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1.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1323-1347, out.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-995102

RESUMEN

El presente artículo se propone sistematizar desde una perspectiva histórica los debates más significativos que promuevan, desde una posición crítica, la reflexión sobre lo femenino-masculino. En el marco de nuestra investigación se postula el enfoque histórico-social, como uno de los modos de comprensión de los procesos de producción de la subjetividad de género y de abordaje de lo femenino, a fin de contribuir a los debates actuales sobre la diversidad sexual, los feminismos y los estudios del género en general.(AU)


O presente artigo propõe sistematizar, a partir de uma perspectiva histórica, os debates mais significativos que promovem, desde uma posição crítica, a reflexão sobre o feminino-masculino. No marco de nossa pesquisa, a abordagem histórico-social é postulada como uma das formas de entender os processos de produção da subjetividade de gênero e de abordagem do feminino, a fim de contribuir para os debates atuais sobre a diversidade sexual, os feminismos e os estudos de gênero em geral.(AU)


The present article proposes to systematize, from a historical perspective, the most significant debates that promote, from a critical position, the reflection on the feminine-masculine. Within the framework of our research project, the socio-historical approach is proposed as the way to understand the process of gender subjectivity production and to approach the feminine, in order to contribute to the currents debates on sexual diversity, feminisms, and gender studies in general.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Argentina , Psicología , Mujeres/psicología , Feminismo , Historia
2.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(10): 634-640, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580726

RESUMEN

Women in math, science, and engineering (MSE) often face stereotype threat: they fear that their performance in MSE will confirm an existing negative stereotype-that women are bad at math-which in turn may impair their learning and performance in math. This research investigated if sexist nonverbal behavior of a male instructor could activate stereotype threat among women in a virtual classroom. In addition, the research examined if learners' avatar representation in virtual reality altered this nonverbal process. Specifically, a 2 (avatar gender: female vs. male) × 2 (instructor behavior: dominant sexist vs. nondominant or nonsexist) between-subjects experiment was used. Data from 76 female college students demonstrated that participants learned less and performed worse when interacting with a sexist male instructor compared with a nonsexist instructor in a virtual classroom. Participants learned and performed equally well when represented by female and male avatars. Our findings extend previous research in physical learning settings, suggesting that dominant-sexist behaviors may give rise to stereotype threat and undermine women's learning outcomes in virtual classrooms. Implications for gender achievement gaps and stereotype threat are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Matemática , Sexismo/psicología , Estereotipo , Realidad Virtual , Mujeres , Gráficos por Computador , Evaluación Educacional , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes , Mujeres/educación , Mujeres/psicología
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614511

RESUMEN

Residents in the Eastern Region, Ghana with access to improved water sources (e.g., boreholes and covered wells) often choose to collect water from unimproved sources (e.g., rivers and uncovered wells). To assess why, we conducted two field studies to coincide with Ghana's rainy and dry seasons. During the rainy season, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews among a convenience sample of 26 women in four rural communities (including one woman in the dry season). We asked each participant about their attitudes and perceptions of water sources. During the dry season, we observed four women for ≤4 days each to provide context for water collection and water source choice. We used a grounded theory approach considering the multiple household water sources and uses approach to identify three themes informing water source choice: collection of and access to water, water quality perception, and the dynamic interaction of these. Women selected water sources based on multiple factors, including season, accessibility, religious/spiritual messaging, community messaging (e.g., health risks), and ease-of-use (e.g., physical burden). Gender and power dynamics created structural barriers that affected the use of unimproved water sources. A larger role for women in water management and supply decision-making could advance population health goals.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua , Mujeres/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Ghana , Teoría Fundamentada , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estaciones del Año
4.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(6): 609-615, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489980

RESUMEN

Women's football has been far less studied than men's. This work's objectives were to: (1) analyze the differences in psychological skills, mental toughness (MT), and anxiety in women football players according to their level (national team, first division, and second division); and (2) predict those three levels (using a multivariate model) according to the players' psychological skills, mental toughness, and anxiety. One hundred and forty-two Icelandic women football players (23.5 ± 3.5 years) participated in the study. They were classified into three groups according to their level: national team, and first and second divisions. Three questionnaires were used: the Test of Performance Strategies Questionnaire, the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire, and the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 questionnaire. A one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc correction was used to examine differences between teams. Applying a classification tree analysis, the participants were classified into three groups according to their level. There were few differences between the three groups in psychological skills, but in mental toughness and anxiety the national team had the highest and lowest values respectively, and the first and second division players differed in relaxation in competition (TOPS), total score and confidence (SMTQ), and worry (SAS-2). The classification tree correctly classified 54.9% of the sample with the variables total score (SMTQ) and activation in practice (TOPS). Therefore, given the relevance that psychological attributes appear to have for women football players' performance, it would seem indispensable to incorporate the figure of the sports psychologist into national and club teams.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Atletas/psicología , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Fútbol/psicología , Mujeres/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Islandia , Adulto Joven
5.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 27: 34, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417671

RESUMEN

Background: There is insufficient evidence regarding psychosocial factors and its long-term association with persistent pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain. The overall aim of this study was to investigate women with persistent pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain 12 years postpartum based on psychosocial and behavioural characteristics using the Swedish version of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI-S) classification system. Material and methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on a previous cohort. Data collection took place through a questionnaire. A total of 295 women from the initial cohort (n = 639) responded to the questionnaire giving a response rate of 47.3%. To determine the relative risk (RR) of reporting pain 12 years postpartum, a robust modified Poisson regression was used. This is the first study using the MPI-S as a predictive variable on women with persistent pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain. Results: The MPI-S classification procedure was carried out on a total of n = 226 women, where 53 women were classified as interpersonally distressed (ID), 82 as dysfunctional (DYS), and 91 as adaptive copers (AC). Women in the ID and DYS subgroups had a relative risk (RR) of reporting persistent pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain 12 years postpartum that was more than twice as high compared to the AC subgroup (95% confidence interval (CI) in parenthesis): RR 2.57 (CI 1.76 - 3.75), p<0.0001 and RR 2.23 (CI 1.53 - 3.25), p<0.0001 respectively. Women in the DYS subgroup had more than 5 times increased risk of reporting sick leave the past 12 months compared to the AC subgroup (RR 5.44; CI 1.70 - 17.38, p=0.004). Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that it is possible to classify women with persistent pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain 12 years postpartum into relevant clinical subgroups based on psychosocial and behavioural characteristics using the MPI-S questionnaire.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de la Región Lumbar/psicología , Dolor Pélvico/psicología , Periodo Posparto/psicología , Complicaciones del Embarazo/psicología , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Suecia , Mujeres/psicología
6.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 445-463, maio-ago. 2019. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1010273

RESUMEN

Neste trabalho, analisamos as narrativas de mulheres negras sobre seus cabelos, nos cuidados e apresentação dos mesmos, que trazem suas experiências e reflexões sobre como essas (trans)formaram suas identidades. As falas analisadas foram recolhidas de blogs e portais de notícias, disponíveis na Internet, em textos dedicados a discutir relações raciais, racismo, estética negra e feminismos negros. Para a análise, tomamos como referencial teórico os trabalhos de autoras/es que discutem questões raciais e processos de produção da identidade. Na análise do material foi possível pensar, a partir dos olhares dessas mulheres, seus processos de subjetivação desde a infância, na relação com as gerações mais velhas e o cuidado estético cotidiano. Em suas narrativas, dialogadas com referências teóricas que discutem processos de produção de identidade, bem como relações étnico-raciais, emergem experiências atravessadas por episódios explícitos e sutis de racismo. Os resultados apontam para a necessidade de uma maior interlocução da Psicologia com referenciais feministas e anti-racistas na teorização de processos de subjetivação de mulheres negras.(AU)


In this work, we analyze the narratives of black women on their hair, selfcare practices and appearence, which bring their experiences and reflections on how these (trans)formed their identities. The speeches analyzed were collected from blogs and news portals, available on the Internet, in texts dedicated to discuss racial relations, racism, black aesthetics and black feminisms. For the analysis, we take as theoretical referent the work of authors that discuss racial issues and processes of identity production. In the analysis of the material it was possible to think, from the perspective of these women, their processes of subjectivation since childhood, the relation with the older generations, and the daily aesthetic selfcare. In their narratives, dialogued with theoretical references that discuss processes of production of identity, as well as ethnic-racial relations, emerge experiences crossed by explicit and subtle episodes of racism. The results point to the need for a greater interlocution of Psychology with feminists and anti-racists references to theorize the processes of subjectivation of black women.(AU)


En este trabajo, analizamos las narrativas de mujeres negras sobre sus cabellos, en los cuidados y presentación de los mismos, que traen sus experiencias y reflexiones sobre cómo estas (trans) formaron sus identidades. Las palabras analizadas fueron recogidas de blogs y portales de noticias, disponibles en Internet, en textos dedicados a discutir relaciones raciales, racismo, estética negra y feminismos negros. Para el análisis, tomamos como referencias teóricas los trabajos de autoras/es que discuten cuestiones raciales y procesos de producción de la identidad. En el análisis del material fue posible pensar, a partir de las miradas de esas mujeres, sus procesos de subjetivación desde la infancia, en la relación con las generaciones más viejas, y el cuidado estético cotidiano. En sus narrativas, dialogadas con referencias teóricas que discuten procesos de producción de identidad, así como relaciones étnico-raciales, emergen experiencias atravesadas por episodios explícitos y sutiles de racismo. Los resultados apuntan a la necesidad de una mayor interlocución de la Psicología con referencias feministas y antirracistas en la teorización de procesos de subjetivación de mujeres negras.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Racismo/psicología , Cabello , Mujeres/psicología , Feminismo
7.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 29(4): 216-224, jul.-ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-182915

RESUMEN

Objetivos: Comprender el universo emocional de mujeres cordobesas afectadas por hepatitis C. Método: Estudio cualitativo hermenéutico. Las participantes cumplían los criterios de inclusión de ser mujer mayor de edad, diagnosticada en la actualidad de hepatitis C y pertenecer a la Plataforma de Afectad@s por la Hepatitis C de Córdoba. El muestreo intencional fue de intensidad y nominado. La recogida de datos se realizó a través de entrevistas en profundidad. El análisis siguió 3niveles: explicación, comprensión superficial y comprensión en profundidad. En el segundo nivel, se incorporó la metáfora «universo de emociones», una taxonomía que organiza las emociones en conjuntos de galaxias para facilitar la comprensión de los fenómenos afectivos. Resultados: Se incluyó a 4 participantes. Los 7 temas resultado recorren las distintas galaxias del universo emocional de las mujeres. «Enfermedad maldita» explora su asco, tristeza y vergüenza. «Afectos íntimos» se detiene tanto en la felicidad y el amor como en la tristeza. «Plataforma amistad» profundiza en la comprensión, bienestar y afecto. «Médicos» se ocupa de la desconfianza y decepción con respecto al nuevo tratamiento; «cura», de la tristeza, miedo, ansiedad y esperanza. «Estado de malestar» se ocupa de la ansiedad. Y «acceso universal ya» explora su ira. Conclusiones: A pesar de la presencia del amor, en el complejo universo emocional de las mujeres con hepatitis C destacan la ira, tristeza y ansiedad. Una hermenéutica de sus emociones facilita la humanización tanto de los cuidados de enfermería que reciben como de la investigación de la que son objeto


Objectives: Understanding the emotional universe of women from Cordoba affected by hepatitis C. Method: Hermeneutic qualitative study. Participants met the criteria of being adult women with a current diagnosis of hepatitis C and belonging to the Plataforma de Afectad@s por la Hepatitis C of Cordoba. The intentional sampling was nominated and followed a criterion of intensity. Data collection was conducted through in-depth interviews. The analysis took place in 3levels: Explanation, naïve understanding and in-depth understanding. In the second level, the metaphor universe of emotions was incorporated, which is a taxonomy that organizes emotions into clusters of galaxies to facilitate understanding of affective phenomena. Results: Four participants were included. Seven themes roam the galaxies in the emotional universe of women. «Damned disease» explores their disgust, sadness and shame. «Intimate affections» focuses on happiness and love as well as sadness. «Friendship-platform» focuses on understanding, welfare and affection. «Physicians» deal with distrust and disappointment regarding new treatment, and with «curing» sadness, fear, anxiety and hope. «State of ill-being» focuses on anxiety. And «universal access now» explores anger. Conclusions: Despite the presence of love in the complex emotional universe of women with hepatitis C, anger, sadness and anxiety are highlighted. Hermeneutics of their emotions facilitates nursing care and nursing research humanization


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Mujeres/psicología , Atención de Enfermería/psicología , Apoyo Social , Hepatitis C/psicología , Análisis Cualitativo , Hermenéutica , Investigación Cualitativa
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 962, 2019 Jul 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319828

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: India faces a high burden of child undernutrition. We evaluated the effects of two community strategies to reduce undernutrition among children under 3 years in rural Jharkhand and Odisha, eastern India: (1) monthly Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) meetings with women's groups followed by home visits; (2) crèches for children aged 6 months to 3 years combined with monthly PLA meetings and home visits. METHODS: We tested these strategies in a non-randomised, controlled study with baseline and endline cross-sectional surveys. We purposively selected five blocks of Jharkhand and Odisha, and divided each block into three areas. Area 1 served as control. In Area 2, trained local female workers facilitated PLA meetings and offered counselling to mothers of children under three at home. In Area 3, workers facilitated PLA meetings, did home visits, and crèches with food and growth monitoring were opened for children aged 6 months to 3 years. We did a census across all study areas and randomly sampled 4668 children under three and their mothers for interview and anthropometry at baseline and endline. The evaluation's primary outcome was wasting among children under three in areas 2 and 3 compared with area 1, adjusted for baseline differences between areas. Other outcomes included underweight, stunting, preventive and care-seeking practices for children. RESULTS: We interviewed 83% (3868/4668) of mothers of children under three sampled at baseline, and 76% (3563/4668) at endline. In area 2 (PLA and home visits), wasting among children under three was reduced by 34% (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 0.66, 95%: 0.51-0.88) and underweight by 25% (aOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.95), with no change in stunting (aOR: 1.23, 95% CI: 0.96-1.57). In area 3, (PLA, home visits, crèches), wasting was reduced by 27% (aOR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55-0.97), underweight by 40% (aOR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.47-0.75), and stunting by 27% (aOR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Crèches, PLA meetings and home visits reduced undernutrition among children under three in rural eastern India. These interventions could be scaled up through government plans to strengthen home visits and community mobilisation with Accredited Social Health Activists, and through efforts to promote crèches. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The evaluation was registered retrospectively with Current Controlled Trials as ISCRTN89911047 on 30/01/2019.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/terapia , Consejo/métodos , Desnutrición/terapia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Mujeres/psicología , Adulto , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/psicología , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Visita Domiciliaria , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Lactante , Masculino , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Desnutrición/psicología , Madres/psicología , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados no Aleatorios como Asunto , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Población Rural
9.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010415, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217959

RESUMEN

Background: The global development community has increasingly come to frame preventable maternal mortality and morbidity principally as a violation of women's basic human rights, necessitating a human rights-based approach to be appropriately addressed. In this article, we explore how human rights are understood and perceived in relation to maternal health at the local level in rural Bangladesh. This is essential given the momentum at the global level to promote rights and apply rights-based approaches to maternal health. Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional household survey was conducted in three upazilas (sub-districts) of Brahmanbaria district, Bangladesh in 2018. A total of 1367 women with a birth outcome in the past 12 months were interviewed. Descriptive statistics were used to report the awareness and perceptions of human rights related to maternal health. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify the associations between awareness and perceptions of human rights and background characteristics and, finally, with the use of skilled maternal health services. Results: Over two-thirds of women reported that they were aware that women have human rights related to maternal health. However, less than 10% were able to mention at least three specific human rights related to maternal health. Half of the women mentioned husbands as duty-bearers, while only 20% mentioned the government as a duty-bearer. One-third of women reported that they are able to realize their rights related to maternal health satisfactorily. Awareness and perceptions of human rights related to maternal health were significantly associated with higher educational attainment and wealth status. They were also associated with increased use of antenatal care. Conclusions: These findings suggest that interventions promoting the awareness of human rights related to maternal health would be appropriate within the communities of rural Bangladesh as part of a broader human rights-based approach to improving maternal health.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Derechos Humanos , Salud Materna , Población Rural , Mujeres/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
10.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(2): 379-384, 2019 Jun 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232075

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Surgical treatment due to brest cancer have an impact on women sexuality. There is a need for research about effective indications for sexology consultation in women after such treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the indications for sexology consultation in women after surgical treatment for breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We tested 42 women patients diagnosed with breast cancer who had undergone mastectomy 3 months before the study. 3 months after the surgery the women were surveyed using the Polish version of FSFI assessing sexual functioning in women. The result of PL-FSFI were compared with the control group. RESULTS: It was found that the mean score of PL-FSFI in the study group 3 months after the surgery was 13.33 points (score range: 1.2-31.7; median 8.3 points) with a statistically significant difference in terms of areas: desire, arousal, lubrication and orgasm in favour of the control group. The total score of PL-FSFI was significantly lower in women after mastectomy than in women after breast-conserving surgery. It has been shown that sexually active women in whom the surgery concerned the right breast (on the side of the dominant hand) scored lower on the scale "sexual functioning" of QLQ-BR-23 than women with surgery of the left breast, with this difference being statistically significant. There was a statistically significant correlation between the baseline performance status on the Zubrod scale and the scales: desire, lubrication and satisfaction of PL-FSFI. Living in a small town proved to be statistically significant for predicting a lower risk of sexual dysfunction among the surveyed women. CONCLUSIONS: The women who underwent surgery due to breast cancer had a higher risk of sexual dysfunction compared to the general population. Higher risk of sexual dysfunction especially concerns women after mastectomy, those who underwent breast surgery on the side of the dominant hand, and those with a worse preoperative overall level of functioning of > = 1 point on the Zubrod scale. A lower risk of disorders was observed in women living in smaller towns. The above factors indicate the advisability for sexology consultation in women with breast cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/psicología , Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Mujeres/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mastectomía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Derivación y Consulta , Sexología , Conducta Sexual
11.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 90, 2019 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248425

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Preterm Birth Initiative-Rwanda is conducting a 36-cluster randomized controlled trial of group antenatal and postnatal care. In the context of this trial, we collected qualitative data before and after implementation. The purpose was two-fold. First, to inform the design of the group care program before implementation and second, to document women's experiences of group care at the mid-point of the trial to make ongoing programmatic adjustments and improvements. METHODS: We completed 8 focus group discussions among women of reproductive age before group care implementation and 6 focus group discussions among women who participated in group antenatal care and/or postnatal care at 18 health centers that introduced the model, approximately 9 months after implementation. RESULTS: Before implementation, focus group participants reported both enthusiasm for the potential for support and insight from a group of peers and concern about the risk of sharing private information with peers who may judge, mock, or gossip. After implementation, group care participants reported benefits including increased knowledge, peer support, and more satisfying relationships with providers. When asked about barriers to group care participation, none of them cited concern about privacy but instead cited lack of financial resources, lack of cooperation from a male partner, and long distances to the health center. Finally, women stated that the group care experience would be improved if all participants and providers arrived on time and remained focused on the group care visit throughout. DISCUSSION: These results are consistent with other published reports of women's perceptions of group antenatal care, especially increased pregnancy- and parenting-related knowledge, peer support, and improved relationships with health care providers. Some results were unexpected, especially the consequences of staff allocation patterns that resulted in providers arriving late for group visits or having to leave during group visits to attend to other facility services, which diminished women's experiences of care. CONCLUSION: Group antenatal and postnatal care provide compelling benefits to women and families. If the model requires the addition of human resources at the health center, intensive reminder communications, and large-scale community outreach to benefit the largest number of pregnant and postnatal mothers, those additional resources required must be factored into any future decision to scale a group care model. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03154177 .


Asunto(s)
Grupos Focales , Personal de Salud/psicología , Implementación de Plan de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Planificación en Salud/organización & administración , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Prenatal/organización & administración , Mujeres/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa , Rwanda , Mujeres/educación , Adulto Joven
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(Suppl 4): 639, 2019 Jun 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196029

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous studies show that there is a changing trend of sexual and reproductive behaviour among youth and this requires more attention and awareness especially on sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of sexually transmitted diseases among selected inmates of women shelter homes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out by involving 60 participants whom aged in between 13 to 25 years old. The questionnaires were developed in 'Bahasa Melayu' and it has been anonymous guided questionnaires. RESULTS: The result showed that the mean age of the participants was 17.9 years old and most of the participants have completed secondary school (91.7%). Overall, the level of knowledge of participants on STDs were classified into three groups; 'high knowledge' (33.3%), 'medium knowledge' (35.0%) and 'low knowledge' (31.7%). The majority have heard of HIV/AIDS (95%) but with respect to other STDs was less well known. Whereas, the mean score for attitude was 23.1 out total 25. Their knowledge level was not influenced by their age (p = 0.61) and socio-economic status (p = 0.85). However, their attitude was influenced by their age (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Knowledge on non-HIV STDs is still lacking and risky behaviours have been practiced. Although there were high level of knowledge and attitude among them but their practice on sexuality contradicts it especially on contraceptive use and pre-marital sex.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/psicología , Mujeres/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Conducta Anticonceptiva/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
13.
Body Image ; 30: 121-126, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238277

RESUMEN

Contrary to previous literature, recent studies have indicated that African American women are reporting similar rates of body dissatisfaction as their European American counterparts. Yet, little is known about contextual factors, such as gendered racial microaggressions and their association with body appreciation, and whether appearance contingent self-worth accounts for this relationship. Consistent with intersectionality theory, this study examined appearance-contingent self-worth as a mediator between stress related to experiencing sexually objectifying gendered racial microaggressions and body appreciation. African American emerging adult women (N = 143), predominately from the Southern United States, completed a self-report measure of gendered racial microaggressions, appearance contingent self-worth, and body appreciation. Results demonstrated that appearance contingent self-worth, at least in part, mediated the relationship between stress related to gendered racial microaggressions and African American women's appreciation for their bodies. It is imperative future body image interventions aimed at African American emerging adult women address factors, such as appearance contingent self-worth and gendered racial microaggressions, in their efforts improve body appreciation.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/psicología , Imagen Corporal/psicología , Racismo/psicología , Autoimagen , Sexismo/psicología , Mujeres/psicología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
14.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(5): 361-367, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097677

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: There has been considerable discussion about anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in women, with some calling for anorectal CT screening, but little about anorectal Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). Given that urogenital NG is more strongly associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, this is an evidence gap. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the associations between anorectal CT in women and CT positivity at other sites (urogenital/oropharyngeal) and with anal intercourse, and compares these with anorectal NG within the same study populations. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for English-language studies published to October 2018 using the following terms: ("Chlamydia" OR "Chlamydia trachomatis") AND (("anal" OR "rect*" OR "anorect*") OR ("extra?genital" OR "multi?site")). Studies were included if anorectal NG data were available. Random-effects meta-analyses calculated pooled estimates; heterogeneity was investigated using meta-regression. RESULTS: 25 studies were eligible. Anorectal CT positivity ranged from 0% to 17.5%, with a summary estimate of 8.0% (95% CI 7.0 to 9.1; I2=88.5%). Anorectal NG positivity ranged from 0% to 17.0%, with a summary estimate of 2.1% (95% CI 1.6 to 2.8; I2=92.7%). The association between urogenital and anorectal positivity was stronger for NG than CT (summary prevalence ratio (PR)=89.3 (95% CI 53.1 to 150.3; I2=80.1%), PR=32.2 (95% CI 25.6 to 40.7; I2=70.3%), respectively), and between oropharyngeal and anorectal positivity it was stronger for NG than CT (PR=34.8 (95% CI 10.2 to 118.2; I2=89.9%), PR=8.8 (95% CI 6.8 to 11.5; I2=58.1%), respectively). Anal intercourse was associated with anorectal NG (PR=4.3; 95% CI 2.2 to 8.6; I2=0.0%) but not with anorectal CT (PR=1.0; 95% CI 0.7 to 1.4; I2=0.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Anorectal CT is more common than anorectal NG, but anorectal NG is more strongly associated with anal intercourse, urogenital and oropharyngeal NG, suggesting that ongoing discussion about anorectal CT should also include NG. Longitudinal data are required to further understanding of the aetiology of anorectal STIs and assess whether anorectal screening is needed in women. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42df017080188.


Asunto(s)
Canal Anal/microbiología , Infecciones por Chlamydia/microbiología , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , Gonorrea/microbiología , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/aislamiento & purificación , Recto/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecciones por Chlamydia/psicología , Chlamydia trachomatis/clasificación , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Femenino , Gonorrea/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/clasificación , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Mujeres/psicología , Adulto Joven
15.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 116(6): 885-898, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033311

RESUMEN

Exposure to sexual objectification is an everyday experience for many women, yet little is known about its emotional consequences. Fredrickson and Roberts' (1997) objectification theory proposed a within-person process, wherein exposure to sexual objectification causes women to adopt a third-person perspective on their bodies, labeled self-objectification, which has harmful downstream consequences for their emotional well-being. However, previous studies have only tested this model at the between-person level, making them unreliable sources of inference about the proposed intraindividual psychological consequences of objectification. Here, we report the results of Bayesian multilevel structural equation models that simultaneously tested Fredrickson and Roberts' (1997) predictions both within and between persons, using data from 3 ecological momentary assessment (EMA) studies of women's (N = 268) experiences of sexual objectification in daily life. Our findings support the predicted within-person indirect effect of exposure to sexual objectification on increases in negative and self-conscious emotions via self-objectification. However, lagged analyses suggest that the within-person indirect emotional consequences of exposure to sexual objectification may be relatively fleeting. Our findings advance research on sexual objectification by providing the first comprehensive test of the within-person process proposed by Fredrickson and Roberts' (1997) objectification theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Deshumanización , Emociones , Sexismo/psicología , Mujeres/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Australia , Teorema de Bayes , Evaluación Ecológica Momentánea , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Missouri , Autoimagen , Adulto Joven
16.
Women Birth ; 32(6): e552-e559, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930037

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM: Pregnancy is constructed as a joy-filled and natural experience with a taken-for-granted expectation that the outcome will be a healthy baby. However, in South Africa approximately 1 in 4 pregnancies end in miscarriage and the stillbirth rate is 24 per 100 live births. Despite the overwhelming statistics, reproductive loss is considered a cultural taboo and continues to be silenced in various ways by the medical fraternity and society in general. AIM: Our study aimed to demonstrate the role that biomedical discourses play in shaping both women's experiences of reproductive loss as well as how those close to them respond to these losses. The study was located within a social constructionist framework. METHODS: Seven South African women were recruited via snowball sampling to participate in in-depth interviews. A discourse analysis was conducted to deconstruct hegemonic discourses implicit in the participants' dialogues. FINDINGS: The adoption of medical framing of miscarriage and the social awkwardness of loss framed the participants talk about their miscarriages. Our study highlights the centrality of biomedical discourses in influencing both the experiences of our participants as well shaping social discourses. The adoption of the medical framing of miscarriage were identified in the following themes: no answers to first trimester miscarriage and the normalization of miscarriage. The social awkwardness of loss were identified as lack of cultural scripts, lack of acknowledgement and unhelpful words and actions. CONCLUSION: The paper highlights the power inherent in medicine and demonstrates how this hegemony pervades societal understandings of reproductive loss. Caught in this crossfire are grieving mothers with few alternatives in terms of their grief processes.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Espontáneo , Mortinato , Mujeres/psicología , Femenino , Pesar , Humanos , Embarazo , Sudáfrica
17.
Bioanalysis ; 11(7): 667-669, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997814

RESUMEN

Biography Shefali R Patel is a Senior Scientist and a Group leader in the Bioanalytical Group within DMPK Department at Janssen (a Johnson & Johnson company). In her current role, she is supervising the nonregulated bioanalysis group within East Coast Bioanalytical Department. Also, as a part of her current role, she is applying microsampling techniques for rodent studies within Johnson & Johnson. She has 17 years of experience in Bioanalytical Sciences. Before joining Janssen in 2007, Shefali was a Research Chemist with Drug Metabolism Department for Merck Research Laboratories in Rahway, NJ, USA. Prior to Merck, she was employed as Scientist with Taylor Technology (CRO) in Princeton, NJ, USA.


Asunto(s)
Selección de Profesión , Química Analítica , Identidad de Género , Diversidad Cultural , Industria Farmacéutica , Humanos , Mujeres/psicología , Lugar de Trabajo
18.
Bioanalysis ; 11(7): 663-664, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997822

RESUMEN

Biography Binodh DeSilva, PhD Vice President Analytical Strategy & Operations at Bristol-Myer Squibb (BMS) Company in New Brunswick, NJ, USA. She is responsible for leading the regulated analytical (small and large molecule), microbiology and industrial hygiene laboratories as well as the Chemistry, Manufacturing & Controls (CMC) regulatory document management functions in Product Development. She received her Bachelor's in Analytical Chemistry from the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka in 1987, and a PhD in Chemistry (Bioanalytical) in 1994 from the University of Kansas. She was a Post-Doctoral Research Associate in the Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department at the University of Kansas from 1994 to 1995. She was at Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Norwich, NY, USA, from 1995 to 2001 and at Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA leading the bioanalytical team from 2001 to 2010. She joined BMS in November of 2010. Dr DeSilva is the Past President of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. In addition, she is a member of the American Chemical Society, Association for Women in Science, and the Health Care Business Women's Association NY/NJ metro chapter.


Asunto(s)
Selección de Profesión , Química Analítica , Identidad de Género , Movilidad Laboral , Empatía , Humanos , Industrias , Mujeres/psicología
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(1): e20180008, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994752

RESUMEN

The study aimed to know the daily life of women with alcoholic companions and the provided care. This is a comprehensive-interpretative, qualitative study, guided by the thematic Oral History method. Data collection occurred by semistructured interview. The empirical material was subjected to content analysis under the light of the King's Theory of Goal Attainment. Women are frustrated and frightened by the alcoholic companion's behavior and lifestyle, and still feel judged by society. Many abandon their life projects and self-care due to the overload caused by the companion's absence in the care of home and children. The family care they develop focuses on maintaining the family and protecting from further damage. The study revealed that these women are sick due to the companion's dependence and, even supporting a type of family care, they cannot control the effects of the alcohol in the family. This reinforces the need for health professionals' greater bond and involvement, establishing therapeutic projects in which women feel involved and, at the same time, supported.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas/psicología , Alcoholismo/psicología , Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Esposos/psicología , Mujeres/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Salud de la Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Medio Social , Adulto Joven
20.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22(3): e25247, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869200

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Limited data exist on acceptability of candidate pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) regimens among US women. We evaluated PrEP experiences, attitudes and future use intentions among sexually active women who completed the US-based HIV Prevention Trials Network 069/AIDS Clinical Trials Group 5305 study. METHODS: Women participated in the study between March 2013 and November 2015. We analysed computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) surveys among 130 women and conducted in-depth interviews among a subset of 26 women from three sites. Interviews were conducted in mid/late-2015. RESULTS: Most women (57%) reported very good/excellent PrEP adherence on CASI, although 21% acknowledged over-reporting adherence at least some of the time. Commitment to preventing HIV infection, a sense of ownership of the study, and keeping pills stored in a visible location facilitated adherence. Adherence barriers included "simply forgetting" and being away from home. Most women interviewed did not intend to use PrEP in the future because of lack of perceived need due to their own (as opposed to their partners') low-risk behaviour and concerns about affordability - but not because of side effects or other characteristics of the regimens. DISCUSSION: Improving HIV prevention options for US women will require access to affordable PrEP as well as expanding women's understanding of relationship- and community-level factors that increase their risk of acquiring HIV.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Estudios Prospectivos , Asunción de Riesgos , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Mujeres/psicología , Adulto Joven
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