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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2371, 2021 04 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888693

RESUMEN

DNA is a compelling alternative to non-volatile information storage technologies due to its information density, stability, and energy efficiency. Previous studies have used artificially synthesized DNA to store data and automated next-generation sequencing to read it back. Here, we report digital Nucleic Acid Memory (dNAM) for applications that require a limited amount of data to have high information density, redundancy, and copy number. In dNAM, data is encoded by selecting combinations of single-stranded DNA with (1) or without (0) docking-site domains. When self-assembled with scaffold DNA, staple strands form DNA origami breadboards. Information encoded into the breadboards is read by monitoring the binding of fluorescent imager probes using DNA-PAINT super-resolution microscopy. To enhance data retention, a multi-layer error correction scheme that combines fountain and bi-level parity codes is used. As a prototype, fifteen origami encoded with 'Data is in our DNA!\n' are analyzed. Each origami encodes unique data-droplet, index, orientation, and error-correction information. The error-correction algorithms fully recover the message when individual docking sites, or entire origami, are missing. Unlike other approaches to DNA-based data storage, reading dNAM does not require sequencing. As such, it offers an additional path to explore the advantages and disadvantages of DNA as an emerging memory material.


Asunto(s)
ADN de Cadena Simple/química , Almacenamiento y Recuperación de la Información/métodos , Nanoestructuras/química , Nanotecnología/métodos , Algoritmos , Conformación de Ácido Nucleico , Prueba de Estudio Conceptual
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803614

RESUMEN

Human activities significantly contribute to worldwide spread of phytopathological adversities. Pathogen-related food losses are today responsible for a reduction in quantity and quality of yield and decrease value and financial returns. As a result, "early detection" in combination with "fast, accurate, and cheap" diagnostics have also become the new mantra in plant pathology, especially for emerging diseases or challenging pathogens that spread thanks to asymptomatic individuals with subtle initial symptoms but are then difficult to face. Furthermore, in a globalized market sensitive to epidemics, innovative tools suitable for field-use represent the new frontier with respect to diagnostic laboratories, ensuring that the instruments and techniques used are suitable for the operational contexts. In this framework, portable systems and interconnection with Internet of Things (IoT) play a pivotal role. Here we review innovative diagnostic methods based on nanotechnologies and new perspectives concerning information and communication technology (ICT) in agriculture, resulting in an improvement in agricultural and rural development and in the ability to revolutionize the concept of "preventive actions", making the difference in fighting against phytopathogens, all over the world.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Internet de las Cosas , Humanos , Nanotecnología , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Plantas
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806682

RESUMEN

Dentistry, as a branch of medicine, has undergone continuous evolution over time. The scientific world has focused its attention on the development of new methods and materials with improved properties that meet the needs of patients. For this purpose, the replacement of so-called "passive" dental materials that do not interact with the oral environment with "smart/intelligent" materials that have the capability to change their shape, color, or size in response to an externally stimulus, such as the temperature, pH, light, moisture, stress, electric or magnetic fields, and chemical compounds, has received much attention in recent years. A strong trend in dental applications is to apply nanotechnology and smart nanomaterials such as nanoclays, nanofibers, nanocomposites, nanobubbles, nanocapsules, solid-lipid nanoparticles, nanospheres, metallic nanoparticles, nanotubes, and nanocrystals. Among the nanomaterials, the smart nanoparticles present several advantages compared to other materials, creating the possibility to use them in various dental applications, including preventive dentistry, endodontics, restoration, and periodontal diseases. This review is focused on the recent developments and dental applications (drug delivery systems and restoration materials) of smart nanoparticles.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Tecnología Odontológica/métodos , Animales , Odontología , Humanos , Lípidos/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Nanocompuestos/química , Nanotecnología/métodos , Temperatura
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1310: 401-447, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834444

RESUMEN

Nanotechnology has been widely applied to medical interventions for prevention, diagnostics, and therapeutics of diseases, and the application of nanotechnology for medical purposes, which is called as a term "nanomedicine" has received tremendous attention. In particular, the design and development of nanoparticle for biosensors have received a great deal of attention, since those are most impactful area of clinical translation showing potential breakthrough in early diagnosis of diseases such as cancers and infections. For example, the nanoparticles that have intrinsic unique features such as magnetic responsive characteristics or photoluminescence can be utilized for noninvasive visualization of inner body. Drug delivery that makes use of drug-containing nanoparticles as a carrier is another field of study, in which the particulate form nanomedicine is given by parenteral administration for further systemic targeting to pathological tissues. In addition, encapsulation into nanoparticles gives the opportunity to secure the sensitive therapeutic payloads that are readily degraded or deactivated until reached to the target in biological environments, or to provide sufficient solubilization (e.g., to deliver compounds which have physicochemical properties that strongly limit their aqueous solubility and therefore systemic bioavailability). The nanomedicine is further intended to enhance the targeting index such as increased specificity and reduced false binding, thus improve the diagnostic and therapeutic performances. In this chapter, principles of nanomaterials for medicine will be thoroughly covered with applications for imaging-based diagnostics and therapeutics.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Humanos , Nanomedicina , Nanotecnología , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico
6.
J Vis Exp ; (169)2021 03 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843933

RESUMEN

There are many methods that can be used for the production of vaporizable phase-shift droplets for imaging and therapy. Each method utilizes different techniques and varies in price, materials, and purpose. Many of these fabrication methods result in polydisperse populations with non-uniform activation thresholds. Additionally, controlling the droplet sizes typically requires stable perfluorocarbon liquids with high activation thresholds that are not practical in vivo. Producing uniform droplet sizes using low-boiling point gases would be beneficial for in vivo imaging and therapy experiments. This article describes a simple and economical method for the formation of size-filtered lipid-stabilized phase-shift nanodroplets with low-boiling point decafluorobutane (DFB). A common method of generating lipid microbubbles is described, in addition to a novel method of condensing them with high-pressure extrusion in a single step. This method is designed to save time, maximize efficiency, and generate larger volumes of microbubble and nanodroplet solutions for a wide variety of applications using common laboratory equipment found in many biological laboratories.


Asunto(s)
Fluorocarburos/química , Microburbujas/normas , Nanotecnología/métodos
7.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801952

RESUMEN

The predictable nature of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) interactions enables assembly of DNA into almost any arbitrary shape with programmable features of nanometer precision. The recent progress of DNA nanotechnology has allowed production of an even wider gamut of possible shapes with high-yield and error-free assembly processes. Most of these structures are, however, limited in size to a nanometer scale. To overcome this limitation, a plethora of studies has been carried out to form larger structures using DNA assemblies as building blocks or tiles. Therefore, DNA tiles have become one of the most widely used building blocks for engineering large, intricate structures with nanometer precision. To create even larger assemblies with highly organized patterns, scientists have developed a variety of structural design principles and assembly methods. This review first summarizes currently available DNA tile toolboxes and the basic principles of lattice formation and hierarchical self-assembly using DNA tiles. Special emphasis is given to the forces involved in the assembly process in liquid-liquid and at solid-liquid interfaces, and how to master them to reach the optimum balance between the involved interactions for successful self-assembly. In addition, we focus on the recent approaches that have shown great potential for the controlled immobilization and positioning of DNA nanostructures on different surfaces. The ability to position DNA objects in a controllable manner on technologically relevant surfaces is one step forward towards the integration of DNA-based materials into nanoelectronic and sensor devices.


Asunto(s)
ADN/química , ADN/síntesis química , Nanotecnología/métodos , Nanoestructuras/química
8.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 16(6): 497-516, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683164

RESUMEN

COVID-19, as an emerging infectious disease, has caused significant mortality and morbidity along with socioeconomic impact. No effective treatment or vaccine has been approved yet for this pandemic disease. Cutting-edge tools, especially nanotechnology, should be strongly considered to tackle this virus. This review aims to propose several strategies to design and fabricate effective diagnostic and therapeutic agents against COVID-19 by the aid of nanotechnology. Polymeric, inorganic self-assembling materials and peptide-based nanoparticles are promising tools for battling COVID-19 as well as its rapid diagnosis. This review summarizes all of the exciting advances nanomaterials are making toward COVID-19 prevention, diagnosis and therapy.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Nanomedicina/métodos , Nanoestructuras/uso terapéutico , Animales , /métodos , Humanos , Nanoestructuras/química , Nanotecnología/métodos , Péptidos/química , Péptidos/uso terapéutico , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/uso terapéutico , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/uso terapéutico , /aislamiento & purificación
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672772

RESUMEN

Despite barrier measures and physical distancing tailored by the populations worldwide, coronavirus continues to spread causing severe health and social-economic problems. Therefore, researchers are focusing on developing efficient detection and therapeutic platforms for SARS-CoV2. In this context, various biotechnologies, based on novel molecules targeting the virus with high specificity and affinity, have been described. In parallel, new approaches exploring nanotechnology have been proposed for enhancing treatments and diagnosis. We discuss in the first part of this review paper, the different biosensing and rapid tests based on antibodies, nucleic acids and peptide probes described since the beginning of the pandemic. Furthermore, given their numerous advantages, the contribution of nanotechnologies is also highlighted.


Asunto(s)
Biotecnología/tendencias , /terapia , Nanotecnología/tendencias , Técnicas Biosensibles , Humanos
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1973, 2021 03 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785760

RESUMEN

Optical evanescent sensors can non-invasively detect unlabeled nanoscale objects in real time with unprecedented sensitivity, enabling a variety of advances in fundamental physics and biological applications. However, the intrinsic low-frequency noise therein with an approximately 1/f-shaped spectral density imposes an ultimate detection limit for monitoring many paramount processes, such as antigen-antibody reactions, cell motions and DNA hybridizations. Here, we propose and demonstrate a 1/f-noise-free optical sensor through an up-converted detection system. Experimentally, in a CMOS-compatible heterodyne interferometer, the sampling noise amplitude is suppressed by two orders of magnitude. It pushes the label-free single-nanoparticle detection limit down to the attogram level without exploiting cavity resonances, plasmonic effects, or surface charges on the analytes. Single polystyrene nanobeads and HIV-1 virus-like particles are detected as a proof-of-concept demonstration for airborne biosensing. Based on integrated waveguide arrays, our devices hold great potentials for multiplexed and rapid sensing of diverse viruses or molecules.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles/instrumentación , Interferometría/instrumentación , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador/instrumentación , Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interferometría/métodos , Límite de Detección , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnología/métodos
11.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645579

RESUMEN

Lymphedema is extremity swelling caused by lymphatic dysfunction. The affected limb enlarges because of accumulation of fluid, adipose, and fibrosis. There is no cure for this disease. A mouse tail model that uses a focal full thickness skin excision near the base of the tail, resulting in tail swelling, has been used to study lymphedema. However, this model may result in vascular comprise and consequent tail necrosis and early tail swelling resolution, limiting its clinical translatability. The chronic murine tail lymphedema model induces sustained lymphedema over 15 weeks and a reliable perfusion to the tail. Enhancements of the traditional murine tail lymphedema model include 1) precise full thickness excision and lymphatic clipping using a surgical microscope, 2) confirmation of post-operative arterial and venous perfusion using high resolution laser speckle, and 3) functional assessment using indocyanine green near infrared laser lymphangiography. We also use tissue nanotransfection technology (TNT) for novel non-viral, transcutaneous, focal delivery of genetic cargo to the mouse tail vasculature.


Asunto(s)
Linfedema/patología , Cola (estructura animal)/patología , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Imagenología Tridimensional , Vasos Linfáticos/patología , Linfedema/diagnóstico por imagen , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Nanotecnología , Cola (estructura animal)/diagnóstico por imagen , Cola (estructura animal)/cirugía
12.
Life Sci ; 274: 119289, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676931

RESUMEN

COVID-19 outbreak can impose serious negative impacts on the infrastructures of societies including the healthcare systems. Despite the increasing research efforts, false positive or negative results that may be associated with serologic or even RT-PCR tests, inappropriate or variable immune response, and high rates of mutations in coronavirus may negatively affect virus detection process and effectiveness of the vaccines or drugs in development. Nanotechnology-based research attempts via developing state-of-the-art techniques such as nanomechatronics ones and advanced materials including the sensors for detecting the pathogen loads at very low concentrations or site-specific delivery of therapeutics, and real-time protections against the pandemic outbreaks by nanorobots can provide outstanding biomedical breakthroughs. Considering the unique characteristics of pathogens particularly the newly-emerged ones and avoiding the exaggerated optimism or simplistic views on the prophylactic and therapeutic approaches including the one-size-fits-all ones or presenting multiple medications that may be associated with synergistic toxicities rather than enhanced efficiencies might pave the way towards the development of more appropriate treatment strategies with reduced safety concerns. This paper highlights the significance of nanoplatforms against the viral disorders and their capabilities of genome editing that may facilitate taking more appropriate measures against SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Edición Génica , Nanotecnología/métodos , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Antivirales/administración & dosificación , /genética , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Humanos , /genética
13.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(4): 121, 2021 03 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694010

RESUMEN

A voltammetric genosensor has been developed for the early diagnosis of COVID-19 by determination of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) sequence as a specific target of novel coronavirus. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses an RdRP for the replication of its genome and the transcription of its genes. Here, the silver ions (Ag+) in the hexathia-18-crown-6 (HT18C6) were used for the first time as a redox probe. Then, the HT18C6(Ag) incorporated carbon paste electrode (CPE) was further modified with chitosan and PAMAM dendrimer-coated silicon quantum dots (SiQDs@PAMAM) for immobilization of probe sequences (aminated oligonucleotides). The current intensity of differential pulse voltammetry using the redox probe was found to decrease with increasing the concentration of target sequence. Based on such signal-off trend, the proposed genosensor exhibited a good linear response to SARS-CoV-2 RdRP in the concentration range 1.0 pM-8.0 nM with a regression equation I (µA) = - 6.555 log [RdRP sequence] (pM) + 32.676 (R2 = 0.995) and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.3 pM. The standard addition method with different spike concentrations of RdRP sequence in human sputum samples showed a good recovery for real sample analysis (> 95%). Therefore, the developed voltammetric genosensor can be used to determine SARS-CoV-2 RdRP sequence in sputum samples. PAMAM-functionalized SiQDs were used as a versatile electrochemical platform for the SARS-CoV-2 RdRP detection based on a signal off sensing strategy. In this study, for the first time, the silver ions (Ag+) in the hexathia-18-crown-6 carrier were applied as an electrochemical probe.


Asunto(s)
/instrumentación , Nanotecnología/métodos , /genética , Técnicas Biosensibles , Dendrímeros , Diagnóstico Precoz , Electrodos , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Esputo/virología , Replicación Viral/genética
14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(7): 2615-2624, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710356

RESUMEN

A most discussed topic of the new decade, COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the recently discovered SARS-CoV-2. With an exceedingly high transmission rate, COVID-19 has affected almost all the countries in the world. Absent any vaccine or specific treatment, the humanity is left with nothing but the legacy method of quarantine. However, quarantine can only be effective when combined with early diagnosis of suspected cases. With their high sensitivity and unmatched specificity, biosensors have become an area of interest for development of novel diagnostic methods. Compared to the more traditional diagnostics, nanobiotechnology introduces biosensors as different diagnostics with greater versatility in application. Today, a growing number of analytes are being accurately identified by these nanoscopic sensing machines. Several reports of validated application with real samples further strengthen this idea. As of recent, there has been a rise in the number of studies on portable biosensors. Despite the slow progression, certain devices with embedded biosensors have managed to be of diagnostic value in several countries. The perceptible increase in development of mobile platforms has revolutionized the healthcare delivery system in the new millennium. The present article reviews the most recent advancements in development of diagnostic nanobiosensors and their application in the clinical fields. KEY POINTS: • There is no specific treatment for highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2. • Early diagnosis is critical for control of pandemic. • Highly sensitive/specific nanobiosensors are emerging assets against COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Diagnóstico Precoz , Técnicas Biosensibles/instrumentación , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Nanotecnología , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico , /aislamiento & purificación
15.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(5)2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760125

RESUMEN

Respiratory disease is a common disease with a high incidence worldwide, which is a serious threat to human health, and is considered a societal and economic burden. The application of nanotechnology in drug delivery systems has created new treatments for respiratory diseases. Within this context, the present review systematically introduced the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs); reviewed the current research status of different nanocarriers in the treatment of respiratory diseases, including liposomes, solid lipid nanocarriers, polymeric nanocarriers, dendrimers, inorganic nanocarriers and protein nanocarriers; and discussed the main advantages and limitations of therapeutic nanomedicine in this field. The application of nanotechnology overcomes drug inherent deficiencies to a certain extent, and provides unlimited potential for the development of drugs to treat respiratory diseases. However, most of the related research work is in the preclinical experimental stage and safety assessment is still a challenging task. Future studies are needed to focus on the performance modification, molecular mechanism and potential toxicity of therapeutic nanomedicine.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Enfermedades Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/uso terapéutico , Nanotecnología/tendencias , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Liposomas/química , Liposomas/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Pulmonares/patología , Nanomedicina/tendencias , Nanopartículas/química
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 1391-1403, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658779

RESUMEN

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic diabetes complication that progressively manifests itself as blurred vision, eye floaters, distorted vision, and even partial or total loss of vision as a result of retinal detachment in severe cases. Clinically, patients who have undergone variations in the microcirculation of the ocular fundus are treated with laser photocoagulation to improve the circulation of retina; but for patients with macular edema, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drugs are generally injected to eliminate macular edema and improve vision. The worst cases are patients with fundus hemorrhage or proliferative vitreoretinopathy, for whom vitrectomy has been performed. At present, these clinical treatment methods have widely been used, providing satisfactory results. However, considering the low bioavailability and potential side effects of drugs and the inevitable risks in major surgery, DR prevention, and treatment as well as nerve tissue regeneration in the later stage have always been the focus of research. In recent years, nanotechnology has been increasingly applied in the medical field, leading to new ideas for DR treatment. This study aims to systematically review the research progress of nanotechnology in DR treatment.


Asunto(s)
Retinopatía Diabética/terapia , Nanotecnología/métodos , Retinopatía Diabética/tratamiento farmacológico , Retinopatía Diabética/prevención & control , Retinopatía Diabética/cirugía , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Técnicas de Transferencia de Gen , Humanos , Nanoestructuras/uso terapéutico , Regeneración
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 1575-1586, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664572

RESUMEN

Background: Exosomes are a type of membrane vesicles secreted by living cells. Recent studies suggest exosome-like nanovesicles (ELNVs) from fruits and vegetables are involved in tissue renewal process and functional regulation against inflammatory diseases or cancers. However, there are few reports on ELNVs derived from medicinal plants. Methods: ELNVs derived from Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. (ACNVs) were isolated and characterized. Cytotoxicity, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing capacity of ACNVs against hepatoma carcinoma cell were assessed. The endocytosis mechanism of ACNVs was evaluated on Hep G2 cells in the presence of different endocytosis inhibitors. In vivo distribution of ACNVs was detected in healthy and tumor-bearing mice after scavenger receptors (SRs) blockade. PEG engineering of ACNVs was achieved through optimizing the pharmacokinetic profiles. In vivo antitumor activity and toxicity were evaluated in Hep G2 cell xenograft model. Results: ACNVs were isolated and purified using a differential centrifugation method accompanied by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. The optimized ACNVs had an average size of about 119 nm and showed a typical cup-shaped nanostructure containing lipids, proteins, and RNAs. ACNVs were found to possess specific antitumor cell proliferation activity associated with an apoptosis-inducing pathway. ACNVs could be internalized into tumor cells mainly via phagocytosis, but they were quickly cleared once entering the blood. Blocking the SRs or PEGylation decoration prolonged the blood circulation time and increased the accumulation of ACNVs in tumor sites. In vivo antitumor results showed that PEGylated ACNVs could significantly inhibit tumor growth without side effects. Conclusion: This study provides a promising functional nano platform derived from edible Asparagus cochinchinensis that can be used in antitumor therapy with negligible side effects.


Asunto(s)
Asparagaceae/química , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patología , Exosomas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patología , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnología , Animales , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Endocitosis/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Desnudos , Nanopartículas/efectos adversos , Nanopartículas/ultraestructura , Polietilenglicoles/química , Distribución Tisular/efectos de los fármacos , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
18.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(3): 93, 2021 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683499

RESUMEN

Heterogeneity in tumor expression as well as expression in normal tissues of various targets limit the usefulness of current ligand-based active targeting approaches. Incorporation of synthetic receptors, which can be recognized by delivery systems engineered to present specific functional groups on the surface, is a novel approach to improve tumor targeting. Alternatively, introduction of synthetic functionalities on cellular carriers can also enhance tumor targeting. We review various strategies that have been utilized for the introduction of synthetic targets in tumor tissues. The introduction of synthetic functional groups in the tumor through improved strategies is anticipated to result in improved target specificity and reduced heterogeneity in target expression.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Receptores Artificiales , Receptores de Droga/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Portadores de Fármacos , Humanos , Nanotecnología
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1309: 1-22, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782866

RESUMEN

Nano is a fine metric unit which means "one billionth." Nanotechnology is attracting attention as a technological basis to lead the fourth industry. By utilizing synergistic properties obtained from controlling the structure or arrangement of materials at the nanoscale, nanotechnology has evolved rapidly over the past half century and is active in a variety of fields such as materials, pharmaceuticals, and biology. This chapter briefly describes the concept and features of nanotechnology, as well as the preparation, analysis, characterization, and application of nanomaterials. Also, the prospects for nanotechnology along with the nanotoxicity are described.


Asunto(s)
Nanoestructuras , Nanotecnología
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1309: 41-65, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782868

RESUMEN

Silica consists of one silicon atom and two oxygen atoms (SiO2) and is commonly used in various aspects of daily life. For example, it has been used as glass, insulator, and so on. Nowadays, silica is used as core reagents for fabricating and encapsulating nanoparticles (NPs). In this chapter, the usage of silica in nanotechnology is described. Synthesis and surface modification of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs), including via the Stöber method, reverse microemulsion method, and modified sol-gel method, are illustrated. Then, various NPs with silica encapsulation are explained. At last, the biological applications of those mentioned NPs are described.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas , Dióxido de Silicio , Nanotecnología
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