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1.
Ann Lab Med ; 43(2): 180-186, 2023 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36281512

RESUMEN

Background: The incidence of early- and late-onset sepsis and meningitis in neonates due to maternal rectovaginal group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization may differ with serotype distribution and clonal complex (CC). CC17 strains are associated with hypervirulence and poor disease outcomes. GBS serotypes are distinguished based on the polysaccharide capsule, the most important virulence factor. We determined the sequence type distribution of GBS isolates from pregnant women in Korea and validated whole-genome sequencing (WGS)-based prediction of antimicrobial susceptibility and capsular serotypes in GBS isolates. Methods: Seventy-five GBS isolates collected from pregnant Korean women visiting Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Wonju, Korea between 2017 and 2019 were subjected to WGS using the NovaSeq 6000 system (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). Multilocus sequence types, serotypes, antimicrobial resistance genes, and hemolysin operon mutations were determined by WGS, and the latter three were compared with the results of conventional phenotypic methods. Results: The predominant lineage was CC1 (37.3%), followed by CC19 (32.0%), CC12 (17.3%), and CC17 (4.0%). All isolates were cps typeable (100%, (75/75), and 89.3% of cps genotypes (67/75) were concordant with serotypes obtained using latex agglutination. The cps genotypes of the 75 isolates were serotypes III (24.0%), V (22.7%), and VIII (17.3%). All isolates harboring intact ermB and tet were non-susceptible to erythromycin and tetracycline, respectively. Three non-hemolytic strains had 1-bp frameshift insertions in cylE. Conclusions: The low prevalence of CC17 GBS colonization may explain the low frequency of neonatal GBS infections. WGS is a useful tool for simultaneous genotyping and antimicrobial resistance determination.


Asunto(s)
Mujeres Embarazadas , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Streptococcus agalactiae , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Eritromicina , Tetraciclina , Factores de Virulencia/genética
2.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 33-38, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103949

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Information regarding effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant strains on clinical manifestations and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women is limited. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted using the data from the nationwide COVID-19 registry in Japan. We identified pregnant patients with symptomatic COVID-19 hospitalized during the study period. The Delta and Omicron variants of concern (VOC) predominant periods were defined as August 1 to December 31, 2021 and January 1 to May 31, 2022, respectively. Clinical characteristics were compared between the patients in the Delta and Omicron VOC periods. In addition, logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for developing moderate-to-severe COVID-19. RESULTS: During the study period, 310 symptomatic COVID-19 cases of pregnant women were identified; 111 and 199 patients were hospitalized during the Delta and Omicron VOC periods, respectively. Runny nose and sore throat were more common, and fatigue, dysgeusia, and olfactory dysfunction were less common manifestations observed in the Omicron VOC period. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, onset during the later stage of pregnancy (OR: 2.08 [1.24-3.71]) and onset during the Delta VOC period (OR: 2.25 [1.08-4.90]) were independently associated with moderate-to-severe COVID-19, whereas two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine were protective against developing moderate-to-severe COVID-19 (OR: 0.34 [0.13-0.84]). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in pregnant women differed between the Delta and Omicron VOC periods. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was still effective in preventing severe COVID-19 throughout the Delta and Omicron VOC periods.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , COVID-19/epidemiología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología
3.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 11-18, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182121

RESUMEN

Many per- and polyfluoralkyl substances (PFASs) may disrupt maternal thyroid hormone homeostasis in pregnancy. Concerns should be raised regarding the PFASs exposure in pregnant women because thyroid hormones are involved in the early development of the fetus. In this study, we measured the concentrations of 13 PFASs, including five novel short-chain PFASs, in serum from 123 pregnant women in Beijing, China. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or free thyroxine (FT4) levels and PFASs concentrations under consideration of the impacts of pregnancy-induced physiological factors. We found that perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (ß=0.189, 95%CI=-0.039, 0.417, p=0.10) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (ß=-0.554, 95%CI=-1.16, 0.049, p=0.071) were suggestive of significant association with TSH in thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) negative women. No association was observed between all PFASs and FT4 levels after controlling for these confounding factors, such as BMI, gestational weight gain and maternal age. These findings suggest that it should pay more attention to the association between thyroid hormone levels and short-chain PFASs concentrations. Future studies could consider a greater sample and the inclusion of other clinical indicators of thyroid function, such as free T3 and total T3.


Asunto(s)
Fluorocarburos , Femenino , Humanos , Yoduro Peroxidasa , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Hormonas Tiroideas , Tirotropina , Tiroxina
4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1869(1): 166582, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273675

RESUMEN

The SARS-CoV-2 infection causes COVID-19 disease, characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome, bilateral pneumonia, and organ failure. The consequences of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection for the pregnant woman, fetus, and neonate are controversial. Thus, it is required to determine whether there is viral and non-viral vertical transmission in COVID-19. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 leads to functional alterations in asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women, the fetoplacental unit and the neonate. Several diseases of pregnancy, including COVID-19, affect the fetoplacental function, which causes in utero programming for young and adult diseases. A generalized inflammatory state and a higher risk of infection are seen in pregnant women with COVID-19. Obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension may increase the vulnerability of pregnant women to infection by SARS-CoV-2. Alpha, Delta, and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 show specific mutations that seem to increase the capacity of the virus to infect the pregnant woman, likely due to increasing its interaction via the virus S protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors. This review shows the literature addressing to what extent COVID-19 in pregnancy affects the pregnant woman, fetoplacental unit, and neonate. Prospective studies that are key in managing SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy are discussed.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Adulto , Femenino , Embarazo , COVID-19/complicaciones , SARS-CoV-2 , Mujeres Embarazadas , Estudios Prospectivos
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158843, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122716

RESUMEN

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is ubiquitous and moderately persistent in the environment, and it is an identified human carcinogen. Previous animal experiments indicate that toxic mechanisms of PCP include oxidative stress. However, no epidemiological study has reported the association between PCP exposure and oxidative stress; such association in pregnant women, a vulnerable population, is of particular interest. This study aimed to characterize PCP concentrations in 2304 urine samples from 768 pregnant women, explore its determinants, and evaluate the associations between PCP exposure and three oxidative stress biomarkers across three trimesters. The median concentrations of PCP (100% detected) in the first, second, and third trimester were 0.61, 0.59, and 0.48 ng/mL, respectively, with a significant decrease trend. The intraclass correlation coefficient of specific gravity (SG)-adjusted PCP was 0.26, indicating high variability for PCP across the three trimesters. PCP concentrations were significantly higher in older, pre-pregnancy overweight, multiparous, high-income, and employed women during pregnancy. Urinary PCP was markedly lower in samples collected during spring compared to other seasons. Linear mixed effect models for repeated measures revealed that ln-transformed SG-adjusted PCP was significantly associated with increased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG; percent change [%Δ] caused by each interquartile range increase of PCP: 46.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 40.2, 52.5) and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG;%Δ [95% CI]: 44.8 [40.1, 49.8]), but the positive association with 4-hydroxy2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA) was not significant. PCP was also positively associated with increased 8-OHdG and 8-OHG in each trimester using general linear models, and its associations with HNE-MA were only significant at T1 (%Δ [95% CI]: 19.1 [1.05, 40.3]) and T2 (%Δ [95% CI]: 12.6 [0.32, 26.3]). Our findings provide valuable information about PCP exposure characteristics during pregnancy and the potential effects of PCP exposure on oxidative stress in pregnant women.


Asunto(s)
Pentaclorofenol , Humanos , Animales , Femenino , Embarazo , Anciano , Pentaclorofenol/toxicidad , Estudios Longitudinales , Mujeres Embarazadas , Biomarcadores/orina , Estrés Oxidativo , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxicoguanosina , China
6.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 3): 114647, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367504

RESUMEN

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are unintentionally produced, toxic environmental chemicals that persist for long years and bioaccumulate along the food chain, contaminating humans through diet. A particularly critical population subgroup is pregnant women given the adverse health effects on fetuses and newborns. Several anthropogenic sources of exposure to PCDD/Fs exist in Lebanon. Therefore, the aim of the present cross-sectional study is to measure the levels of PCDD/Fs in a sample of pregnant women in Lebanon and to explore potential associated factors. In this study, we measured serum concentrations of seven dioxins and ten furans, among 423 pregnant women recruited at delivery, using gas chromatography MS/MS. Among 269 participants, maternal sociodemographic information was collected including vicinity to landfills, incineration, pesticide use, industrial activity, and smoking. Anthropometric data were registered regarding pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), pre-pregnancy weight loss from restrictive diet, and gestational weight gain. Intake of major food groups generally related to PCDD/Fs was reported (fish, red meat, poultry, and dairy). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify associations. PCDD/Fs were detected in 0 to 56.1% of the sample. Geometric mean concentrations were 75.5 (2.35) pg/g lipid and 2.25 (1.39) TEQ2005 pg/g lipid for total dioxins, and 2.66 (1.76) pg/g lipid and 0.34 (1.78) TEQ2005 pg/g lipid for total furans. Levels were relatively lower than levels previously observed in France, Germany, Mexico, Ghana, and Japan. Red meat consumption was the most consistently associated factor with a 2.38-2.57 fold increase in PCDD/F levels. Pre-pregnancy weight loss showed inverse associations with PCDD/F congeners. Vicinity to illegal incineration was also associated with a 2.32-2.43 fold increase in PCDD/F levels. In conclusion, results showed the importance of dietary, anthropometric, and environmental factors in the present sample's exposure to PCDD/Fs, in a region that contains anthropogenic sources of contamination.


Asunto(s)
Benzofuranos , Dioxinas , Contaminantes Ambientales , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análisis , Dioxinas/toxicidad , Dibenzofuranos/análisis , Mujeres Embarazadas , Estudios Transversales , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Benzofuranos/análisis , Dieta , Furanos , Pérdida de Peso , Lípidos
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159570, 2023 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283523

RESUMEN

Phthalate metabolites are widely present in humans and can have many adverse effects on pregnant women. To date, many studies on the effects of phthalate metabolites on the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been published, but the findings of these studies are controversial. We conducted a case-control study to quantify the concentrations of seven phthalate metabolites in the serum of pregnant women and to investigate their association with the risk of GDM and blood glucose levels in pregnant women. Therefore, 201 serum samples (139 pregnant women with GDM and 62 control serum samples) were collected from Hangzhou, China, between 2011 and 2012. The results showed that mono butyl phthalate (MBP; mean = 4.08 ng/mL) was the most abundant phthalate metabolites in human serum, followed by mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP; mean = 1.28 ng/mL) and mono isobutyl phthalate (MiBP; mean = 1.20 ng/mL). The other results indicated significant associations between MBP (ß = 2.24, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 5.07, P = 0.050) and MiBP (ß = 1.84, 95 % CI: 1.03, 3.31, P = 0.041) concentrations in human serum and the incidence of GDM. Moreover, serum MBP (ß = 0.40, 95 % CI: 0.10, 0.70, P = 0.010) and MiBP levels (ß = 0.18, 95 % CI: 0.010, 0.35, P = 0.047) in humans were positively associated with 2-hour blood glucose levels. Our study provides affirmative evidence on previously inconsistent findings that MBP and MiBP exposure may increase the risk of GDM in pregnant women.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Gestacional , Contaminantes Ambientales , Ácidos Ftálicos , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiología , Glucemia/metabolismo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales
8.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114499, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208780

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Benefits of green spaces on stress reduction have been shown in previous studies. Most existing studies to date have focused on the general population. However, there is a lack of understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of green space among special populations, such as pregnant women. OBJECTIVES: To examine physiological and affective responses to green space on stress recovery among pregnant women, using simulated green space exposure through virtual reality (VR). METHODS: We recruited 63 pregnant women between 8 and 14 weeks' gestational age for a laboratory experiment. Participants were randomly assigned to view one of three, 5-min, VR videos of an urban scene with different green space levels (i.e., non-green, moderate, and high) after a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. Physiological stress responses were measured via changes in blood pressure, heart rate, skin conductance level, salivary alpha-amylase, and salivary cortisol. Affective response was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. RESULTS: We found that visual exposure to a green space environment in VR was associated with both physiological and affective stress reduction among pregnant women, including lower systolic blood pressure [-4.6 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI): -8.8, -0.4], reduced salivary alpha-amylase concentration (-1.2 ng/ml, 95% CI: -2.2, -0.2), improved overall positive affect (score: 6.6, 95% CI: 0.3, 13.0) and decreased negative affect of anxiety (score: -2.6, 95% CI: -5.19, -0.04) compared to non-green space environment. Exposure to high green space environment in park-like setting had the strongest impacts on stress recovery. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that virtual green space exposure could effectively ease stress and improve mental health and well-being during pregnancy. Even a short immersion in VR-based green space environment may bring health benefits, which has significant implications for pregnant women when access to an actual nature may not be possible.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Parques Recreativos , Mujeres Embarazadas , alfa-Amilasas Salivales , Realidad Virtual , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Hidrocortisona , Estrés Psicológico
9.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 2): 120604, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347414

RESUMEN

The association between oxidative protein damage in early pregnant women and ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is unknown. We estimated the effect of PM2.5 exposures within seven days before blood collection on serum 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in 100 women with normal early pregnancy (NEP) and 100 women with clinically recognized early pregnancy loss (CREPL). Temporally-adjusted land use regression model was applied for estimation of maternal daily PM2.5 exposure. Daily nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure of each participant was estimated using city-level concentrations of NO2. Single-day lag effect of PM2.5 was analyzed using multivariable linear regression model. Net cumulative effect and distributed lag effect of PM2.5 and NO2 within seven days were analyzed using distributed lag non-linear model. In all 200 subjects, the serum 3-NT were significantly increased with the single-day lag effects (4.72%-8.04% increased at lag 0-2), distributed lag effects (2.32%-3.49% increased at lag 0-2), and cumulative effect within seven days (16.91% increased). The single-day lag effects (7.41%-10.48% increased at lag 0-1), distributed lag effects (3.42%-5.52% increased at lag 0-2), and cumulative effect within seven days (24.51% increased) of PM2.5 significantly increased serum 3-NT in CREPL group but not in NEP group. The distributed lag effects (2.62%-4.54% increased at lag 0-2) and cumulative effect within seven days (20.25% increased) of PM2.5 significantly increased serum AOPP in early pregnant women before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic but not after that, similarly to the effects of NO2 exposures. In conclusion, PM2.5 exposures were associated with oxidative stress to protein in pregnant women in the first trimester, especially in CREPL women. Analysis of NO2 exposures suggested that combustion PM2.5 was the crucial PM2.5 component. Wearing masks may be potentially preventive in PM2.5 exposure and its related oxidative protein damage.


Asunto(s)
Productos Avanzados de Oxidación de Proteínas , Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Material Particulado , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Productos Avanzados de Oxidación de Proteínas/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/efectos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Estrés Oxidativo , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis , Mujeres Embarazadas
10.
Patient Educ Couns ; 106: 170-179, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376136

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To map the evidence on a Perinatal Mental Health Counselling Programme, identifying its characteristics, participants, and outcomes. METHODS: This review followed the guidelines of the Joanna Briggs Institute and PRISMA-ScR. Published and unpublished studies, from 2011 to 2021, written in English, Portuguese or Spanish were included. RESULTS: Despite the high number of articles identified, only nine articles were included in the final analysis, mainly from Iran, Italy and one Portuguese study. All articles referred to community health care centres and hospitals. The sessions varied between 6 and 16 and lasted 30-90 min. The method used was either individual and/or group, with weekly or monthly sessions or whenever deemed necessary throughout the evaluation. Different techniques were found, but emotional management, problem-solving, relaxation and mindfulness techniques were highlighted. Participants are pregnant women, partners, or family members. All articles suggest a decrease in the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression after the counselling intervention. CONCLUSION: Perinatal counselling programme have varied characteristics and mental health nurses are potential facilitators.


Asunto(s)
Consejo , Salud Mental , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Consejo/métodos , Parto , Mujeres Embarazadas , Ansiedad
11.
J Affect Disord ; 322: 163-172, 2023 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400148

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There exists a gap between the high prevalence of mental health problems and negative attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help among Chinese pregnant women. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes and factors toward seeking professional psychological help among Chinese pregnant women to provide some suggestions for improving pregnant women's psychological help-seeking behaviors. METHODS: A total of 1024 pregnant women were recruited. The Chinese version of the Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale (ATSPPH) was used to assess the attitudes toward professional psychological help-seeking. Demographic and socio-psychological factors were collected by self-developed questionnaire, Perceived Social Support Scale, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Scale. RESULTS: 1006 pregnant women were included in the final analysis. Only 3.7 % of participants chose professionals as their first choice for psychological help-seeking. The attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help were relatively positive, with the highest score of stigma tolerance among four subscales in ATSPPH. Education level, perceived social support, and positive coping style had a positive predictive effect on the four subscales of ATSPPH. Women with prenatal depressive symptoms had a lower score in the subscales of recognition of need for psychotherapeutic help and confidence in mental health practitioner; women with higher scores of negative coping style had a lower score in the subscales of stigma tolerance and interpersonal openness. History of professional psychological help-seeking behaviors was only associated with the subscale of recognition of need for psychotherapeutic help; Maternal age was only associated with the subscale of interpersonal openness. CONCLUSION: The attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help were relatively positive among Chinese pregnant women, and stigma tolerance was the significant barrier to professional psychological help-seeking. More attention should be paid to those women with older age, negative coping style, and women with prenatal depressive symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Asiáticos , Mujeres Embarazadas , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , Actitud , China
12.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 76-83, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130568

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) on maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes in pregnant women. A total of 296 singleton pregnant women were classified into four groups according to the thyroid auto-antibody in the first trimester. Finally, there were 97 women in TPOAb positive group (TPOAb+/TgAb-), 35 in TgAb positive group (TPOAb-/TgAb+), 85 in TPOAb and TgAb positive group (TPOAb+/TgAb+), and 79 in TPOAb and TgAb negative group (TPOAb-/TgAb-). Thyroid function, TPOAb, and TgAb were checked during pregnancy and followed up at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months postpartum. Levothyroxine sodium tablets could be taken to maintain euthyroid antepartum. Thyroid function of women with postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) were followed up at 2 and 3 years postpartum. We observed the incidence of PPT, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), placental abruption, placenta previa, polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, postpartum hemorrhage, preterm birth, and low birth Weight in the four groups. 19.93% of the women had PPT. The incidence of PPT in TPOAb+/TgAb-, TPOAb-/TgAb+, TPOAb+/TgAb+groups was significantly higher than that in TPOAb-/TgAb- group, respectively (16.49 vs. 6.33%, 22.86 vs. 6.33%, 35.29 vs. 6.33%, p <0.05). The incidence of PPT in TPOAb+/TgAb+group was significantly higher than that in TPOAb+/TgAb- group (35.29 vs. 16.49%, p <0.01). PPT occurred as early as 6 weeks postpartum, but mainly at 3 and 6 months postpartum in the four groups (62.50%, 75.00%, 70.00%, 80.00%). All PPT in TPOAb-/TgAb- group occurred within 6 months postpartum, while it was found at 9 months or 12 months postpartum in other three groups. There was no classical form of PPT in TPOAb-/TgAb- group, while in the other three groups, all three types (classical form, isolated thyrotoxicosis, isolated hypothyroidism) existed. At 2 years postpartum of the women with PPT, the rate of euthyroidism in TPOAb+/TgAb+group was significantly lower than that in TPOAb-/TgAb- group (p <0.05). At 3 years postpartum of the women with PPT, the rate of euthyroidism in TPOAb+/TgAb-, TPOAb-/TgAb+, and TPOAb+/TgAb+groups were significantly lower than that in TPOAb-/TgAb- group (p <0.05). The values of TPOAb and TgAb postpartum were significantly higher than those during pregnancy (p <0.05). The incidence of PROM in TPOAb+/TgAb- group was significantly higher than that in TPOAb-/TgAb- group (32.99 vs. 17.72%, p <0.05). The binary logistic regression for PPT showed that the OR value of TPOAb was 2.263 (95% CI 1.142-4.483, p=0.019). The OR value of TgAb was 3.112 (95% CI 1.700-5.697, p=0.000). In conclusion, pregnant women with positive thyroid auto-antibodies had an increased risk of PPT and a reduced rate of euthyroidism at 2 and 3 years postpartum. TPOAb is associated with the incidence of PROM. Both of TPOAb and TgAb were independent risk factors for PPT. TgAb deserves more attention when studying autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) combined with pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Hipotiroidismo , Nacimiento Prematuro , Autoanticuerpos , Femenino , Humanos , Hipotiroidismo/epidemiología , Recién Nacido , Yoduro Peroxidasa , Placenta , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Tiroglobulina
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(47): e31645, 2022 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451395

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: While thalassemia is a monogenic disease that is relatively common worldwide, there is no recognized radical cure for thalassemia in current medical practice. Prenatal diagnosis is the most important contribution to thalassemia prevention, but due to its technical limitations, rare thalassemia mutations cannot be detected; and the birth of thalassemic babies cannot be completely circumvented. Whole-exome sequencing can, however, compensate for this shortcoming. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the results of whole exon sequencing of amniotic cells in 5 pregnant women with thalassemia. DIAGNOSIS: Prenatal diagnosis revealed that 4 of them were α thalassemia carriers and 1 of them was ß thalassemia carrier. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: We collected amniotic fluid of 5 pregnant women (age range: 25-27 years, Mean ±â€…SD: 28 ±â€…1.8) with thalassemia. The gestational ages ranged between 16 and 19 weeks. The cells were separated from the amniotic fluid and passaged until a sufficient number of cells were obtained for exome sequencing. We therefore employed whole-exome sequencing of amniotic fluid cells from thalassemic carriers to validate prenatal diagnostic results and to identify novel mutation sites. We found that 4 of 5 samples are SEA which is consistent with the clinical prenatal diagnosis. However, 2 of 5 samples were point mutations in the HBB gene, and were thus different from the clinical prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The identifications from this study showed that prenatal diagnosis has limitations. Whole-exome sequencing can compensate for this shortcoming. And this study would add new insights into understanding of molecular mechanisms in thalassemia.


Asunto(s)
Mujeres Embarazadas , Talasemia alfa , Embarazo , Lactante , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Secuenciación del Exoma Completo , Líquido Amniótico , Parto , Talasemia alfa/diagnóstico , Talasemia alfa/genética
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 321, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451978

RESUMEN

Introduction: pregnancy is associated with sedentary behaviors and/or low levels of physical activity (PA). This study aimed to assess patterns, barriers, and facilitators of PA among pregnant women. Methods: a convergent parallel mixed method design study involving a concurrent collection of quantitative (n=198) and qualitative (n=36) data was carried out. Respondents were drawn from five selected health care facilities in Ile-Ife, Osun state, South-West, Nigeria. Physical activity was assessed using the pregnancy physical activity questionnaire. Focus group discussions were used to qualitatively explore barriers and facilitators of PA. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, while qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results: the mean total PA score for the population was 118.663±81.522 mets-min/wk. While it was 118.743±92.062 mets-min/wk, 113.861±72.854 mets-min/wk, and 25.429±87.766 mets-min/wk for the first, second, and third trimester respectively. The respondents engaged more in moderate (44.27±37.07) than vigorous (13.89±18.87) intensity PA. Respondents in the third trimester had the highest and the least scores for household-related PA (45.7±33.0) and vigorous-intensity PA (10.0±14.0) respectively. Major themes that emerged on enablers and barriers of PA engagement during pregnancy were related to intrapersonal, interpersonal, availability of specialized health personnel and policy for PA, good built environment/neighborhood factors, and pervading cultural beliefs and myths about pregnancy. Conclusion: moderate intensity and household-related PA were most common among Nigerian pregnant women. Contextual facilitators and barriers to PA during pregnancy were largely related to intrapersonal, interpersonal, environmental or organizational, policy, and cultural factors.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Mujeres Embarazadas , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Nigeria , Conducta Sedentaria , Negros
15.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e102, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36452399

RESUMEN

Zinc deficiency (ZD) during pregnancy has far-reaching consequences on the mother, fetus and subsequent child survival. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of ZD among pregnant women around Lake Awasa, Hawassa City, Ethiopia. To this end, a facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 333 randomly sampled pregnant women from 08 April to 08 May 2021. The socio-economic, dietary intake, water, sanitation and hygiene, obstetric, and maternal health data were collected through face-to-face interviews. Moreover, on-spot blood and stool samples were taken. Descriptive statistics and binary and multivariable logistic regression analysis were conducted. The prevalence of ZD was 58⋅6 % (95 % CI 53⋅31, 63⋅89). The poorest (AOR = 3⋅28; 95 % CI 1⋅26, 8⋅50) and poor (AOR = 2⋅93; 95 % CI 1⋅14, 7⋅54) wealth quintiles, four of more family size (AOR = 1⋅84, 95 % CI 1⋅10, 3⋅35), poor dietary diversity (AOR = 4⋅11; 95 % CI 2⋅11, 7⋅62), not eating snacks (AOR = 3⋅40; 95 % CI 1⋅42, 8⋅15), not consuming fish (AOR = 3⋅53; 95 % CI 1⋅65, 7⋅56) and chicken (AOR = 2⋅53; 95 % CI 1⋅31, 4⋅88) at least once a month, and intestinal parasitic infection (AOR = 2⋅78; 95 % CI 1⋅52, 5⋅08) predicted zinc deficiency. In conclusion, ZD is a public health problem among pregnant women around Lake Awasa. The present study demonstrated that poor socio-economic status, large family size, poor nutritional practices and intestinal parasitic infection determine the zinc status in the present study area. The findings suggest the need for further analysis to deepen the understanding about ZD and consideration of livelihood in interventions to prevent and control ZD among pregnant women in Hawassa City, Ethiopia.


Asunto(s)
Desnutrición , Enfermedades Parasitarias , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Mujeres Embarazadas , Lagos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Zinc
16.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0275609, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454984

RESUMEN

Alcohol is the most used substance by women of childbearing age. Alcohol exposed pregnancies can have serious consequences to the fetus, and the UK has one of the highest rates of drinking during pregnancy. Alcohol use during motherhood is also a public health concern, linked with potential harms to the woman and child. This qualitative study investigated the attitudes and experiences of pregnant/parenting women and healthcare professionals regarding maternal drinking. A semi-structured focus group and interviews were conducted in the North West of England with pregnant women, mothers, and healthcare professionals. Quantitative measures captured demographics, alcohol use, and screened for mental ill-health for pregnant women and mothers. Reflexive thematic analysis was used to analyse narratives. Findings revealed that most participants believed avoiding alcohol during pregnancy is the safest option. However, some pregnant women and mothers stated that there was insufficient evidence to demonstrate the harms of low-level drinking and that abstinence guidelines were patronising. All participants reported that low-level drinking during motherhood was acceptable. Heavy drinking was believed to pose serious harm during pregnancy and motherhood to the baby and mother, in addition to damaging relationships. Strong motives were revealed for choosing and avoiding to drink, such as coping with the difficulties of motherhood and parental responsibilities, respectively. Contradictions were found across quantitative and qualitative self-reports of consumption, reflecting potential underreporting of alcohol use. Additionally, drinking levels were discussed in extremes only (low/heavy) without considering 'grey area' drinking. Clear, consistent advice and guidelines are needed to support women in reducing their alcohol use during pregnancy and motherhood. These should include the unique potential risks regarding maternal drinking, and the harm attributable to non-clinically dependent alcohol use. The maternal participants in this study were middle-class, therefore, research is needed to capture the views and experiences of women of all socioeconomic backgrounds.


Asunto(s)
Madres , Mujeres Embarazadas , Embarazo , Lactante , Niño , Humanos , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Responsabilidad Parental , Etanol , Atención a la Salud
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2243, 2022 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457005

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is considered a significant global public health challenge with infectivity as well as estimated potential for transmission more than 50 to 100 times that of HIV. Over time, numerous empirical studies have shown that majority of HBV-related yearly global deaths are secondary to carcinoma of the liver. It is also known that HBV infected Women have the potential to transmit the infection vertically to their infants during pregnancy. This accounts for the WHO reported 3.16% prevalence among children less than 5 years of age in Uganda. This study assessed the predictors of HBV infection prevention practices among eligible consenting pregnant women using Lubaga health facility for antenatal care (ANC). METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study employing quantitative data collection based on the constructs of IMB model was used to capture data on the study variables among 385 randomly selected eligible pregnant women attending antenatal care at Lubaga hospital between September 2020 and October 2020. Data derived from the quantitative instrument was analysed by data reduction and transformation to summaries of descriptive statistics using (SPSS version 26) and regression analysis was performed to establish characteristics of the association between the variables with significance level set as (p < 0.05). Chi-square goodness-of-fit test was employed for significant differences in the proportion of dichotomous responses. RESULTS: The findings showed that more than half of the respondents (59%) were between the ages of 18 and 28 and majority of them (42.3%) had secondary education. Furthermore, an average but inadequate knowledge ([Formula: see text] 5.97 ± 6.61; B = 0.57; p < .001), positive perception ([Formula: see text] 17.10 ± 18.31; B = 0.97; p = .014) and good behavioural skills ([Formula: see text] 12.39 ± 13.37; B = 0.56; p < .001) for adopting prevention practices all statistically predicted the averagely acceptable level of prevention practices ([Formula: see text] 15.03 ± 16.20) among the study respondents as measured on rating scales of 12, 33, 21 and 30 respectively. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: There were observed gaps in their knowledge about some basic features of the infection like transmission and risk factors as well as some misperceptions about vaccination despite the relatively average score level for both, which is likely to influence their prevention behaviours and predispose them to the risk of the infection if actions are not taken. Therefore, personalized health education is needed during antenatal visits and subsequent health campaign in order to inform better prevention practices among this vulnerable population group.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B , Mujeres Embarazadas , Embarazo , Niño , Lactante , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Atención Prenatal , Motivación , Uganda/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Virus de la Hepatitis B , Hospitales
18.
Malar J ; 21(1): 360, 2022 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457056

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women have increased susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria and acquire protective antibodies over successive pregnancies. Most studies that investigated malaria antibody responses in pregnant women are from high transmission areas in sub-Saharan Africa, while reports from Latin America are scarce and inconsistent. The present study sought to explore the development of antibodies against P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax antigens in pregnant women living in a low transmission area in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, plasma samples from 408 pregnant women (of whom 111 were infected with P. falciparum, 96 had infections with P. falciparum and P. vivax, and 201 had no Plasmodium infection) were used to measure antibody levels. Levels of IgG and opsonizing antibody to pregnancy-specific variant surface antigens (VSAs) on infected erythrocytes (IEs), 10 recombinant VAR2CSA Duffy binding like (DBL domains), 10 non-pregnancy-specific P. falciparum merozoite antigens, and 10 P. vivax antigens were measured by flow cytometry, ELISA, and multiplex assays. Antibody levels and seropositivity among the groups were compared. RESULTS: Antibodies to VSAs on P. falciparum IEs were generally low but were higher in currently infected women and women with multiple P. falciparum episodes over pregnancy. Many women (21%-69%) had antibodies against each individual VAR2CSA DBL domain, and antibodies to DBLs correlated with each other (r ≥ 0.55, p < 0.0001), but not with antibody to VSA or history of infection. Infection with either malaria species was associated with higher seropositivity rate for antibodies against P. vivax proteins, adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) ranged from 5.6 (3.2, 9.7), p < 0.0001 for PVDBPII-Sal1 to 15.7 (8.3, 29.7), p < 0.0001 for PvTRAg_2. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant Brazilian women had low levels of antibodies to pregnancy-specific VSAs that increased with exposure. They frequently recognized both VAR2CSA DBL domains and P. vivax antigens, but only the latter varied with infection. Apparent antibody prevalence is highly dependent on the assay platform used.


Asunto(s)
Malaria Falciparum , Malaria Vivax , Malaria , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Plasmodium falciparum , Brasil/epidemiología , Plasmodium vivax , Mujeres Embarazadas , Estudios Prospectivos , Antígenos de Protozoos , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Malaria Vivax/epidemiología , Antígenos de Superficie
19.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 142, 2022 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457104

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Interventions that provide pregnant women with opportunities to access and participate in physical activity have been shown to be beneficial to their health. Much of this evidence however has been based on self-reported physical activity data, which may be prone to inflated effects due to recall bias and social desirability bias. No previous synthesis of randomised controlled trials has assessed the effectiveness of these interventions using only device measured data, to assess their health benefits more accurately in pregnant women. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to address this evidence gap. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, SportDiscus, APA PsycINFO, Embase and Web of Science databases were queried from inception up to December 2, 2021. An updated search of PubMed was conducted on May 16, 2022. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials that recruited pregnant women, participating in any physical activity intervention (excluding interventions aimed entirely at body conditioning), compared with standard antenatal care (comparators), using device-measured total physical activity as an outcome were eligible for inclusion. METHODS: 3144 titles and abstracts were screened for eligibility, and 18 met the inclusion criteria. Data were analysed using random effect models, (standardised mean difference and mean difference), using data from baseline to last available follow-up (primary end point), and until between 24 to 30 weeks gestation. Gestational weight gain was also assessed at these timepoints in the included trials. RESULTS: No significant differences between the groups were found for total physical activity at last available follow-up or 24 to 30 weeks gestation (95% CI 0.03 to 0.27, p = 0.10: 95% CI -0.05 to 0.33, p = 0.15) respectively. On average, pregnant women randomised to a physical activity intervention completed 435 and 449 more steps per day than comparators at last available follow-up and at 24 to 30 weeks gestation (95% CI -0.5-870.6, p = 0.05: 95% CI 5.5-892.7, p = 0.05) respectively. Intervention participants also gained 0.69 kg less (95% CI -1.30 to -0.08, p = 0.03) weight than comparators. CONCLUSION: Based on device-measured data, interventions to promote physical activity during pregnancy have small but important effects on increasing physical activity and managing excessive gestational weight gain.


Asunto(s)
Ganancia de Peso Gestacional , Mujeres Embarazadas , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Ejercicio Físico , Atención Prenatal , Autoinforme , Aumento de Peso , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
20.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 184(48)2022 11 28.
Artículo en Danés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458598

RESUMEN

A 31-year-old woman was admitted to the local department of endocrinology for control of known anti-TPO positive hypothyroidism during pregnancy. The clinician noticed a remarkable hyperpigmentation. Primary adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed and treatment with cortico- and mineralosteroids commenced. Diagnosis of primary adrenal insufficiency during pregnancy is challenging as many symptoms overlap with normal symptoms of pregnancy. The usual diagnostic criteria cannot be used due to the altered hormone concentrations during pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Addison , Hiperpigmentación , Hipotiroidismo , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Adulto , Mujeres Embarazadas , Enfermedad de Addison/complicaciones , Enfermedad de Addison/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Addison/tratamiento farmacológico , Hospitalización , Hiperpigmentación/diagnóstico , Hiperpigmentación/etiología , Hipotiroidismo/complicaciones , Hipotiroidismo/diagnóstico , Hipotiroidismo/tratamiento farmacológico
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