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Am J Bioeth ; 21(2): 74-76, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534676

Narración , Humanos
J Med Humanit ; 42(1): 63-80, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616830


Modern scholarship has drawn hasty and numerous parallels between the Yellow Peril discourses of the 19th- and 20th-century plagues and the recent racialization of infectious disease in the 21st-century. While highlighting these similarities is politically useful against Sinophobic epidemic narratives, Michel Foucault argues that truly understanding the past's continuity in the present requires a more rigorous genealogical approach. Employing this premise in a comparative analysis, this work demonstrates a critical discontinuity in the epidemic imaginary that framed the Chinese as pathogenic. Consequently, those seeking to prevent future disease racialization must understand modern Sinophobia as fundamentally distinct from that of the past.

Epidemias , China , Epidemias/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Narración , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
J Med Humanit ; 42(1): 81-101, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620597


The ongoing trauma of COVID-19 will no doubt mark entire generations in ways inherent in an unmanaged global pandemic. The question that I ask is why this ongoing trauma seems so particularly profound and so uniquely shattering, and whether there is anything that we could do now, while still in the midst of disaster, to begin the process of social and moral repair? I will begin by considering the trauma of isolation with unknown time-horizons, and argue that it not only damages our experiences as social selves, but its languages of overwhelming grief rob us of hope of self-restoration. Second, I will examine some reasons for the "why us"-type of trauma experienced by so many in the Global North, and suggest that such laments are predicated on the misalignment among our socio-historical awareness, disaster-imagination, and our sense of ourselves as uniquely unfortunate. Finally, relying in part on Viktor Frankl's notion of "tragic optimism," I conclude by considering how we may begin to reconsider our traumas as not just endings of what is, but beginnings of what still might be -as repair without a master plan.

Pesar , Narración , Humanos , Optimismo , Pandemias
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25429, 2021 02 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523826


BACKGROUND: As the number of COVID-19 cases increased precipitously in the United States, policy makers and health officials marshalled their pandemic responses. As the economic impacts multiplied, anecdotal reports noted the increased use of web-based crowdfunding to defray these costs. OBJECTIVE: We examined the web-based crowdfunding response in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States to understand the incidence of initiation of COVID-19-related campaigns and compare them to non-COVID-19-related campaigns. METHODS: On May 16, 2020, we extracted all available data available on US campaigns that contained narratives and were created between January 1 and May 10, 2020, on GoFundMe. We identified the subset of COVID-19-related campaigns using keywords relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. We explored the incidence of COVID-19-related campaigns by geography, by category, and over time, and we compared the characteristics of the campaigns to those of non-COVID-19-related campaigns after March 11, when the pandemic was declared. We then used a natural language processing algorithm to cluster campaigns by narrative content using overlapping keywords. RESULTS: We found that there was a substantial increase in overall GoFundMe web-based crowdfunding campaigns in March, largely attributable to COVID-19-related campaigns. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic persisted and progressed, the number of campaigns per COVID-19 case declined more than tenfold across all states. The states with the earliest disease burden had the fewest campaigns per case, indicating a lack of a case-dependent response. COVID-19-related campaigns raised more money, had a longer narrative description, and were more likely to be shared on Facebook than other campaigns in the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Web-based crowdfunding appears to be a stopgap for only a minority of campaigners. The novelty of an emergency likely impacts both campaign initiation and crowdfunding success, as it reflects the affective response of a community. Crowdfunding activity likely serves as an early signal for emerging needs and societal sentiment for communities in acute distress that could be used by governments and aid organizations to guide disaster relief and policy.

/epidemiología , Colaboración de las Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Apoyo Financiero , /economía , Costo de Enfermedad , Estudios Transversales , Colaboración de las Masas/economía , Gobierno , Humanos , Narración , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445700


This study focuses on the development of executive functions in preschool children during a series of science activities. A longitudinal play-based learning intervention was designed and implemented following the design of an educational experiment. Data were collected through visual ethnography in hot situations with adult supervision. Results show how entwined the concepts of inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility are within young children's development. The development of cognitive flexibility or attention shifting readily occurred when there were fictive characters (such as the king and his royal family), but changing perspective toward a nonfictive environment (i.e., taking other children's perspectives) was a more difficult and time-consuming process. This process began in an individual perspective and expanded to acknowledging others' perspectives, then moved toward creating common perspectives or alternative narratives. Results show that science activities can be a bridge for preschool children to transfer their use of executive functions, from fairytales and games toward everyday tasks.

Atención , Función Ejecutiva , Adulto , Preescolar , Humanos , Narración , Instituciones Académicas
J Homosex ; 68(1): 47-69, 2021 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188720


Many LGBT people with a Christian upbringing experience conflict between their religious and sexual identities. Many resolve this conflict by leaving Christianity, others by moving to affirming churches. Some research has examined the experiences of LGBT people who choose to attend conservative churches; however, there has been very little research on the experiences of non-heterosexual women in the Catholic Church. Narrative and thematic analyses of data collected through qualitative interviews with six non-heterosexual Catholic women revealed several ways participants had integrated their faith and sexuality: acceptance from other Catholics, distinguishing between the Church and God, meeting other LGBT Christians, and developing a personal relationship with God. These reflect strategies adopted by gay Catholic men and LGBT Christians attending Protestant churches. Nonetheless, participants reported that their experiences varied from those of gay Catholic men due to gay men being more visible and more subject to prejudice within the Church.

Catolicismo , Homosexualidad Femenina , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adulto , Bisexualidad , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Masculino , Narración , Mujeres/psicología , Adulto Joven
Health Commun ; 36(1): 42-49, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225758


COVID-19 created a substantial set of challenges for health communication practitioners in the process of planning, implementing, and evaluating entertainment-education (EE) campaigns. EE is a theory and evidence-based communication strategy that employs entertainment media for educational messaging. Here, we briefly review EE campaigns in response to previous health emergencies and present three cases of EE responses to the COVID-19 pandemic from leading global organizations (PCI Media, BBC Media Action, and Sesame Workshop). Responses ranged from adaptation and re-distribution of existing content to creating new content under social-distancing restrictions and utilizing transmedia. These cases demonstrate that EE initiatives responding to future pandemics may be well served by starting with existing infrastructure to quickly build capacity, support, and trust; working with partners to tailor programs to the local context; and continuing to focus on good storytelling while simultaneously considering evolving media formats and theory.

/epidemiología , Comunicación en Salud/métodos , Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Narración , Creación de Capacidad , Competencia Cultural , Humanos , Estudios de Casos Organizacionales , Pandemias , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Confianza
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(2): 41-54, jul.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1125730


A teoria do estresse de minoria (EM) defende que minorias sociais vivenciam estressores específicos adicionais aos estressores cotidianos. Fatores individuais e do meio podem funcionar como fatores de risco e/ou de proteção no comprometimento da saúde mental de pessoas LGB. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar e discutir a teoria do EM em indivíduos LGB por meio de uma revisão narrativa. Compreender a ocorrência do EM em pessoas LGB pode auxiliar na elaboração de planos interventivos, de ordem clínica ou social, com o objetivo de minimizar os efeitos do preconceito nestes indivíduos.

The minority stress (MS) theory argues that social minorities experience specific stressors added to everyday stressors. Individual and contextual factors can function as risk and/or protective factors without compromising the mental health of LGB people. This study aims to present and discuss the theory of MS in LGB individuals through a narrative review. Understanding the occurrence of MS in LGB people can assist in the elaboration of intervention plans, of a clinical or social nature to minimize the effects of prejudice in these situations.

La teoría del estrés de minoría (EM) argumenta que las minorías sociales experimentan factores estresantes que se agregan a los factores estresantes cotidianos. Los factores individuales y contextuales pueden funcionar como factores de riesgo o protectores sin comprometer la salud mental de las personas LGB. El objetivo de este estudio es presentar y discutir la teoría de EM en individuos LGB a través de una revisión narrativa. Comprender el EM en personas LGB puede ayudar en la elaboración de planes de intervención, de naturaleza clínica o social, con el objetivo de minimizar los efectos de los prejuicios en estas situaciones.

Prejuicio , Estrés Psicológico , Salud Mental , Riesgo , Vulnerabilidad Social , Narración , Comprensión , Factores Protectores , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Distrés Psicológico , Grupos Minoritarios
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(4): 892-911, out.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145566


Este artigo se propõe a analisar cenas de parto exibidas em telenovelas brasileiras, criteriosamente selecionadas, com o objetivo de identificar as representações de diferentes formas de violência obstétrica, explícitas ou veladas. Para tanto, optamos por dois métodos complementares: a análise de conteúdo e a análise de imagens em movimento. Como resultado, identificamos três eixos que abarcam as diferentes expressões midiatizadas da violência contra a parturiente: violência pela situação, violência pelo abandono e violência direta. Na discussão, pontuamos consonâncias e dissonâncias entre ficção e realidade, além da falta de problematização acerca do tema, o que, de forma sintomática, contribui para a sua naturalização.

This article proposes to analyze scenes of childbirth broadcasted by Brazilian soap operas, carefully selected, aiming to identify the representation of different forms of obstetric violence, explicit or veiled. Therefore, we selected two complementary methods: the content analysis and the analysis of moving images. As a result, we have identified three axes that include the different expressions of the violence against the parturient by the media: violence by situation, violence by abandonment and direct violence. Through the discussion, we pointed consonances and dissonances between fiction and reality, as well as the lack of problematization regarding the theme, which, symptomatically, contributes to its naturalization.

Este artículo se propone a analizar escenas de parto exhibidas en telenovelas brasileñas, criteriosamente seleccionadas, con el objetivo de identificar las representaciones de diferentes formas de violencia obstétrica, explicitas o veladas. Para eso, optamos por dos métodos complementares: el análisis de contenido y el análisis de imágenes en movimiento. Como resultado, identificamos tres ejes que abarcan las diversas expresiones mediatizadas de la violencia contra la parturiente: violencia por la situación, violencia por abandono y violencia directa. En la discusión, puntuamos consonancias y disonancias entre ficción y realidad, además de la falta de problematización acerca del tema, lo que, de forma sintomática, contribuye para su naturalización.

Humanos , Televisión , Violencia , Actuación (Psicología) , Parto , Mujeres Embarazadas , Conducta Social , Salud de la Mujer , Comunicación , Participación de la Comunidad , Obra de Ficción , Narración , Películas Cinematográficas
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 54(6): 1632-1653, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143907


Abstract This study applies the "Narrative Policy Framework" (NPF) to the affirmative action policy process of the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPEL) and proposes theoretical intersection between the NPF and agenda setting literature, seeking to find out the role of policy narratives in policy processes. NPF is an empiric-oriented framework that posits that the policy-makers' stories have generalizable components and are built and crafted in accordance to their ideas. These are policy narratives, and are at the center of the policy process. By analyzing formulation stages of public policy and referring to ideas and narratives, the NPF refers to the agenda setting literature and provides means for empirical research of agenda setting concepts. The study undertook analysis of regulatory outputs and semi-structured interviews. Findings indicate that policy narratives have affected institutional regulatory outputs regarding UFPel's affirmative action policies.

Resumen: Este artículo aplica el Narrative Policy Framework (NPF) al proceso de producción de políticas de acciones afirmativas de la Universidad Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL) y propone avances teóricos que exploran la intersección entre el NPF y la literatura sobre formación de agenda. El NPF es un enfoque orientado empíricamente que propone que las historias que utilizan los actores en el proceso de formulación de políticas tienen componentes generalizables y se crean estratégicamente de acuerdo con sus ideas y sistemas de creencias. Estas historias se llaman "narrativas de política" y se consideran una parte central de los procesos de políticas públicas. Al analizar la formulación de políticas públicas y abordar el papel de las ideas y narrativas, el NPF dialoga directamente con la literatura sobre la formación de la agenda y proporciona medios para la investigación empírica de conceptos desarrollados en este enfoque. La metodología para este estudio utiliza análisis de documentos reglamentarios y entrevistas semiestructuradas. Los resultados indican que se utilizaron narrativas de políticas e influyeron en la regulación de las políticas de acciones afirmativas de la UFPEL.

Resumo Este artigo aplica o "Narrative Policy Framework" (NPF) ao processo de produção das políticas de ações afirmativas da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL) e propõe especificação de intersecção teórica entre o NPF e a literatura sobre formação de agenda, visando responder questões sobre o papel das narrativas em processos de produção de políticas públicas. O NPF é uma abordagem de orientação empírica que propõe que as histórias que os atores do processo de produção de políticas públicas utilizam têm componentes generalizáveis e são criadas estrategicamente, de acordo com suas ideias e sistemas de crença. Essas histórias são chamadas "narrativas de política" e são consideradas parte central dos processos de políticas públicas. Ao analisar a formulação de políticas públicas e abordar o papel das ideias e das narrativas, o NPF dialoga diretamente com a abordagem da formação de agenda e provê meios para a pesquisa empírica de conceitos desenvolvidos nesta literatura. A metodologia para este estudo utiliza análise de documentos regulatórios oficiais e entrevistas semiestruturadas. Resultados indicam que narrativas de política foram utilizadas e influenciaram a regulamentação das políticas de ações afirmativas da UFPel.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Política , Política Pública/historia , Narración , Reglamentación de Organismos de Política
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244440, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370410


Effectively communicating risk is critical to reducing conflict in human-wildlife interactions. Using a survey experiment fielded in the midst of contentious public debate over flying fox management in urban and suburban areas of Australia, we find that stories with characters (i.e., narratives) are more effective than descriptive information at mobilizing support for different forms of bat management, including legal protection, relocation, and habitat restoration. We use conditional process analysis to show that narratives, particularly with accompanying images, are effective because they cause emotional reactions that influence risk perception, which in turn drives public opinion about strategies for risk mitigation. We find that prior attitudes towards bats matter in how narrative messages are received, in particular in how strongly they generate shifts in affective response, risk perception, and public opinion. Our results suggest that those with warm prior attitudes towards bats report greater support for bat dispersal when they perceive impacts from bats to be more likely, while those with cool priors report greater support for bat protection when they perceive impacts from bats to be more positive, revealing 1) potential opportunities for targeted messaging to boost public buy-in of proposals to manage risks associated with human-wildlife interactions, and 2) potential vulnerabilities to disinformation regarding risk.

Quirópteros , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Narración , Opinión Pública , Distribución Animal , Animales , Australia , Ecosistema , Emociones , Humanos , Evaluación y Mitigación de Riesgos
Soins ; 65(850): 31-34, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357736


Cross-cultural consultation often uses metaphors. These promote narration, facilitate the therapeutic alliance, and allow psychic elaborations that release our patients' pains. The terms and conditions of their use, as well as their purposes, are more and more determined. They draw from imagination and therapists' lived experiences, in classical stories, in tales and fables from various cultures. This gives them real therapeutic potential, which must be learned to use.

Metáfora , Narración , Dolor , Humanos
Soins ; 65(850): 43-45, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357739


As part of a clinical practice which aims to alleviate the psychological suffering of children in situations of migration and/or uprooting, a discussion can be undertaken regarding the cultural aetiologies of migrant families whose children present autism spectrum disorders. The transcultural context enables families to travel between worlds as well as share their collective imagination regarding psychological suffering using graphic expression and narrative elements.

Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Migrantes , Niño , Humanos , Narración , Padres , Estrés Psicológico
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207740


The world has been affected by an outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Health care workers are among those most at risk of contracting the virus. In the fight against the coronavirus, nurses play a critical role. Still, most social media platforms demonstrate that nurses fear that their health is not being prioritized. The purpose of this study is to investigate nurses' experiences through analyzing the main themes shared on Instagram by nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. In contrast with highly structured research, the current paper highlights nurses' natural language use in describing their experiences during the first months of the outbreak in their workplace. Instagram captions were utilized as a data source. Leximancer was utilized for the content analysis of nurses' narratives towards their coronavirus experience. We sought to accomplish three research objectives: the first was to identify the main themes in the descriptions of nurses' experiences shared via their social media, specifically Instagram; then, to determine the relationships among concepts, and finally, to give useful implications based on the findings. The current study uses a qualitative (i.e., narratives) approach to analyze the main components of the nurses' experiences during the pandemic. The Leximancer software analysis revealed nine major textual themes and the relationships among these themes. In order of the relative importance, the themes were "patients", "coronavirus", "exhaustion", "family", "hospital", "personal protective equipment" (PPE), "shift", "fear", and "uncertainty". The results offer practical implications based on the social media information regarding nurses' overall experiences.

Infecciones por Coronavirus , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Narración , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
Tog (A Coruña) ; 17(2): 138-149, nov. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-198811


OBJETIVOS: construir el perfil biográfico de una de las mujeres fundadoras y principales representantes de la terapia ocupacional en Chile: Brígida Flores. MÉTODO: desde un paradigma interpretativo, por medio del enfoque biográfico e incorporando elementos de la teoría fundamentada, se realiza el rescate de la historia oral por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas en profundidad a personas cercanas que tuvieron relación con Brígida Flores. Además, se analizan textos académicos publicados y no publicados, material audiovisual, entre otros documentos. RESULTADOS: se realiza una codificación de la información por medio de intervalos cronológicos, generando la construcción de un perfil biográfico en base a la saturación de la información. Junto con ello, se incorporan elementos contextuales de la época en que Brígida Flores ejerció como terapeuta ocupacional y académica. Así, se identifican diferentes momentos de su historia. CONCLUSIONES: se destaca a Brígida Flores como una de las mujeres más relevantes e influyentes en los inicios de la profesión. Su historia ha trascendido diferentes generaciones y lugares del país. Sus enseñanzas son parte de la identidad profesional de muchas/os terapeutas ocupacionales de Chile

OBJECTIVE: To write the biographical profile of one of the main female founders and most representative figures in Occupational Therapy in Chile: Brígida Flores. METHOD: From an interpretive paradigm, through the biographical approach and incorporating elements of grounded theory, the rescue of oral history is carried out through in-depth semi-structured interviews with close people who had a relationship with Brígida Flores. Published and unpublished academic texts, audiovisual material, among other documents are also analysed. RESULTS: A codification of the information is carried out by means of chronological intervals, generating the construction of a biographical profile based on the saturation of the information. Along with it, contextual elements from the time when Brígida Flores was an occupational therapist and academic are incorporated. Thus, different moments in its history are identified. CONCLUSIONS: Brígida Flores stands out as one of the most relevant and influential women in the early stages of occupational therapy in Chile. Her history has transcended different generations and places in the country. Her teachings are part of the professional identity of many occupational therapists in Chile

Humanos , Historia del Siglo XX , Terapia Ocupacional/historia , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Narración/historia , Chile , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Análisis de Datos , Docentes Médicos/historia
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 19: 1-9, nov. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148476


El Discurso Narrativo (DN) es una unidad lingüística compleja utilizada en ciertos contextos y que refleja la organización del pensamiento. La evidencia científica muestra que la población sorda, usuaria de ayudas auditivas, presenta dificultades en los diferentes niveles del lenguaje, tanto expresivos como comprensivos, incluida la habilidad para narrar. Además, existe evidencia de que la intervención terapéutica ayudaría a mejorar su rendimiento. Sin embargo, los datos disponibles sobre las características y abordaje del DN en esta población son escasos. El objetivo del estudio es evaluar un programa piloto para trabajar habilidades narrativas en niños chilenos usuarios de ayudas auditivas. Se estudiaron 22 niños con un promedio de edad de 6,5 años, adaptados con audífonos y/o implante coclear. Se aplicó a este grupo de niños una evaluación inicial del DN utilizando el instrumento Evaluación del Discurso Narrativo (EDNA), obteniéndose la Etapa y Desempeño narrativo de cada niño. Luego, se creó y aplicó individualmente un programa de estimulación del discurso narrativo de 12 sesiones una vez por semana. Finalmente, se repitió la evaluación al final del programa. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los resultados obtenidos previo y posterior a la implementación del programa de estimulación. En relación con la Etapa del DN, antes de la intervención el 45,5% de los niños no estructuraba, lo cual se redujo a un 9.1% en la evaluación final. En cuanto al Desempeño, previo a la intervención el 72,7% de los niños presentaba un "déficit narrativo", lo cual se redujo a un 18,2% posterior a la aplicación del programa.

Narrative discourse is considered a linguistic unit that is used in a specific communicative context, being an indicator of thinking organization. Previous evidence shows how hearing aid users, have difficulties with different language skills, both expressive and comprehensive, including the ability to narrate. Additionally, there is evidence showing how therapeutic intervention would help to improve their narrative performance. However, the information available about the discursive skilland the effect ofstimulation programs on it in hearing impaired children is scarce. Accordingly, the present study aims to explore narrative performance in hearing impaired children users of hearing aids/cochlear implants, before and after a narrative speech stimulation program. Twenty-two children diagnosed with bilateral hearing loss users of hearing aids/cochlear implants with a mean age of 6.5 years were included. An initial assessment of the narrative skills was performed using Narrative Discourse Assessment (EDNA), which provided a narrative Stage and a Total score. A twelve-session stimulation program was developed and individually administered to children once a week. Finally, an assessment was performed after the program ended. In the initial assessment, 45.5% of children did not have a structured narrative speech, a percentage that was reduced to a 9.1% in the final evaluation. Statistically significant differences were observed on the EDNA scores when comparing initial and final assessments. The results obtained in the present investigation show how children who use hearing aids/cochlear implants improved significantly their narrative abilities after participating in a pilot narrative speech stimulation program.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Lenguaje Infantil , Implantación Coclear , Narración , Pérdida Auditiva/fisiopatología , Pérdida Auditiva/terapia , Aptitud , Proyectos Piloto , Audífonos
Acute Med ; 19(3): 114-115, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020752


Story telling is a human universal. It is as old as language. Creating and relating narratives form an integral part of how physicians understand and communicate about our patients and their diseases. We ask our patients to help us develop their story ('tell me about when all of this first started'), and then we tell their story back to them to facilitate our understanding ('let me just check I understood; this is how things have progressed'). We use individual patients to anchor our learning in medicine; conditions are better recalled when they are attached to a specific people. Thus, we write case vignettes to improve understand when we teach others.

Aprendizaje , Narración , Humanos