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1.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 39(10): 1260-1264, 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801704

RESUMEN

In the field of bilingualism research, a key scientific question is how bilinguals process two language systems, particularly the effective switch from one language to another, namely bilingual code switching. With the rapid development of neuroimaging techniques, important progresses have been made in bilingual processing studies, especially in code switching. However, consensus has not been achieved regarding the mechanisms of bilingual code switching. Bilingual switching studies using neuropsychological and neuroimaging techniques have gained insights into the temporal and spatial features of the language switching process and the neurological mechanism, which provide direct evidence for the generation mechanism of bilingual code switching.


Asunto(s)
Multilingüismo , Neuroimagen , Humanos , Lenguaje
2.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 335, 2019 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775730

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised regarding the efficacy and safety resulting from the potential interactions of herbs with Western medications due to the use of both herbs and Western medicine by the general public. Information obtained from the web must be critically evaluated prior to its use in making decisions. DESCRIPTION: This study aimed to construct an herb-drug interaction (HDI) website (https://drug-herb-interaction.netlify.com) with a critically reviewed database. Node.js was used to store the database by running JavaScript. Vue.js is a front-end framework used for web interface development. A total of 135 sets of information related to the interactions of ginseng, ginkgo and dong quai with Western medicine from the literature identified in Medline were collected, followed by critical reviews to prepare nineteen items of information for each HDI monograph. A total of 80 sets of validated HDIs met all criteria and were further assessed at the individual reliability level (likely, possible, and unevaluable) and labeled with the "interaction" item. This query system of the website can be operated in both the Chinese and English languages to obtain all monographs on HDIs in the database, including bilingual interaction data. The database of HDI monographs can be updated by simply uploading a new version of the information Excel file. The designed "smart search" module, in addition to the "single search", is convenient for requesting multiple searches. Among the "likely" interactions (n = 26), 50% show negative HDIs. Ten of these can increase the effect of the Western drug, and the others (n = 3) imply that the HDI can be beneficial. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides a website platform and 80 sets of validated bilingual HDIs involving ginseng, ginkgo and dong quai in an online database. A search of HDI monographs related to these three herbs can be performed with this bilingual, easy-to-use query website, which is feasible for professionals and the general public. The identified reliability level for each HDI may assist readers' decisions regarding whether taking Western medications concomitant with one of three herbal medicinal foods is safe or whether caution is required due to potentially serious outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Bases de Datos Farmacéuticas , Interacciones de Hierba-Droga , Multilingüismo , Interfaz Usuario-Computador , Competencia Cultural , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Ginkgo biloba , Humanos , Internet , Panax , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
3.
Codas ; 31(5): e20180217, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644717

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To compare the ability to recognize sentences in silence and in noise in monolingual normal-hearing Brazilian Portuguese speakers, and bilingual speakers of Brazilian Portuguese and German, and bilingual speakers of Brazilian Portuguese and Italian, as well as to analyze the influence of age of second language acquisition on the performance of bilinguals. METHODS: 87 normal-hearing individuals aged between 18 and 55 years participated of this research. They were categorized into: Control Group, composed by 30 monolingual Brazilian Portuguese speakers; German Research Group, 31 simultaneous bilingual native speakers of Portuguese and speakers of German as a second language and; Italian Research Group, consisting of 26 successive bilinguals, native speakers of Portuguese and speakers of Italian as a second language. The Sentence List Test in Brazilian Portuguese was used to measure their Sentence Recognition Thresholds in Silence and Noise. RESULTS: In silence, there were no statistically significant differences in performance when comparing the bilingual to the monolingual individuals, and when comparing the bilingual speakers among themselves. On the other hand, in noise, there was a significant difference between the bilingual groups and the monolingual one. However, there were no significant differences between the bilingual groups when their performance was compared. CONCLUSION: Bilingualism positively influenced the development of language and listening skills, which led the bilinguals to outperform in speech recognition in the presence of noise. Also, the period of a second language acquisition did not influence bilingual performance.


Asunto(s)
Multilingüismo , Ruido , Percepción del Habla/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prueba del Umbral de Recepción del Habla , Adulto Joven
4.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102924, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465976

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible interaction between syntactic and lexical properties of the target language (TL) in consecutive translation. To this end, participants read sentences in the source language (SL) to translate them into the TL (reading for translation) or to repeat them in the same language (reading for repetition). The cognate status of words at the beginning and at the end of sentences and the congruency in the syntactic structure of sentences in the SL and TL were manipulated. The results showed coactivation of the syntactic and lexical properties of the TL in the middle and final regions of the sentence. In addition, in the reading for translation, an interaction was observed between the cognate status and the syntactic congruency at the end of the sentence. The pattern of results suggests that the time course of syntactic and lexical activation in translation is interactive.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Multilingüismo , Lectura , Traducción , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1449-1450, 2019 Aug 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438175

RESUMEN

Terminology facilitates consistent use and semantic integration of heterogeneous, multimodal data within and across domains. This paper presents TBench (Termilology Workbench) for multilingual terminology editing and development within a distributed environment. TBench is a web-service Java tool consisting of two main functionalities that are knowledge construction (i.e.extended model based on ISO25964, batch reusing and constructing multilingual concept hierarchy and relationships) and collaborative control in order to achieve custom extensions, reuse, multilingual alignment, integration and refactoring.


Asunto(s)
Multilingüismo , Semántica , Programas Informáticos , Vocabulario Controlado
6.
Behav Res Methods ; 51(4): 1889-1918, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376074

RESUMEN

Compared to early language development, later changes to the language system during orthography and literacy acquisition have not yet been researched in detail. We present a longitudinal corpus of texts on short picture stories written by German primary school children between grades 2 and 4 and grades 3 and 4. It includes 1,922 texts with 212,505 tokens (6,364 types) from 251 children. For each text, rich metadata is available, including age, grade and linguistic background (at least 60% of the children were multilingual). To our knowledge, our corpus is the largest longitudinal corpus of written texts by children at primary school age. Each word is included in its original spelling as well as in a normalized form (target hypothesis), specifying the intended word form, which we corrected for orthographic but not grammatical errors. Original and target word forms are aligned character-wise and the target word forms are enriched with phonological, syllabic, and morphological information. Additionally, for each target word form, we established key lexical variables, e.g., word frequency or summed bigram frequency, as specified in childLex. Where applicable, we also specify key features of German orthography (e.g., consonant doubling, vowel-lengthening ). Taken together, this information allows for a detailed assessment of the properties of words that tend to increase the likelihood of spelling errors. The corpus is available in different formats-as tab-delimited annotated token and type based lists, in an XML format, and via the corpus search tool ANNIS.


Asunto(s)
Escritura , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Lingüística , Masculino , Multilingüismo , Instituciones Académicas
7.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102906, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404743

RESUMEN

The present study examined structural alignment (prepositional object dative and double object dative) and its prosocial effects in Spanish-English bilinguals (English L2) and native English speakers (English L1). A scripted picture description paradigm in which a confederate and participant alternately described pictures was used. L1 and L2 speakers of English displayed comparable levels of structural alignment. In a second phase of the experiment we show that after being exposed to structural alignment by the confederate, L1 but not L2 participants displayed an increase in prosocial behavior as reflected by the time they were willing to help with an extra task. Possible explanations and implications are then discussed.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Multilingüismo , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Conducta Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
8.
Nurs Res ; 68(5): 348-357, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464828

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Through its influence on social interactions, simpatía may have a wide-ranging influence on Latinx health. Simpatía-which does not have a direct English translation-refers to being perceived as likeable, pleasant, and easygoing. Research to investigate the influence simpatía on Latinx health is limited, likely due to a lack of options for measuring simpatía among diverse Latinx populations. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this research was to develop a bilingual, survey-based simpatía scale for use among ethnically diverse Latinx adults in health-related settings. METHODS: Data were obtained through a telephone survey data of 1,296 Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban American adults living in the United States. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish. Exploratory factor analysis, item response theory analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and computation of estimates of internal consistency reliability were conducted to inform the development of the final simpatía scale. RESULTS: Results indicate that the final, nine-item, simpatía scale has high internal consistency (α = .83) and measurement invariance among Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban American adults. Two dimensions were identified, as indicated by a perceptions subscale and a behavior subscale. Cuban Americans were found to have the highest simpatía scores, followed by Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. DISCUSSION: Culture is often identified as a powerful potential influence on health-related behaviors, but measures are often not available to assess specific cultural traits. By developing a new tool for measuring simpatía, this research advances opportunities for understanding and promoting Latinx health.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/etnología , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Americanos Mexicanos/psicología , Multilingüismo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Anciano , Cuba/etnología , Características Culturales , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Puerto Rico/etnología , Investigación Cualitativa , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estados Unidos
9.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(9): 2411-2421, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297570

RESUMEN

This study investigated the effects of declined accommodation on reading performance in non-native and native languages. Eighteen native Japanese speakers participated: eight presbyopes and ten non-presbyopes. In the experiment, participants were asked to scan, or sequentially read six-word items presented in two-line texts, identify a non-word target as quickly as possible, and indicate its location. In addition to the participant type (presbyopes/non-presbyopes) and language of the reading material (Japanese/English), viewing distance (35 cm/70 cm) and contrast (18%/100%) were manipulated. The results showed that the presbyopes exhibited worse reading performance than the non-presbyopes at closer distances irrespective of the language. Notably, the inferiority of the presbyopes' reading performance was more pronounced when they read in a non-native language than in their native language. It should be noted that differences in reading performance between the presbyopes and non-presbyopes were subtle for high-contrast words at longer viewing distances, indicating that age- or cohort-related perceptual, motor, and cognitive differences were almost negligible, but accommodation mattered. These results suggest that the effect of accommodation decline is influenced by the language of the reading material.


Asunto(s)
Acomodación Ocular/fisiología , Multilingüismo , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos/fisiología , Presbiopía/fisiopatología , Lectura , Adulto , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
10.
J Integr Neurosci ; 18(2): 107-115, 2019 06 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321951

RESUMEN

To evaluate transcranial direct current stimulation-induced changes in resting state quantitative EEG and cognitive-verbal performance of second language learners, 16 healthy individuals were randomly recruited to sham and real transcranial direct current stimulation groups receiving eight sessions of second language instruction accompanied by a 2 mA transcranial direct current stimulation over Broca's area with the cathode placed over the left arm. Quantitative EEG was recorded during the resting state after the stimulation session and second language instruction. Reduced theta activity at Fp1, F7, F3, and T5 caused by the stimulus current was reported. Multisession stimulation resulted in a significant increase in current density for beta power (25 Hz) in the language network. Cognitive-verbal pre-post stimulation performances suggest that anodal vs. sham transcranial direct current stimulation significantly improved the subjects test score on digit span, a cognitive-verbal ability. It is concluded that transcranial direct current stimulation of Broca's area increase cognitive-verbal performance by modulating brain electrical activity in language-related regions.


Asunto(s)
Área de Broca/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Multilingüismo , Adulto , Ritmo beta , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Vías Nerviosas/fisiología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Ritmo Teta , Estimulación Transcraneal de Corriente Directa , Adulto Joven
11.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 198: 102884, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306968

RESUMEN

Bilingual models diverge in whether they assume that language control is domain general. Most studies that investigated this claim focused on bilingual language production and relied on the comparison between language switching and task switching. In the current study, we set out to investigate whether language control is domain general in a different context (i.e., bilingual language comprehension) and with a different paradigm (i.e., the flanker task). To this end, we let French-English bilinguals perform a bilingual (flankers are words from the same or different language as the target word) and a non-linguistic (numerical magnitude with digits) flanker task. The results showed that there was no difference in the language congruency effect between participants with a high and low non-linguistic congruency effect. These results indicate that there is no substantial overlap in the mechanisms involved in comprehension-based language control and executive control.


Asunto(s)
Función Ejecutiva/fisiología , Multilingüismo , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Masculino , Adulto Joven
12.
Dev Sci ; 22(5): e12875, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162875

RESUMEN

In many low- and middle-income countries, young children learn a mother tongue or indigenous language at home before entering the formal education system where they will need to understand and speak a country's official language(s). Thus, assessments of children before school age, conducted in a nation's official language, may not fully reflect a child's development, underscoring the importance of test translation and adaptation. To examine differences in vocabulary development by language of assessment, we adapted and validated instruments to measure developmental outcomes, including expressive and receptive vocabulary. We assessed 505 2-to-6-year-old children in rural communities in Western Kenya with comparable vocabulary tests in three languages: Luo (the local language or mother tongue), Swahili, and English (official languages) at two time points, 5-6 weeks apart, between September 2015 and October 2016. Younger children responded to the expressive vocabulary measure exclusively in Luo (44%-59% of 2-to-4-year-olds) much more frequently than did older children (20%-21% of 5-to-6-year-olds). Baseline receptive vocabulary scores in Luo (ß = 0.26, SE = 0.05, p < 0.001) and Swahili (ß = 0.10, SE = 0.05, p = 0.032) were strongly associated with receptive vocabulary in English at follow-up, even after controlling for English vocabulary at baseline. Parental Luo literacy at baseline (ß = 0.11, SE = 0.05, p = 0.045) was associated with child English vocabulary at follow-up, while parental English literacy at baseline was not. Our findings suggest that multilingual testing is essential to understanding the developmental environment and cognitive growth of multilingual children.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Pruebas del Lenguaje , Alfabetización/estadística & datos numéricos , Multilingüismo , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Kenia , Lenguaje , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Padres , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones Académicas , Vocabulario
13.
Dev Psychol ; 55(8): 1640-1655, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169400

RESUMEN

A talking face provides redundant cues on the mouth that might support language learning and highly salient social cues in the eyes. What drives children's looking toward the mouth versus eyes of a talking face? This study reports data from 292 children who viewed faces speaking English, French, and Russian. We investigated the impact of children's age (5 months to 5 years) and language background (monolingual English, monolingual French, bilingual English-French), and the speaker's language (dominant, nondominant, or nonnative) relative to children's native language(s). Data from 129 bilingual adults were also collected for comparison. Five-month-olds showed balanced attention to the eyes and mouth, but children up to 5 years tended to be most interested in the mouth. In contrast, adults were most interested in the eyes. We found little evidence for different patterns of attention for monolinguals versus bilinguals, or to a native versus a nonnative speaker. Using percentile scores, monolinguals with larger productive vocabularies looked more at the mouth, while bilinguals with larger comprehension vocabularies looked marginally less at the mouth, although both effects were small and not as robust with raw vocabulary scores. Children showed large but stable individual variability in their face scanning patterns across different speakers. Our results show that the way that children allocate their attention to talking faces continues to change from infancy through the preschool years and beyond. Future studies will need to go beyond looking at bilingualism, speaker language, and vocabulary size to understand what drives children's in-the-moment attention to talking faces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Atención/fisiología , Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Boca , Multilingüismo , Percepción del Habla , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Federación de Rusia , Vocabulario
14.
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil ; 17(2): 221-228, 2019 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162122

RESUMEN

The ability to preserve a good command of two languages decreases with old age. This decline can be more observed in bilingual patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The linguistic deficit is the most frequent cognitive disturbance after memory disorders in AD semiology. Besides, most of the studies dealing with the linguistic semiology of the AD were essentially interested in describing the linguistic behavior of the monolingual people, and based on modest samples. This study aims to locate the disturbed levels of processing in language production of bilingual Alzheimer's subjects by analyzing the discourses of 120 participants including 60 bilingual patients with Alzheimer's disease and 60 healthy bilinguals. The results focus on the deficit of processing in language production of bilingual patients with Alzheimer's disease at the semantic level of the first language in two aspects, which are the procedure based on the lexical implications of the terms and the continuity. However, the grammatical aspects in the second language (connector and deictic) are dysfunctional, while they are relatively preserved in the first language (L1). It appears that the semantic aspects are affected and the grammatical aspects are relatively spared on the first language, however the grammatical aspect of the second language is affected. The grammatical aspect of L1 resists better because it depends on procedural memory that is relatively resistant to AD; however, the semantic aspect of the L1 and grammatical aspect of L1 are disturbed in the L2 too because they depend on the declarative memory which is early disturbed.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/psicología , Multilingüismo , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Lingüística , Masculino , Memoria , Pruebas de Estado Mental y Demencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Desempeño Psicomotor , Semántica , Medición de la Producción del Habla
15.
Span J Psychol ; 22: E31, 2019 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155018

RESUMEN

Practitioners have few personality inventory options when assessing Spanish-speakers, despite professional guidelines that encourage them to administer measures that are validated with their populations of interest. To build on research in this area, we examined the internal consistency and convergent validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the Personality Assessment Inventory European-Spanish (PAIE-S) version among bilingual Latin American Spanish-speakers (final n = 53). For the PAI, 72.72% of scales and 35.48% of subscales had alphas above .70. For the PAIE-S, 50.00% of scales and 25.81% of scales met this alpha. Participants tended to score lowest on the PAI Alcohol Problems scale (T = 47.19) and the PAIE-S Warmth scale (T = 45.49). On average, participants scored highest on the PAI's Paranoia-Hypervigilance scale (T = 61.15) and the PAIE-S's Paranoia scale (T = 57.64). We identified 10 scales and subscales on which participants were significantly more likely (p < .00094) to score higher on one measure than the other. Participants more often scored higher on the PAI than the PAIE-S. All parallel scales and subscales converged at p < .00094 with the exception of the Antisocial Features-Egocentricity scale. Taken together, findings suggest taking caution when administering these measures to Latin American bilingual Spanish-speakers.


Asunto(s)
Multilingüismo , Inventario de Personalidad/normas , Psicometría/normas , Adulto , Humanos , América Latina , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , España
16.
Brain Lang ; 195: 104642, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238122

RESUMEN

Research on structural brain differences between monolinguals and bilinguals remains inconsistent, and this has been proposed by some to be due in part to inadequate sample sizes. The aim of the present study is to reveal the expected degrees of uncertainty among neuroimaging findings by analyzing random samples of varying sizes from a larger-than-average sample. Bilinguals (n = 216) were compared with monolinguals (n = 146) using grey matter volume measures across region-of-interest tests. Variability among findings were compared with the true full-sample findings, and taken in the context of expected differences within the larger bilingualism neuroimaging literature. Results demonstrate excessive variability across the lowest sample sizes (e.g. samples totaling 20-80 participants), and this is explored through the trends of subsample outcomes and effect sizes across sample sizes. The results of this study illustrate the influences of power on expected variability among sample findings.


Asunto(s)
Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Multilingüismo , Encéfalo/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/normas , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Tamaño de la Muestra , Adulto Joven
17.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(3): 288-292, 2019 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246507

RESUMEN

The purpose of this outreach program was to promote elementary school students' understanding of human physiology and exercise science. I conducted this outreach event for 421 pre-kindergarten through grade 5 students attending a Spanish-immersion elementary school within a large, urban public school district in Kentucky. To meet the needs of the school's minority students, I delivered the Physiology Understanding (PhUn) program bilingually in both English and Spanish. The University of Louisville's PhUn team was composed of 14 undergraduate students, 5 graduate students, and 3 other faculty scientists who participated and supported me throughout the delivery of this outreach program. Elementary school students were taught about science, learned how to make scientific discoveries, and made predictions to test the hypothesis that heart rate increases with exercise. Hands-on activities and demonstrations included use of oxymeters, heart rate monitors, spirometry, blood pressure at rest and during exercise, and electromyography. We invited grade 4 and 5 students to participate in a science fair in which 32 students designed their own research projects and presented their findings during the science fair in three categories: English, Spanish, and bilingual.


Asunto(s)
Comprensión , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Multilingüismo , Fisiología/educación , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Kentucky/etnología , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas/tendencias
18.
Brain Lang ; 195: 104640, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252177

RESUMEN

When a listener hears a word, multiple lexical items may come to mind; for instance, /kæn/ may activate concepts with similar phonological onsets such as candy and candle. Acquisition of two lexicons may increase such linguistic competition. Using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy neuroimaging, we investigate whether bilingualism impacts word processing in the child's brain. Bilingual and monolingual children (N = 52; ages 7-10) completed a lexical selection task in English, where participants adjudicated phonological competitors (e.g., car/cat vs. car/pen). Children were less accurate and responded more slowly during competing than non-competing items. In doing so, children engaged top-down fronto-parietal regions associated with cognitive control. In comparison to bilinguals, monolinguals showed greater activity in left frontal regions, a difference possibly due to bilinguals' adaptation for dual-lexicons. These differences provide insight to theories aiming to explain the role of experience on children's emerging neural networks for lexical selection and language processing.


Asunto(s)
Lóbulo Frontal/fisiología , Multilingüismo , Vocabulario , Mapeo Encefálico , Niño , Femenino , Lóbulo Frontal/crecimiento & desarrollo , Humanos , Masculino , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta , Percepción del Habla
19.
Brain Lang ; 195: 104643, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247403

RESUMEN

Lexical access in bilinguals can be modulated by multiple factors in their individual language learning history. We developed the BiLex computational model to examine the effects of L2 age of acquisition, language use and exposure on lexical retrieval in bilingual speakers. Twenty-eight Spanish-English bilinguals and five monolinguals recruited to test and validate the model were evaluated in their picture naming skills in each language and filled out a language use questionnaire. We examined whether BiLex can (i) simulate their naming performance in each language while taking into account their L2 age of acquisition, use and exposure to each language, and (ii) predict naming performance in other participants not used in model training. Our findings showed that BiLex could accurately simulate naming performance in bilinguals, suggesting that differences in L2 age of acquisition, language use and exposure can account for individual differences in bilingual lexical access.


Asunto(s)
Simulación por Computador , Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Multilingüismo , Programación Neurolingüística , Humanos , Vocabulario
20.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216779, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141531

RESUMEN

There is extensive evidence showing that bilinguals activate the lexical and the syntactic representations of both languages in a nonselective way. However, the extent to which the lexical and the syntactic levels of representations interact during second language (L2) sentence processing and how those interactions are modulated by L2 proficiency remain unclear. This paper aimed to directly address these issues by using an online technique (eye-tracking) that is highly sensitive to the lexical and syntactic processes involved in sentence reading. To that purpose, native-speakers of European Portuguese (EP) learning English as L2 at intermediate and advanced levels of proficiency were asked to silently read temporally ambiguous L2 relative clause (RC) sentences disambiguated with a High-Attachment (HA) or Low-Attachment (LA) strategy while their eye-movements were monitored. Since EP and English native speakers differ in the way they process and comprehend this syntactic structure (EP: HA, English: LA), HA preferences were used as a marker of L1 RC syntax interference. Additionally, the cognate status of the complex NP that preceded the RC was manipulated to further analyze how the lexical co-activation of both languages would also affect the syntactic representations of the non-target (L1) language. Results showed cognate facilitation in early and late reading time measures regardless of L2 proficiency, and also that the cognate status of the complex NP impacted L2 reading performance, particularly at lower levels of L2 proficiency. These findings provide compelling evidence for a bilingual reading system that seems to be highly dynamic and interactive not only within each level of processing, but, importantly, across levels of representation. They also suggested that, as the level of L2 proficiency increases, L1 RC syntax interference becomes stronger, in a syntactic parser that seems to operate in a more integrated and nonselective way, with both strategies being equally available to guide L2 reading comprehension. Results are discussed attending to the current models of bilingual syntactic processing.


Asunto(s)
Movimientos Oculares/fisiología , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Multilingüismo , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Lectura , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Humanos
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