on anti-vaccine policy attitudes.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Opinión Pública , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/tendencias , Formulación de Políticas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 13(11): 2654-2658, 2017 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28933660

RESUMEN

Anti-vaccination movement has existed as long as the vaccines themselves, but its mode of action and social influences evolved over time. Such attitude with no doubt has negative impact on vaccination rates and eradication of infectious diseases. In this study, we used an online survey to examine vaccination attitudes of Polish university students of various degree and specialties. A total of 1,386 questionnaires were completed, among them 617 from students attending medical schools and 769 from students of non-medical schools. Up to 95.24% (N = 1320) of the study subjects, among them 98.70% and 92.46% of students of medical and non-medical specialties, respectively, declared willingness to vaccinate their children. 47.19% (N = 654) of participants have a contact with anti-vaccination propaganda at least once in a lifetimes. 42.64% (N = 591) of respondents were aware of the existence of anti-vaccination movements; 45.35% (N = 414) of participants, including 306 (51.52%) and 108 (33.86%) students of medical and non-medical disciplines, respectively, considered such movements as a negative phenomenon. Vaccination attitudes of students from medical and non-medical universities differed considerably. Vaccination knowledge and awareness among the students from non-medical universities were rather poor, markedly lower than in the students of medical disciplines. Nevertheless, irrespective of their major, Polish students have considerable knowledge gaps with regards to vaccination and need additional education in this matter.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Sistemas en Línea , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades , Vacunación/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/administración & dosificación , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/efectos adversos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Polonia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación/efectos adversos , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
20.
Soc Sci Med ; 191: 168-175, 2017 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926775

RESUMEN

This study examines temporal trends, geographic distribution, and demographic correlates of anti-vaccine beliefs on Twitter, 2009-2015. A total of 549,972 tweets were downloaded and coded for the presence of anti-vaccine beliefs through a machine learning algorithm. Tweets with self-disclosed geographic information were resolved and United States Census data were collected for corresponding areas at the micropolitan/metropolitan level. Trends in number of anti-vaccine tweets were examined at the national and state levels over time. A least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression model was used to determine census variables that were correlated with anti-vaccination tweet volume. Fifty percent of our sample of 549,972 tweets collected between 2009 and 2015 contained anti-vaccine beliefs. Anti-vaccine tweet volume increased after vaccine-related news coverage. California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania had anti-vaccination tweet volume that deviated from the national average. Demographic characteristics explained 67% of variance in geographic clustering of anti-vaccine tweets, which were associated with a larger population and higher concentrations of women who recently gave birth, households with high income levels, men aged 40 to 44, and men with minimal college education. Monitoring anti-vaccination beliefs on Twitter can uncover vaccine-related concerns and misconceptions, serve as an indicator of shifts in public opinion, and equip pediatricians to refute anti-vaccine arguments. Real-time interventions are needed to counter anti-vaccination beliefs online. Identifying clusters of anti-vaccination beliefs can help public health professionals disseminate targeted/tailored interventions to geographic locations and demographic sectors of the population.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Trastorno Autístico/etiología , Mapeo Geográfico , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/instrumentación , Vacunación/efectos adversos , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Trastorno Autístico/psicología , Humanos
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