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1.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9324

RESUMEN

Bate Papo na Saúde – Relatório ONU sobre Mudanças Climáticas: Esta edição do Bate Papo na Saúde fala sobre o relatório ONU sobre Mudanças Climáticas. O mais recente relatório do Painel Intergovernamental sobre Mudanças Climáticas, o IPCC, na sigla em inglês, vinculado a Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU), não deixou dúvidas. A ação humana é responsável pelas mudanças climáticas que ameaçam o planeta. Por isso, o Bate Papo na Saúde discute o Relatório da ONU sobre Mudanças Climáticas. Com foco nisso, o apresentador Renato Farias discute o Relatório da ONU sobre Mudanças Climáticas com o geógrafo e pesquisador do Instituto de Comunicação e Informação Científica e Tecnológica em Saúde (Icict/Fiocruz), Christovam Barcellos e com o professor do Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Paulo Artaxo. Programa exibido em 6 de setembro de 2021. Apresentador: Renato Farias O Bate Papo na Saúde é um programa de entrevistas que leva temas da saúde pública para a tela do Canal Saúde.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Calentamiento Global/prevención & control , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Salud Ambiental , Vectores de Enfermedades , Fugas de Gases/políticas , Institutos Gubernamentales de Investigación , Desastres Naturales/prevención & control , Brasil , Entrevista , Naciones Unidas , Grupos de Riesgo ,
2.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48504

RESUMEN

O Pacto Global das Nações Unidas anunciou hoje que proibiria as empresas de tabaco e qualquer outra organização que obtenha renda com a produção ou fabricação de produtos de tabaco de participar da iniciativa.


Asunto(s)
Naciones Unidas , Industria del Tabaco
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770219

RESUMEN

The right of people with disability to enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health without discrimination on the basis of disability is enshrined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). Among its obligations as a signatory to the CRPD, Australia is required to collect appropriate information, including statistical and research data, to inform development and implementation of policies to give effect to the Convention. In this commentary, we first describe how the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) conceptual model of disability can be operationalised in statistical data collections, with a focus on how this is achieved in key Australian data sources such that people with disability can be identified as a population group. We then review existing statistical data on health and health service use for people with disability in Australia, highlighting data gaps and limitations. Finally, we outline priorities and considerations for improving data on health and access to health services for people with disability. As well as conceptual, practical, and ethical considerations, a key principle that must guide future disability data development is that people with disability and their representative organisations must be involved and participate fully in the development of disability data and statistics, and in their use.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Australia , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Políticas , Naciones Unidas
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639630

RESUMEN

In recent years, global attention to disability inclusion in humanitarian and development contexts, notably comprising disability inclusion within the Sustainable Development Goals, has significantly increased. As a result, UN agencies and programmes are increasingly seeking to understand and increase the extent to which persons with disabilities are accounted for and included in their efforts to provide life-saving assistance. To explore the effects and effectiveness of such measurement, this paper applies a complexity-informed, realist evaluation methodology to a case study of a single measurement intervention. This intervention, 'A9', was the first indicator designed to measure the number of persons with disabilities assisted annually by the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP). Realist logic of analysis combined with complexity theory was employed to generate context-mechanism-outcome configurations (CMOC's) against which primary interviews and secondary data were analysed. We show that within the complexity of the WFP system, the roll-out of the A9 measurement intervention generated delayed, counter-intuitive and unanticipated effects. In turn, path dependency and emergent behaviours meant that the intervention mechanisms of yesterday were destined to become the implementation context of tomorrow. These findings challenge the current reliance on quantitative data within humanitarian-development disability inclusion efforts and contribute to our understanding of how data can best be leveraged to support inclusion in such contexts.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Recolección de Datos , Humanos , Naciones Unidas
6.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003831, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662333

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: UNAIDS has established new program targets for 2025 to achieve the goal of eliminating AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. This study reports on efforts to use mathematical models to estimate the impact of achieving those targets. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We simulated the impact of achieving the targets at country level using the Goals model, a mathematical simulation model of HIV epidemic dynamics that includes the impact of prevention and treatment interventions. For 77 high-burden countries, we fit the model to surveillance and survey data for 1970 to 2020 and then projected the impact of achieving the targets for the period 2019 to 2030. Results from these 77 countries were extrapolated to produce estimates for 96 others. Goals model results were checked by comparing against projections done with the Optima HIV model and the AIDS Epidemic Model (AEM) for selected countries. We included estimates of the impact of societal enablers (access to justice and law reform, stigma and discrimination elimination, and gender equality) and the impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Results show that achieving the 2025 targets would reduce new annual infections by 83% (71% to 86% across regions) and AIDS-related deaths by 78% (67% to 81% across regions) by 2025 compared to 2010. Lack of progress on societal enablers could endanger these achievements and result in as many as 2.6 million (44%) cumulative additional new HIV infections and 440,000 (54%) more AIDS-related deaths between 2020 and 2030 compared to full achievement of all targets. COVID-19-related disruptions could increase new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths by 10% in the next 2 years, but targets could still be achieved by 2025. Study limitations include the reliance on self-reports for most data on behaviors, the use of intervention effect sizes from published studies that may overstate intervention impacts outside of controlled study settings, and the use of proxy countries to estimate the impact in countries with fewer than 4,000 annual HIV infections. CONCLUSIONS: The new targets for 2025 build on the progress made since 2010 and represent ambitious short-term goals. Achieving these targets would bring us close to the goals of reducing new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths by 90% between 2010 and 2030. By 2025, global new infections and AIDS deaths would drop to 4.4 and 3.9 per 100,000 population, and the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) would be declining. There would be 32 million people on treatment, and they would need continuing support for their lifetime. Incidence for the total global population would be below 0.15% everywhere. The number of PLHIV would start declining by 2023.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Salud Global , Objetivos , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Salud Pública , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/prevención & control , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19 , Causas de Muerte , Epidemias , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/terapia , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Naciones Unidas , Adulto Joven
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258751, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669749

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a leading cause of death among children under five years. Previous estimates indicated global preterm birth rate of 10.6% (14.8 million neonates) in 2014. We aim to update preterm birth estimates at global, regional, and national levels for the period 2010 to 2019. METHODS: Preterm birth is defined as a live birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks, or <259 days since a woman's last menstrual period. National administrative data sources for WHO Member States with facility birth rates of ≥80% in the most recent year for which data is available will be searched. Administrative data identified for these countries will be considered if ≥80% of UN estimated live births include gestational age information to define preterm birth. For countries without eligible administrative data, a systematic review of studies will be conducted. Research studies will be eligible if the reported outcome is derived from an observational or intervention study conducted at national or sub-national level in population- or facility-based settings. Risk of bias assessments will focus on gestational age measurement method and coverage, and inclusion of special subgroups in published estimates. Covariates for inclusion will be selected a priori based on a conceptual framework of plausible associations with preterm birth, data availability, and quality of covariate data across many countries and years. Global, regional and national preterm birth rates will be estimated using a Bayesian multilevel-mixed regression model. DISCUSSION: Accurate measurement of preterm birth is challenging in many countries given incomplete or unavailable data from national administrative sources, compounded by limited gestational age assessment during pregnancy to define preterm birth. Up-to-date modelled estimates will be an important resource to measure the global burden of preterm birth and to inform policies and programs especially in settings with a high burden of neonatal mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration: CRD42021237861.


Asunto(s)
Registros Médicos/normas , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Teorema de Bayes , Sesgo , Bases de Datos Factuales , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Edad Gestacional , Salud Global , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Embarazo , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Naciones Unidas , Organización Mundial de la Salud
9.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(4): 267-269, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666962

RESUMEN

Twenty-five years after the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) mandate in 1994, India has fallen far short of providing universal access to preventive and treatment services for infertility. This mandate was a call to "prioritize the reproductive health and rights of all people" (1), and reproductive health was defined as.


Asunto(s)
Infertilidad , Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos , Humanos , India , Salud Reproductiva , Naciones Unidas
10.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642232

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The United Nations (UN) created the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) to monitor progress toward achieving goals of the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection, and Development of Children and its plan of action. The MICS is nationally representative and internationally comparable. METHODS: In this study, we use MICS data from 51 low- and middle-income countries on 159 959 children between 36 and 59 months of age. To index national development, we used the 2013 UN Human Development Index (HDI), which provides data on country-level life expectancy, education, and income. To index child development, we used the Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI), which assesses literacy and numeracy, socioemotional development, physical health, and approaches to learning. RESULTS: Children's literacy and numeracy, socioemotional development, and approaches to learning all increase linearly as national development on the HDI (especially education) increases. Overall, the HDI revealed a positive association (r = 0.40) with the ECDI: the HDI explained 16% of variance in children's ECDI scores and was the most influential predictor of ECDI scores examined. HDI-ECDI relations are robust, even when we control for multiple demographic aspects of children (age, sex), mothers (age, education), and households (size variables) as covariates. No family demographic variable was a stronger predictor of child development than national development. CONCLUSIONS: To promote child development, low- and middle-income countries need to develop and implement policies that ensure national health and wealth and, particularly, the educational achievements of children's caregivers. These findings are faithful to the World Summit for Children and inform the UN Sustainable Development Goals, which drive the international development agenda through 2030.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil , Países en Desarrollo , Factores de Edad , Preescolar , Escolaridad , Inteligencia Emocional , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Esperanza de Vida , Alfabetización , Edad Materna , Matemática/educación , Madres/educación , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Naciones Unidas
12.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 585-595, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542093

RESUMEN

Within the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations, particularly those that livestock impact most significantly (SDGs 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 13, 15 and 17), this paper provides an overview of the livestock sector's impact on food system sustainability and opportunities for building solutions through sustainable livestock options that are supported by robust animal health services. The discourse is shaped by the experiences of the Global Agenda for Sustainable Livestock, a multi-stakeholder partnership which facilitates policy dialogue and action among diverse stakeholders to make livestock systems more sustainable. The Global Agenda for Sustainable Livestock adopted the aforementioned SDGs as the reference framework for its actions, which are organised under four domains (food and nutrition security, animal health and welfare, livelihoods and economic growth, and climate and natural resources). These domains are used to highlight the complexity and diversity of the livestock sector, its positive and negative relationships to development, the integral roles of animal health systems and the opportunities for livestock sector contributions towards a sustainable future.


Asunto(s)
Ganado , Desarrollo Sostenible , Animales , Salud Global , Objetivos , Naciones Unidas
13.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24 Suppl 5: e25779, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546655

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Over the past 20 years, the response to the HIV epidemic has achieved remarkable results. These results have often been motivated by targets adopted by countries through United Nations (UN) Political Declarations on HIV. The 2016 political declaration included two impact targets, to achieve a 75% decline in new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths between 2010 and 2020, and to reach the 90-90-90 testing and treatment targets by 2020. Our objective is to summarize progress towards these targets using robust and comparable HIV estimates released by UNAIDS in July 2021. In addition, we comment on the importance of targets and the modelled estimates required to quantify those targets. DISCUSSION: The UNAIDS estimates indicate that at the global and regional levels, the 2020 targets were missed: new infections declined by 31% and AIDS-related deaths declined by 47% between 2010 and 2020, compared to a target of 75% decline for both indicators. Similarly, no region achieved the 90-90-90 testing and treatment targets. Some countries, in diverse settings, achieved these targets showing that the targets were not overly ambitious if the right funding, policies and evidence-informed interventions at the right scale were in place. The 2021 UN Political Declaration on HIV, adopted on 8 June 2021, has set out a new set of ambitious but achievable targets for 2025. The 2025 targets and the required actions to reach those targets are described in the Global AIDS Strategy 2021-2026, which provides a framework to reprioritize HIV responses by reducing inequalities and building on the achievements of multiple Sustainable Development Goals. The Strategy encourages countries to monitor progress against targets for different geographic areas and populations to maximize equitable services and ensure accountability and also to understand why targets are being missed. CONCLUSIONS: The UNAIDS epidemiological estimates provide information that promote accountability and estimate progress towards global targets at the national level. Additional strategic information and analyses are required to identify the populations that are furthest from the targets and the programmes and policies that are keeping countries from meeting their targets.


Asunto(s)
Epidemias , Infecciones por VIH , Salud Global , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Naciones Unidas
18.
Evid Based Dent ; 22(3): 88, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561653
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574824

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: data from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) show that, in 2020, among 82.4 million refugees, only 251,000 returned to their home countries, indicating the desire for refugees to stay, for the long-term, in their new homelands. The paper contributes to the scientific-psychological debate on the social representation of refugee populations, by studying this population, not simply as "foreigners", traumatized and resourceless people, but rather focusing on the factors that lead to their positive adjustments within local communities. METHOD: a scoping review was carried out to explore the phenomenon of adjustment (RQ1) and to identify the factors that foster adjustment among refugees and their resettlement communities (RQ2). A research protocol and eligibility criteria were defined prior to conducting the literature research through the Scopus database. Afterwards, data charting and items were conducted to organize the results. RESULTS: a process of data mapping outlined three dimensions of adjustment-psychological, social, and scholastic. In addition, six macro factors emerged that ease refugee adjustments-context characteristics, time, social integration markers, acculturation, social support, and psychological capital. Results show that adjustment is the result of the inter-relations among sociological and psychological factors. CONCLUSIONS: the lack of studies addressing the inner resources of refugees and community participation confirms that research in this field needs a change of paradigm, to identify the resources that refugees use to adjust to their new communities and promote their development.


Asunto(s)
Refugiados , Aculturación , Humanos , Apoyo Social , Naciones Unidas
20.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(3): 295-298, Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339785

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT The world population is aging fast and not all cities are prepared to cope with the needs of the elderly people. Cities need to develop strategies for senior citizens including the aspects of health, nutrition, consumer protection, housing, transportation, environment, social welfare, income, employment, safety, and education. The World Health Organization (WHO) created a program dedicated to older adults called the age-friendly city. This program is about creating the environment and opportunities that enable older people to be and do what they value throughout their lives. Most of the elderly population lives in urban spaces, and aging represents a challenge as well as opportunities to the cities all over the world. Recently, only 16 Brazilian cities have received the seal of international certification by meeting the requirements stipulated by the WHO. In the State of Sao Paulo, only two cities have been qualified for this seal. Therefore, the aims of this article are (a) to provide a brief history of this important initiative taken by the WHO and (b) to urge the decision-makers of Brazilian municipalities to develop effective initiatives for their cities to be prepared for this demographic modification.


RESUMO A população mundial está envelhecendo rapidamente, e nem todas as cidades estão preparadas para lidar com as necessidades dessa população. As cidades devem desenvolver estratégias para os idosos, incluindo aspectos de saúde, nutrição, defesa do consumidor, habitação, transporte, meio ambiente, assistência social, renda, emprego, segurança e educação. A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) possui um programa denominado "cidade amiga dos idosos", cujos objetivos são preparar as cidades para o envelhecimento da população e minimizar os custos desse processo proporcionando a inserção ativa dos idosos na vida socioeconômica das cidades. A certificação (selo) de cidade amiga dos idosos pela OMS. A maioria da população idosa vive nos espaços urbanos, o que isso representa um desafio e um ambiente de oportunidades para as cidades. Um desafio, pois ao envelhecer ocorre uma maior demanda pelos cuidados em saúde e instituições de longa permanência. Por outro lado, a população idosa apresenta um potencial de ambiente de negócios específicos para essa faixa etária, como os setores de alimentação, educação, e setores de entretenimento. No Brasil, a população idosa responde por cerca de 20% do consumo nacional. Apenas 16 cidades brasileiras receberam esse selo de certificação internacional para atender aos requisitos estipulados pela OMS. No estado de São Paulo, apenas duas cidades foram qualificadas para a obtenção do selo. Portanto, os objetivos do presente artigo são a) fornecer um breve histórico desse importante programa da OMS; b) despertar nos gestores das cidades a vontade de desenvolver iniciativas efetivas para que as cidades estejam preparadas para um rápido envelhecimento populacional, que tenha potencial para contribuir com a sociedade em suas diferentes capacidades.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Anciano , Naciones Unidas , Envejecimiento
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