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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 95, 2021 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478403

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recommendations for sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening vary significantly across countries. This study evaluated the prevalence of urogenital and extragenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) in patients visiting a French STI clinic in the Indian Ocean region to determine whether current STI screening practices should be updated. METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined all patients who visited the STI clinic between 2014 and 2015. Triplex polymerase chain reaction screening for CT, NG, and MG was performed on urine, vaginal, pharyngeal, and anal specimens (FTD Urethritis Basic Kit, Fast Track Diagnostics, Luxembourg). RESULTS: Of the 851 patients enrolled in the study, 367 were women (367/851, 43.2%) and 484 were men (484/851, 56.0%). Overall, 826 urogenital specimens (826/851, 97.1%), 606 pharyngeal specimens (606/851, 71.2%), and 127 anal specimens (127/851, 14.9%) were taken from enrolled patients. The prevalence of urogenital CT and MG was high in women ≤25 years (19/186, 10.21%; 5/186, 2.69%) and in men who have sex with women ≤30 years (16/212, 7.54%; 5/212, 2.36%). Among patients with urogenital CT infection, 13.7% (7/51) had urethritis. All patients with urogenital MG infection were asymptomatic. Men who have sex with men had a high prevalence of pharyngeal CT (2/45, 4.44%) and NG (3/44, 6.81%) and a high prevalence of anal CT (2/27, 7.41%), NG (2/27, 7.40%), and MG (1/27, 3.70%). After excluding patients with concomitant urogenital infection, extragenital infections with at least 1 of the 3 pathogens were found in 20 swabs (20/91, 21.9%) taken from 16 patients (16/81, 19.7%), all of them asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: Routine multisite screening for CT, NG, and MG should be performed to mitigate the transmission of STIs in high-risk sexually active populations.


Asunto(s)
Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , Mycoplasma genitalium/aislamiento & purificación , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Canal Anal/microbiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Faringe/microbiología , Prevalencia , Reunión/epidemiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Sistema Urogenital/microbiología , Adulto Joven
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 950, 2020 Dec 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308173

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium is a growing clinical problem. We investigated the mutations associated with macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance, two commonly used medical regimens for treatment in China. Our aim is to analyze the prevalence and diversity of mutations among M. genitalium-positive clinical specimens in Guangzhou, south China. METHODS: A total of 154 stored M. genitalium positive specimens from men and women attending a STI clinic were tested for macrolide and fluoroquinolone mutations. M. genitalium was detected via TaqMan MGB real-time PCR. Mutations associated with macrolide resistance were detected using primers targeting region V of the 23S rRNA gene. Fluoroquinolone resistant mutations were screened via primers targeting topoisomerase IV (parC) and DNA gyrase (gyrA). RESULTS: 98.7% (152/154), 95.5% (147/154) and 90.3% (139/154) of M. genitalium positive samples produced sufficient amplicon for detecting resistance mutations in 23S rRNA, gyrA and parC genes, respectively. 66.4% (101/152), 0.7% (1/147) and 77.7% (108/139) samples manifested mutations in 23S rRNA, gyrA and parC genes, respectively. A2072G (59/101, 58.4%) and S83I (79/108, 73.1%) were highly predominating in 23S rRNA and parC genes, respectively. Two samples had amino acid substitutions in gyrA (M95I and A96T, respectively). Two samples had two amino acid substitutions in parC (S83I + D87Y). 48.6% (67/138) of samples harbored both macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations. The most common combination of mutations was A2072G (23S rRNA) and S83I (parC) (40/67, 59.7%). One sample had three amino acid changes in 23S rRNA, gyrA and parC genes (A2072G + A96T + S83I). CONCLUSIONS: The high antimicrobial resistance rate of M. genitalium in Guangzhou is a very worrying problem and suggests that antimicrobial resistance testing and the development of new antibiotic regimens are crucially needed.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapéutico , Macrólidos/uso terapéutico , Mutación , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Enfermedades Bacterianas de Transmisión Sexual/tratamiento farmacológico , China/epidemiología , Girasa de ADN/genética , Topoisomerasa de ADN IV/genética , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/microbiología , Mycoplasma genitalium/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , ARN Ribosómico 23S/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enfermedades Bacterianas de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Enfermedades Bacterianas de Transmisión Sexual/microbiología
3.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(10): 900-905, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382221

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the relationship of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) infection with routine semen parameters and sperm DNA integrity in male infertility patients. METHODS: Totally, 114 semen samples, 34 MG-positive and 80 MG-negative, were collected from male infertility patients and subjected to routine semen analysis with the computer-assisted sperm analysis system, Papanicolaou staining for observation of sperm morphology, and sperm chromatin diffusion (SCD) test for detection of sperm DNA integrity. Semen parameters and DNA integrity were compared between the MG-positive and MG-negative groups with SPSS 21.0 statistical software and the relationship between the semen parameters and DNA integrity analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. RESULTS: The MG-positive samples, compared with the MG-negative ones, showed significantly decreased semen volume (ï¼»2.87 ± 0.37ï¼½ vs ï¼»3.86 ± 0.43ï¼½ ml, P < 0.01), sperm concentration (ï¼»29.05 ± 6.17ï¼½ vs ï¼»32.56 ± 5.97ï¼½ ×106/ml, P < 0.01), and percentages of progressively motile sperm (PMS) (ï¼»15.86 ± 2.79ï¼½% vs ï¼»23.65 ± 3.47ï¼½%, P < 0.01) and morphologically normal sperm (MNS) (ï¼»6.35 ± 2.06ï¼½% vs ï¼»7.14 ± 1.89ï¼½%, P < 0.05), increased proportions of non-halo sperm (ï¼»15.02 ± 3.52ï¼½% vs ï¼»9.72 ± 2.94ï¼½%, P <0.01) and small-halo sperm (ï¼»16.37 ± 5.26ï¼½% vs ï¼»11.07 ± 1.65ï¼½%, P < 0.01) and sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) (ï¼»31.39 ± 3.16ï¼½% vs ï¼»20.79 ± 3.59ï¼½%, P < 0.01), and reduced proportion of large-halo sperm (ï¼»54.75 ± 8.74ï¼½% vs ï¼»64.15 ± 9.76ï¼½%, P < 0.01). DFI was negatively correlated with the percentages of PMS (r = -0.516, P < 0.05) and MNS (r = -0.429, P < 0.05) in the MG-positive group, but not correlated with any of the routine semen parameters in the MG-negative patients (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: MG infection may be an important factor affecting sperm quality in male infertility patients. Active prevention and treatment of MG infection can help prevent male infertility.


Asunto(s)
Fragmentación del ADN , Infertilidad Masculina , Infecciones por Mycoplasma , Humanos , Infertilidad Masculina/genética , Infertilidad Masculina/microbiología , Masculino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/complicaciones , Mycoplasma genitalium , Semen , Análisis de Semen , Recuento de Espermatozoides , Motilidad Espermática , Espermatozoides
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236036, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722712

RESUMEN

The human vagina harbor a rich microbiota. The optimal state is dominated by lactobacilli that help to maintain health and prevent various diseases. However, the microbiota may rapidly change to a polymicrobial state that has been linked to a number of diseases. In the present study, the temporal changes of the vaginal microbiota in patients treated for sexually transmitted diseases or bacterial vaginosis (BV) and in untreated controls were studied for 26 days. The patients included 52 women treated with azithromycin, tetracyclines or moxifloxacin for present or suspected infection with Chlamydia trachomatis or Mycoplasma genitalium. Women with concurrent BV were also treated with metronidazole. The controls were 10 healthy women of matching age. The microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene deep sequencing, specific qPCRs and microscopy. There was generally good correlation between Nugent score and community state type (CST) and qPCR confirmed the sequencing results. By sequencing, more than 600 different taxa were found, but only 33 constituted more than 1 ‰ of the sequences. In both patients and controls the microbiota could be divided into three different community state types, CST-I, CST-III and CST-IV. Without metronidazole, the microbiota remained relatively stable regarding CST although changes were seen during menstrual periods. Administration of metronidazole changed the microbiota from CST-IV to CST-III in approximately 50% of the treated patients. In contrast, the CST was generally unaffected by azithromycin or tetracyclines. In 30% of the BV patients, Gardnerella vaginalis was not eradicated by metronidazole. The majority of women colonized with Ureaplasma parvum remained positive after azithromycin while U. urealyticum was eradicated.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Infecciones por Chlamydia/microbiología , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/microbiología , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/microbiología , Vagina/microbiología , Vaginosis Bacteriana/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecciones por Chlamydia/tratamiento farmacológico , Chlamydia trachomatis/efectos de los fármacos , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Gardnerella vaginalis/efectos de los fármacos , Gardnerella vaginalis/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Mycoplasma genitalium/efectos de los fármacos , Mycoplasma genitalium/aislamiento & purificación , Vagina/efectos de los fármacos , Vaginosis Bacteriana/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto Joven
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1020, 2020 Jun 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600306

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although many species of mycoplasmas regard as normal flora, but some species causes serious genital disease. In Iran several epidemiological studies have documented the prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in genital disorders. This meta-analysis is going to represent the prevalence of M. hominis, M. genitalium and U. urealyticum among Iranian couples and the correlation between mycoplasmas infection and infertility. METHODS: We search online databases from January 2000 to June 2019. We used following MeSH keywords (Prevalence, M. hominis, M. genitalium, U. urealyticum, male, female, fertility, Infertility, genitourinary tract infection and Iran) with all possible combinations with "OR" and "AND". Finally, forty-four articles from 2670 were chosen for data extraction and analysis by software using STATA version 14.0. RESULTS: This meta-analysis revealed that the prevalence of U. urealyticum was 17.53% in Iran and the prevalence of M. genitalium and M. hominis were 11.33 and 9.68% respectively. The rate of M. genitalium, M. hominis and U. urealyticum infection in women with symptoms of genitourinary tract infection was higher than men with genitourinary tract infection (6.46% vs 5.4, 7.67% vs 5.88 and 21.04% vs 12.13%, respectively). As expected, the prevalence of M. genitalium, U. urealyticum and M. hominis among infertile women (12.73, 19.58 and 10.81%) were higher than fertile women (3%, 10. 85% and 4. 35%). Similarly, the prevalence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum among infertile men (14 and 21.18%) were higher than fertile men (4 and 3%). Based on this analysis, the rate of U. urealyticum was higher than M. genitalium and M. hominis among infertile men and women compared to the fertile group. The prevalence rate of M. genitalium, M. hominis and U. urealyticum in central provinces is higher than other parts of Iran. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis reemphasizes a significant relationship between the infertility rate and U. urealyticum, M. genitalium and M. hominis infections. Our finding help to plan the prevalence map of M. hominis, M. genitalium and U. urealyticum in Iran but further studies are needed to suggest routine screening of the pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Mycoplasma genitalium , Mycoplasma hominis , Infecciones por Ureaplasma/epidemiología , Ureaplasma urealyticum , Adulto , Femenino , Enfermedades Urogenitales Femeninas/epidemiología , Enfermedades Urogenitales Femeninas/microbiología , Humanos , Infertilidad/epidemiología , Infertilidad/microbiología , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Enfermedades Urogenitales Masculinas/epidemiología , Enfermedades Urogenitales Masculinas/microbiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/microbiología , Prevalencia , Infecciones por Ureaplasma/microbiología
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2877, 2020 06 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513917

RESUMEN

Mycoplasma genitalium is a human pathogen adhering to host target epithelial cells and causing urethritis, cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease. Essential for infectivity is a transmembrane adhesion complex called Nap comprising proteins P110 and P140. Here we report the crystal structure of P140 both alone and in complex with the N-terminal domain of P110. By cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography (cryo-ET) we find closed and open Nap conformations, determined at 9.8 and 15 Å, respectively. Both crystal structures and the cryo-EM structure are found in a closed conformation, where the sialic acid binding site in P110 is occluded. By contrast, the cryo-ET structure shows an open conformation, where the binding site is accessible. Structural information, in combination with functional studies, suggests a mechanism for attachment and release of M. genitalium to and from the host cell receptor, in which Nap conformations alternate to sustain motility and guarantee infectivity.


Asunto(s)
Adhesión Bacteriana , Proteínas Bacterianas/química , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Mycoplasma genitalium/metabolismo , Proteínas Bacterianas/ultraestructura , Sitios de Unión , Cristalografía por Rayos X , Humanos , Mutación/genética , Dominios Proteicos , Multimerización de Proteína , Estructura Secundaria de Proteína , Relación Estructura-Actividad
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 375, 2020 May 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460721

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) cause a major public health problem that affect both men and women in developing and developed countries. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of 11 STIs among women who voluntarily participated in the study, while seeking gynecological checkup. The existence of an association between the presence of pathogens and symptoms and various sociodemographic risk factors was assessed. METHODS: A total of 505 vaginal and cervical specimens were collected from women above 18 years of age, with or without symptoms related to gynecological infections. Nucleic acid was extracted and samples were tested by real-time PCR for the following pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Urealplasma parvum, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma girerdii, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida albicans and Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Positive HPV samples underwent genotyping using a microarray system. RESULTS: Of the 505 samples, 312 (62%) were screened positive for at least one pathogen. Of these, 36% were positive for Gardnerella vaginalis, 35% for Ureaplasma parvum, 8% for Candida albicans, 6.7% for HPV, 4.6% for Ureaplasma urealyticum, 3.6% for Mycoplasma hominis, 2% for Trichomonas vaginalis, 0.8% for Chlamydia trachomatis, 0.4% for Mycoplasma girerdii, 0.2% for Mycoplasma genitalium and 0.2% for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Lack of symptoms was reported in 187 women (37%), among whom 61% were infected. Thirty-four samples were HPV positive, with 17 high risk HPV genotypes (HR-HPV); the highest rates being recorded for types 16 (38%), 18 (21%) and 51 (18%). Out of the 34 HPV positives, 29 participants had HR-HPV. Association with various risk factors were reported. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study that presents data about the presence of STIs among women in Lebanon and the MENA region by simultaneous detection of 11 pathogens. In the absence of systematic STI surveillance in Lebanon, concurrent screening for HPV and PAP smear is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Adulto , Cuello del Útero/microbiología , Cuello del Útero/parasitología , Cuello del Útero/virología , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Gardnerella vaginalis/genética , Gardnerella vaginalis/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiología , Masculino , Epidemiología Molecular , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Mycoplasma genitalium/aislamiento & purificación , Mycoplasma hominis/genética , Mycoplasma hominis/aislamiento & purificación , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/aislamiento & purificación , Papillomaviridae/genética , Papillomaviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/microbiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/parasitología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/virología , Trichomonas vaginalis/genética , Trichomonas vaginalis/aislamiento & purificación , Ureaplasma/genética , Ureaplasma/aislamiento & purificación , Vagina/microbiología , Vagina/parasitología , Vagina/virología , Frotis Vaginal , Adulto Joven
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 314, 2020 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345231

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted infection, with increasing rates of resistance to fluroquinolones and macrolides, the recommended treatments. Despite this, M. genitalium is not part of routine screening for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) in many countries and the prevalence of infection and patterns of disease remain to be determined in many populations. Such data is of particular importance in light of the reported rise in antibiotic resistance in M. genitalium isolates. METHODS: Urine and urethral swab samples were collected from the primary public sexual health clinic in Singapore and tested for C. trachomatis (CT) or N. gonorrhoeae (NG) infection and for the presence of M. genitalium. Antibiotic resistance in M. genitalium strains detected was determined by screening for genomic mutations associated with macrolide and fluroquinolone resistance. RESULTS: We report the results of a study into M. genitalium prevalence at the national sexual health clinic in Singapore. M. genitalium was heavily associated with CT infection (8.1% of cases), but present in only of 2.4% in CT negative cases and not independently linked to NG infection. Furthermore, we found high rates of resistance mutations to both macrolides (25%) and fluoroquinolones (37.5%) with a majority of resistant strains being dual-resistant. Resistance mutations were only found in strains from patients with CT co-infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support targeted screening of CT positive patients for M. genitalium as a cost-effective strategy to reduce the incidence of M. genitalium in the absence of comprehensive routine screening. The high rate of dual resistance also highlights the need to ensure the availability of alternative antibiotics for the treatment of multi-drug resistant M. genitalium isolates.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/efectos de los fármacos , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Mycoplasma genitalium/efectos de los fármacos , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/complicaciones , Infecciones por Chlamydia/tratamiento farmacológico , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ADN Bacteriano/metabolismo , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacología , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Macrólidos/farmacología , Macrólidos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/complicaciones , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Mycoplasma genitalium/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , ARN Ribosómico 23S/química , ARN Ribosómico 23S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 23S/metabolismo , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Singapur/epidemiología , Uretra/microbiología
12.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(5): 342-347, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241905

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In 2016, WHO estimated 376 million new cases of the four main curable STIs: gonorrhoea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis and syphilis. Further, an estimated 290 million women are infected with human papillomavirus. STIs may lead to severe reproductive health sequelae. Low-income and middle-income countries carry the highest global burden of STIs. A large proportion of urogenital and the vast majority of extragenital non-viral STI cases are asymptomatic. Screening key populations and early and accurate diagnosis are important to provide correct treatment and to control the spread of STIs. This article paints a picture of the state of technology of STI point-of-care testing (POCT) and its implications for health system integration. METHODS: The material for the STI POCT landscape was gathered from publicly available information, published and unpublished reports and prospectuses, and interviews with developers and manufacturers. RESULTS: The development of STI POCT is moving rapidly, and there are much more tests in the pipeline than in 2014, when the first STI POCT landscape analysis was published on the website of WHO. Several of the available tests need to be evaluated independently both in the laboratory and, of particular importance, in different points of care. CONCLUSION: This article reiterates the importance of accurate, rapid and affordable POCT to reach universal health coverage. While highlighting the rapid technical advances in this area, we argue that insufficient attention is being paid to health systems capacity and conditions to ensure the swift and rapid integration of current and future STI POCT. Unless the complexity of health systems, including context, institutions, adoption systems and problem perception, are recognised and mapped, simplistic approaches to policy design and programme implementation will result in poor realisation of intended outcomes and impact.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención/organización & administración , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/prevención & control , Infecciones por Chlamydia/transmisión , Femenino , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Gonorrea/prevención & control , Gonorrea/transmisión , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Masculino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Mycoplasma genitalium , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sífilis/prevención & control , Sífilis/transmisión , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/tratamiento farmacológico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/prevención & control , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/transmisión
14.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 62, 2020 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216785

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition in reproductive-age women and is known to be positively associated with risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STI) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea. Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging STI that has been linked to increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes and infertility. In the present study we sought to examine whether women diagnosed with symptomatic BV were at increased risk of having concurrent infection with Mycoplasma genitalium. METHODS: We used a novel PCR-based assay (ResistancePlus MG; SpeeDx Pty. Ltd., Sydney, Australia) to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium infection and 23S rRNA macrolide-resistance mediating mutations (MRMM) in a cohort of 1532 women presenting with symptoms of vaginitis. RESULTS: M. genitalium was detected in 4.0% (62/1532) of samples with 37.1% (23/62) harboring MRMMs. The prevalence of M. genitalium infection in subjects with BV was significantly higher than in subjects with non-BV vaginitis (7.0% v 3.6%; OR = 1.97 (95% CI: 1.14-3.39). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of M. genitalium infection is associated with BV in women with symptomatic vaginitis. Improved management of BV is needed as a component of STI prevention strategies.


Asunto(s)
Mycoplasma genitalium/aislamiento & purificación , Vaginosis Bacteriana/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Australia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Macrólidos/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/complicaciones , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Mycoplasma genitalium/efectos de los fármacos , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
15.
J Infect Dis ; 221(6): 1017-1024, 2020 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031634

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The basis of fluoroquinolone treatment failure for Mycoplasma genitalium is poorly understood. METHODS: To identify mutations associated with failure we sequenced key regions of the M. genitalium parC and gyrA genes for patients undergoing sequential therapy with doxycycline-moxifloxacin (201 patients, including 21 with failure) or doxycycline-sitafloxacin (126 patients, including 13 with failure). RESULTS: The parC G248T/S83I mutation was more common among patients with failed sequential doxycycline-moxifloxacin (present in 76.2% of failures vs 7.8% cures, P < .001) or doxycycline-sitafloxacin (50% vs 16.8%, respectively; P = .01) treatment. Doxycycline-sitafloxacin was more efficacious than doxycycline-moxifloxacin against infections carrying the parC mutation conferring S83I amino acid change. Treatment was more likely to fail in these infections if they had a concurrent gyrA mutation (M95I or D99N) (P = .07 for doxycycline-moxifloxacin group and P = .009 for doxycycline-sitafloxacin group), suggesting an additive effect. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that parC G248T/S83I mutations contribute to failure of moxifloxacin and sitafloxacin, and the findings will inform the development of quinolone resistance assays needed to ensure optimal selection of antimicrobials for M. genitalium.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacología , Moxifloxacino/farmacología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Mycoplasma genitalium/efectos de los fármacos , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Topoisomerasa de ADN IV/genética , Femenino , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Masculino , Moxifloxacino/uso terapéutico , Mutación , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/microbiología , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3420, 2020 02 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098988

RESUMEN

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are two highly prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with a significant rate of co-infection in some populations. Vaginal metabolites are influenced by resident vaginal microbiota, affect susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and may impact local inflammation and patient symptoms. Examining the vaginal metabolome in the context of CT mono (CT+) and CT/MG co-infection (CT+/MG+) may identify biomarkers for infection or provide new insights into disease etiology and pathogenesis. Yet, the vaginal metabolome in the setting of CT infection is understudied and the composition of the vaginal metabolome in CT/MG co-infected women is unknown. Therefore, in this analysis, we used an untargeted metabolomic approach combined with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to characterize the vaginal microbiota and metabolomes of CT+, CT+/MG+, and uninfected women. We found that CT+ and CT+/MG+ women had distinct vaginal metabolomic profiles as compared to uninfected women both before and after adjustment for the vaginal microbiota. This study provides important foundational data documenting differences in the vaginal metabolome between CT+, CT+/MG+ and uninfected women. These data may guide future mechanistic studies that seek to provide insight into the pathogenesis of CT and CT/MG infections.


Asunto(s)
Chlamydia trachomatis/metabolismo , Linfogranuloma Venéreo/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/metabolismo , Mycoplasma genitalium/metabolismo , Vagina/metabolismo , Vaginosis Bacteriana/metabolismo , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Linfogranuloma Venéreo/patología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/patología , Vagina/microbiología , Vaginosis Bacteriana/microbiología , Vaginosis Bacteriana/patología
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 110, 2020 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033533

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionally affected by sexually transmitted infections (STI). STI are often extragenital and asymptomatic. Both can delay diagnosis and treatment. Approval of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) might have influenced sexual behaviour and STI-prevalence of HIV- MSM. We estimated STI-prevalence and risk factors amongst HIV- and HIV+ MSM in Germany to plan effective interventions. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional study between February and July 2018. Thirteen MSM-friendly STI-practices screened MSM for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) using self-collected rectal and pharyngeal swabs, and urine samples. APTIMA™ STI-assays (Hologic™ Inc., San Diego, USA) were used for diagnostics, and samples were not pooled. We collected information on socio-demographics, HIV-status, clinical symptoms, sexual behaviour within the last 6 months, and PrEP use. We combined HIV status and PrEP use for defining risk groups, and used directed acyclic graphs and multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors for STI. RESULTS: Two thousand three hundred three MSM were included: 50.5% HIV+, median age 39 [18-79] years. Median number of male sex partners within the last 6 months was five. Sex without condom was reported by 73.6%, use of party drugs by 44.6%. 80.3% had a STI history, 32.2% of STI+ MSM reported STI-related symptoms. 27.6% of HIV- MSM used PrEP. Overall STI-prevalence was 30.1, 25.0% in HIV-/PrEP- MSM (CT:7.2%; MG:14.2%; NG:7.4%; TV:0%), 40.3% in HIV-/PrEP+ MSM (CT:13.8%; MG:19.4%; NG:14.8%; TV:0.4%), and 30.8% in HIV+ MSM (CT:10.1%; MG:18.4%; NG:8.6%; TV:0.1%). Being HIV+ (OR 1.7, 95%-CI 1.3-2.2), using PrEP (OR 2.0, 95%-CI 1.5-2.7), having > 5 sex partners (OR:1.65; 95%-CI:1.32-2.01.9), having condomless sex (OR:2.11.9; 95%-CI:1.65-2.86), and using party drugs (OR:1.65; 95%-CI:1.32-2.0) were independent risk factors for being tested positive for at least one STI. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high STI-prevalence in MSM in Germany, especially in PrEP users, frequently being asymptomatic. As a relevant proportion of PrEP users will not use a condom, counselling and comprehensive STI screening is essential and should be low threshold and preferably free of cost. Counselling of PrEP users should also address use of party drugs.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Homosexualidad Masculina , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , Condones , Consejo , Estudios Transversales , Alemania/epidemiología , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/microbiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycoplasma genitalium/aislamiento & purificación , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Adulto Joven
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