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Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1348971, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481445


Purpose: Population-based and registry studies have shown that chronic hypoparathyroidism is accompanied by long-term complications. We aimed to evaluate the risk of incident comorbidity among patients with chronic postsurgical hypoparathyroidism in real-life clinical practice in Spain. Methods: We performed a multicenter, retrospective cohort study including patients with chronic postsurgical hypoparathyroidism lasting ≥3 years with at least a follow-up visit between January 1, 2022 and September 15, 2023 (group H). The prevalence and incidence of chronic complications including chronic kidney disease, nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, central nervous system disease, mental health disorders, eye disorders, bone mineral density alterations, fracture and cancer were evaluated. Patient data were compared with a group of patients who did not develop hypoparathyroidism, matched by gender, age, and follow-up time after thyroidectomy (group NH). Results: We included 337 patients in group H (median [IQR] age, 45 [36-56] years; median time of follow-up, 8.9 [6.0-13.0] years; women, 84.3%) and 669 in group NH (median age, 47 [37-55] years; median time of follow-up, 8.0 [5.3-12.0] years; women, 84.9%). No significant differences were found in the prevalence of comorbidities at the time of thyroidectomy between both groups. In multivariable adjusted analysis, patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism had significantly higher risk of incident chronic kidney disease (OR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.72-6.91; P<0.001), nephrolithiasis (OR, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.55-7.22; P=0.002), and cardiovascular disease (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.14-3.60; P=0.016), compared with patients without hypoparathyroidism. On the contrary, the risk of fracture was decreased in patients with hypoparathyroidism (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.70; P=0.021). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that, in the clinical practice of Spanish endocrinologists, a significant increase in the risk of chronic kidney disease, nephrolithiasis and cardiovascular disease, as well as a reduction in the risk of fractures is detected. These results are of interest for the development of new clinical guidelines and monitoring protocols for patients with hypoparathyroidism.

Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Fracturas Óseas , Hipoparatiroidismo , Nefrolitiasis , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Comorbilidad , Fracturas Óseas/etiología , Hipoparatiroidismo/etiología , Hipoparatiroidismo/complicaciones , Nefrolitiasis/complicaciones , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/etiología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/complicaciones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tiroidectomía/efectos adversos , Masculino , Adulto
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 96(1): 12231, 2024 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441229


BACKGROUND: In urology, ureteral stents are used to treat obstructive diseases. Hematuria (54%), fever, discomfort, and lower urinary system symptoms are the predominant symptoms related to ureteral stent. AIM: This article links stent symptoms to double-j width and length, as well as patient's height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). Ureteric Stent Symptoms Questionnaire (USSQ) was used to measure ureteral stent symptoms at 1st and 4th week of stent in situ as well as the 4th week after pigtail removal. METHODS: A 200-patient prospective study, where patients were allocated into four groups following ureteral stent insertion depending on the stent characteristics. Those groups were: 4.8 Fr./26 cm (Group A), 4.8 Fr./28 cm (Group B), 6 Fr/26 cm (Group C), and 6 Fr/28 cm (Group D). RESULTS: Men comprised 53.5% of 200 patients. Participants had an average age of 49 ± 15.5 years, height of 175 ± 8.94 cm, and BMI of 23.8 ± 7.6 cm. The laboratory results were identical between groups. At the first and fourth week, groups had similar urine symptoms, pain severity, health status and occupational activities. The difference in pain location was statistically significant. Group A had 82.4% renal back pain in the first week, whereas Group B had 68.8%, Group C 31.3% and Group D 62.5 (p=0.04). At the fourth week, 64.7% of Group A patients reported kidney front pain, compared to 100% of Group B, 93.3% of Group C, and 100% of Group D (p=0.04). There was statistical significance in the sexual activity of the patients. 24.4% of Group C patients stopped sexual activity before stent installation, compared to 10.6%, 8.3%, and 6.4% of the other groups (p=0.03). A moderate percentage of patients had active sexual activity at week 4 (Group A: 7.8%, Group B: 5.8%, Group C: 8.2%, Group D: 4.1%), p=0.83. In multivariate analysis, urinary catheter group, age, weight, height, and BMI did not significantly affect urine index score (UIS), pain index score (PIS), general health (GH), quality of work (QW), and quality of sex (QS). CONCLUSIONS: Despite various attempts to establish the best ureteral stent, the effect of double-j stent physical features on stent-related symptoms remained unknown. No verdict is conceivable without adequate empirical data.

Nefrolitiasis , Uréter , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Femenino , Estudios Prospectivos , Uréter/cirugía , Hematuria , Dolor , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Stents , Calidad de Vida
J Bras Nefrol ; 46(3): e20230146, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498673


The prevalence of nephrolithiasis is increasing worldwide. Despite advances in understanding the pathogenesis of lithiasis, few studies have demonstrated that specific clinical interventions reduce the recurrence of nephrolithiasis. The aim of this review is to analyze the current data and potential effects of iSGLT2 in lithogenesis and try to answer the question: Should we also "gliflozin" our patients with kidney stone disease?

Cálculos Renales , Nefrolitiasis , Inhibidores del Cotransportador de Sodio-Glucosa 2 , Humanos , Sodio , Inhibidores del Cotransportador de Sodio-Glucosa 2/uso terapéutico , Transportador 2 de Sodio-Glucosa , Cálculos Renales/complicaciones , Nefrolitiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Nefrolitiasis/epidemiología
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1289553, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38449847


Aims: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the platelet/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (PHR) and the prevalence of nephrolithiasis within the adult population of the United States. Methods: The data used in this study were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted between 2007 and 2018. The analysis included a non-pregnant population aged 20 years or older, providing proper PHR index and nephrolithiasis data. The research utilized subgroup analyses and weighted univariate and multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the independent association between the PHR and the susceptibility to nephrolithiasis. Results: The study comprised 30,899 participants with an average PHR value of 19.30 ± 0.11. The overall prevalence rate of nephrolithiasis was estimated at 9.98% with an increase in the higher PHR tertiles (T1, 8.49%; T2, 10.11%; T3, 11.38%, P < 0.0001). An elevated PHR level was closely linked with a higher susceptibility to nephrolithiasis. Compared with patients in T1, and after adjusting for potential confounders in model 2, the corresponding odds ratio for nephrolithiasis in T3 was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.06 to 2.08), with a P-value = 0.02. The results of the interaction tests revealed a significant impact of chronic kidney disease on the relationship between PHR and nephrolithiasis. Furthermore, the restricted cubic spline analyses exhibited a positive, non-linear correlation between PHR and the risk of nephrolithiasis. Conclusion: A convenient biomarker, the PHR, was independently associated with nephrolithiasis and could be a novel biomarker in predicting occurrence in clinical decision.

Nefrolitiasis , Adulto , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas Nutricionales , HDL-Colesterol , Nefrolitiasis/epidemiología , Biomarcadores
World J Urol ; 42(1): 128, 2024 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460023


PURPOSES: Our aim is to build and evaluate models to screen for clinically significant nephrolithiasis in overweight and obesity populations using machine learning (ML) methodologies and simple health checkup clinical and urine parameters easily obtained in clinics. METHODS: We developed ML models to screen for clinically significant nephrolithiasis (kidney stone > 2 mm) in overweight and obese populations (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) using gender, age, BMI, gout, diabetes mellitus, estimated glomerular filtration rate, bacteriuria, urine pH, urine red blood cell counts, and urine specific gravity. The data were collected from hospitals in Kaohsiung, Taiwan between 2012 and 2021. RESULTS: Of the 2928 subjects we enrolled, 1148 (39.21%) had clinically significant nephrolithiasis and 1780 (60.79%) did not. The testing dataset consisted of data collected from 574 subjects, 235 (40.94%) with clinically significant nephrolithiasis and 339 (59.06%) without. One model had a testing area under curve of 0.965 (95% CI, 0.9506-0.9794), a sensitivity of 0.860 (95% CI, 0.8152-0.9040), a specificity of 0.947 (95% CI, 0.9230-0.9708), a positive predictive value of 0.918 (95% CI, 0.8820-0.9544), and negative predictive value of 0.907 (95% CI, 0.8756-0.9371). CONCLUSION: This ML-based model was found able to effectively distinguish the overweight and obese subjects with clinically significant nephrolithiasis from those without. We believe that such a model can serve as an easily accessible and reliable screening tool for nephrolithiasis in overweight and obesity populations and make possible early intervention such as lifestyle modifications and medication for prevention stone complications.

Diabetes Mellitus , Cálculos Renales , Nefrolitiasis , Humanos , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Nefrolitiasis/diagnóstico , Nefrolitiasis/epidemiología , Nefrolitiasis/etiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Cálculos Renales/complicaciones , Índice de Masa Corporal
World J Urol ; 42(1): 150, 2024 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478063


PURPOSE: Oral chemolysis is an effective and non-invasive treatment for uric acid urinary stones. This study aimed to classify urinary stones into either pure uric acid (pUA) or other composition (Others) using non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans (NCCTs). METHODS: Instances managed at our institution from 2019 to 2021 were screened. They were labeled as either pUA or Others based upon composition analyses, and randomly split into training or testing data set. Several instances contained multiple NCCTs which were all collected. In each of NCCTs, individual urinary stone was treated as individual sample. From manually drawn volumes of interest, we extracted original and wavelet radiomics features for each sample. The most important features were then selected via the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator for building the final model on a Support Vector Machine. Performance on the testing set was evaluated via accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC). RESULTS: There were 302 instances, of which 118 had pUA urinary stones, generating 576 samples in total. From 851 original and wavelet radiomics features extracted for each sample, 10 most important features were ultimately selected. On the testing data set, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and AUPRC were 93.9%, 97.9%, 92.2%, and 0.958, respectively, for per-sample prediction, and 90.8%, 100%, 87.5%, and 0.902, respectively, for per-instance prediction. CONCLUSION: The machine learning algorithm trained with radiomics features from NCCTs can accurately predict pUA urinary stones. Our work suggests a potential assisting tool for stone disease treatment selection.

Nefrolitiasis , Cálculos Urinarios , Urolitiasis , Humanos , Ácido Úrico/análisis , Cálculos Urinarios/diagnóstico por imagen , Aprendizaje Automático , Estudios Retrospectivos
Nutrients ; 16(6)2024 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542693


Unhealthy dietary habits play a key role in the pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis (NL). The aims of this case-control study were to evaluate (i) the adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) and the dietary salt intake in stone-forming patients (SF), (ii) the relationship occurring between MD adherence, salt intake and NL-related metabolic risk factors in SF, and (iii) the impact of combined high MD adherence and low salt intake on NL susceptibility. From 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019, we recruited all SF consecutively referred to the Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) center of Federico II University, and at least two control subjects without a personal history of NL, age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched to SF (NSF). All study participants were interviewed using the validated MEDI-LITE and MINISAL questionnaires. In an SF subgroup, the NL-related metabolic risk factors were also evaluated. SF showed a lower MD adherence and a higher salt intake compared with NSF. The NL susceptibility decreased by 36% [OR: 0.64 (0.59-0.70); p < 0.01] for each point of increase in MEDI-LITE score, while it increased by 13% [OR: 1.13 (1.03-1.25); p = 0.01] for each point of increase in MINISAL score. The SF prevalence was higher among subjects showing combined low MD adherence and high salt intake. In SF, the MEDI-LITE score directly correlated with 24 h-citraturia, whereas the MINISAL score directly correlated with urinary sodium and uric acid excretion. In conclusion, high MD adherence and low salt intake are associated with a reduced NL susceptibility, both separately and in combination.

Dieta Mediterránea , Nefrolitiasis , Humanos , Cloruro de Sodio Dietético/efectos adversos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estado Nutricional
Actas urol. esp ; 48(2): 134-139, mar. 2024. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-231445


Objetivo Evaluar la eficacia y complicaciones de la litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque (LEOCh) como tratamiento de primera línea de la litiasis renal y ureteral. Métodos Estudio observacional retrospectivo de todos los pacientes tratados con litotricia en un centro de tercer nivel entre enero de 2014 y enero de 2021. Se recogieron las características de los pacientes, de la litiasis, y las complicaciones y resultados de la LEOCh. Se realizó una regresión logística multivariante de los factores asociados a la reducción del tamaño litiásico. También se llevó a cabo un análisis estadístico de los factores asociados a la necesidad de tratamiento adicional tras la LEOCh y de los factores asociados a las complicaciones. Resultados Se incluyeron 1.727 pacientes. El tamaño litiásico medio fue de 9,5 mm. En 1.540 (89,4%) pacientes se observó la reducción del tamaño litiásico. En el análisis multivariante, el tamaño (OR=1,13; p=0,00), la localización de la litiasis en el uréter (OR=1,15; p=0,052) y el número de ondas (p=0,002; OR=1,00) utilizadas en la LEOCh son los factores asociados a la reducción del tamaño litiásico. Un total de 665 pacientes (38,5%) precisaron tratamiento adicional tras la litotricia. Los factores asociados a la necesidad de retratamiento fueron el tamaño litiásico (OR=1.131; p=0,000), el número de ondas (OR=1.000; p=0,000) y la energía administrada (OR=1.005; p=0,000). En 153 pacientes (8,8%) se produjeron complicaciones tras la LEOCh. Se encontró una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el tamaño de la litiasis (p=0,024; OR=1.054) y la derivación urinaria previa (p=0,004; OR=0,571). Conclusión La litotricia sigue siendo eficaz como tratamiento de primera línea para la litiasis reno-ureteral, con un bajo porcentaje de complicaciones. (AU)

Objective To evaluate the efficacy and complications of extracorporeal lithotripsy (SWL) as a first-line treatment for renal and ureteral stones. Methods Retrospective and observational study of all the patients treated with lithotripsy in a third level center between January 2014 and January 2021; characteristics of the patients, the stones, complications and results of SWL is recollected. Multivariate logistic regression of the factors associated with stone size reduction was performed. A statistical analysis of the factors associated with additional treatment after SWL and factors associated with complications is also executed. Results 1727 patients are included. Stone mean size was 9,5 mm. 1540 (89.4%) patients presented reduction in stone size. In multivariate analysis, stone size (OR=1.13; P=0.00), ureteral location of the lithiasis (OR=1.15; P=0.052) and number of waves (P=0.002; OR=1.00) used in SWL are the factors associated with reduction of stone size. Additional treatment after lithotripsy was needed in 665 patients (38.5%). The factors associated with the need for retreatment were stone size (OR=1.131; P=0.000), number of waves (OR=1.000; P=0.000), energy (OR=1.005; P=0.000). 153 patients (8.8%) suffered complications after SWL. A statistically significant association was found between the size of the lithiasis (P=0.024, OR=1.054) and the previous urinary diversion (P=0.004, OR=0.571). Conclusion Lithotripsy remains an effective treatment as the first line of therapy for reno-ureteral lithiasis with a low percentage of complications. (AU)

Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nefrolitiasis/terapia , Ureterolitiasis/terapia , Litotricia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estudios Retrospectivos
Isr Med Assoc J ; 26(1): 18-23, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38420637


BACKGROUND: There are conflicting data on the significance of hyperuricemia or hyperuricosuria in urolithiasis formation and on the need for medical treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the significance of hyperuricemia or hyperuricosuria in urolithiasis formation, particularly when hyperuricemia occurs with normal uricosuria. METHODS: The electronic medical records of patients treated in Haifa and the Western Galilee district of Clalit Health Services, Israel, were retrospectively screened for diagnosis of nephrolithiasis or renal or urinary tract/bladder calculi between February 2014 and April 2019. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography or computed tomography. The study group included patients with one of these diagnoses. Patients in the control group did not have these diagnoses. The inclusion criterion for all patients was the presence of both serum and urinary uric acid levels. RESULTS: The study group included 359 patients and the control group 267. After adjustment by logistic regression, we found no significant differences in the prevalence of hyperuricosuria in the study group (14.8%) compared to the control group (9.7%), odds ratio (OR) 1.54 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.74-3.2, P = 0.245). No significant differences between the groups were observed for hyperuricemia prevalence (45.4% vs. 55.1%, respectively, OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.54-1.25, P = 0.355), nor among those without hyperuricosuria (OR 0.83, 95%CI 0.52-1.33, P = 0.438) and after propensity score matching (OR 0.93, 95%CI 0.66-1.3, P = 0.655). CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences in hyperuricemia or hyperuricosuria between the two groups of patients or in hyperuricemia among participants without hyperuricosuria.

Gota , Hiperuricemia , Nefrolitiasis , Cálculos Urinarios , Urolitiasis , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/complicaciones , Hiperuricemia/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Urolitiasis/diagnóstico , Urolitiasis/epidemiología
BMC Urol ; 24(1): 30, 2024 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310269


Kidney stones, a persistent urological condition, continue to affect people globally. In this critical review, we examine the work of Borghi et al. who evaluated patients with idiopathic stone formation and randomised 99 patients to increased water intake (≥ 2 L/day) and 100 patients to usual care in a 5-year randomized controlled trial. The study examined baseline urine volume in individuals with idiopathic calcium stones, recurrence rates, and relevant biochemical factors. The study found reduced recurrence rate (12.1% vs. 27% (p = 0.008)), and time to recurrence with increased water intake (38.7 ± 13.2 months) vs. (25 ± 16.4 months) (p = 0.016). These findings inform clinical practice, contributing to the guideline recommendations that kidney stone patients should aim for fluid intake of at least 2.5 L per day to prevent stone recurrence.

Cálculos Renales , Nefrolitiasis , Urología , Humanos , Calcio , Estudios Prospectivos , Agua , Recurrencia , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
Actas urol. esp ; 48(1): 11-18, Ene-Febr. 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés, Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229102


La nefrolitiasis es una enfermedad urológica de prevalencia mundial asociada a una importante morbilidad y malestar para el paciente. El tratamiento actual de los cálculos renales se basa en intervenciones quirúrgicas y farmacológicas. Aunque la cirugía puede ser necesaria en casos determinados, el tratamiento farmacológico es una opción más asequible, fácilmente disponible y menos invasiva para el paciente. Se realizó una revisión exhaustiva para resumir la bibliografía disponible sobre las estrategias de manejo farmacológico de los principales tipos de litiasis: oxalato cálcico, fosfato cálcico, ácido úrico, estruvita y cistina. La regulación de factores como el pH urinario, la cristalización de los cálculos y los trastornos metabólicos del paciente que precipitan el desarrollo y el crecimiento de los cálculos es fundamental para estos enfoques terapéuticos. Esta revisión hace hincapié en las opciones farmacológicas disponibles para el tratamiento según el tipo de litiasis y destaca la importancia de un tratamiento médico personalizado para cada paciente, aspecto que debe ser tenido en cuenta por todos los médicos. (AU)

Nephrolithiasis is a globally prevalent urologic condition associated with significant morbidity and patient discomfort. Current management of kidney stones includes both surgical and pharmacologic interventions. Though surgery may be necessary under certain circumstances, pharmacologic treatment is a more affordable, readily available, and a less invasive option for patients. A comprehensive scoping review was conducted to summarize the available literature on the pharmacologic strategies for managing the predominant stone types including calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and cystine stones. Central to these therapeutic approaches is the regulation of factors such as urine pH, stone crystallization, and patient metabolics that precipitate stone development and growth. This review highlights the pharmacological options available for treating each kidney stone type, emphasizing the importance of patient tailored medical management that should be considered by every physician. (AU)

Humanos , Nefrolitiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Nefrolitiasis/prevención & control , Cálculos Renales/tratamiento farmacológico , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno
Actas urol. esp ; 48(1): 19-24, Ene-Febr. 2024.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229103


Objetivo Analizar la información actual sobre la seguridad del láser en la cirugía retrógrada intrarrenal (CRIR), centrándonos en las dos principales tecnologías láser que utilizamos en urología, el láser de holmio:itrio-aluminio-granate (Ho:YAG) y el láser de fibra de tulio (TFL). Métodos Revisión narrativa de los artículos más relevantes publicados en las bases de datos Medline y Scopus sobre este tema. Resultados Los láseres TFL y Ho:YAG con ajustes similares (0,2 J/40 Hz) tienen un aumento de temperatura promedio por volumen similar y la tasa de calentamiento promedio aumenta proporcionalmente a la potencia del láser, especialmente cuando se utilizan frecuencias altas. Datos preclínicos recientes que comparan ambas tecnologías láser con diferentes ajustes del láser coinciden en que cuando la energía suministrada aumenta a expensas de frecuencias más altas, el daño térmico también aumenta. Las frecuencias más altas, a pesar del aumento de temperatura en el medio de irrigación, pueden causar lesiones térmicas accidentales por láser. Conclusiones El uso de ajustes de baja frecuencia y una irrigación adecuada es fundamental para evitar lesiones térmicas en la litotricia endoscópica con láser (LEL). Además, se recomienda el uso de gafas de seguridad láser en la LEL con Ho:YAG y TFL. (AU)

Objective To analyze the current information about laser safety in retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), focusing on the two main laser technologies that we use in urology, the holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser, and the thulium fiber laser (TFL). Methods Narrative overview of the most relevant articles published in Medline and Scopus databases about this subject. Results TFL and Ho:YAG laser at similar settings (0.2 J/40 Hz) have similar volume-averaged temperature increase and the average heating rate increase proportionally to laser power, especially when high frequencies are used. Recent preclinical data, comparing both laser technologies at different laser settings, agreed that when the delivered energy increases in expenses of higher frequencies, the thermal damage increases too. Higher frequencies, despite of the rise of temperature in the irrigation medium, can cause accidental thermal lasering lesions. Conclusions The use of low frequency settings and a proper irrigation is critical to avoid thermal injury in endoscopic laser lithotripsy (ELL). In addition, the use of laser safety eyeglasses is recommended in Ho:YAG and TFL ELL. (AU)

Humanos , Nefrolitiasis/cirugía , Terapia por Láser/clasificación , Terapia por Láser/instrumentación , Láseres de Estado Sólido/uso terapéutico , Cálculos Renales/cirugía , Medidas de Seguridad
Actas urol. esp ; 48(1): 25-41, Ene-Febr. 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés, Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229104


Introducción La litiasis renal (LR) es una enfermedad urológica común, que a menudo requiere de cuidados a largo plazo. Las tecnologías de salud móvil (m-Salud) y salud electrónica (e-Salud) tienen el potencial de mejorar el manejo de las enfermedades crónicas e impactar sobre los patrones de la conducta. Para evaluar la aplicabilidad de estas herramientas en la mejora del tratamiento y la prevención de la LR, nos propusimos evaluar los datos actuales sobre el uso, los beneficios y las limitaciones de la m-Salud y la e-Salud en la LR. Métodos Se realizó una revisión sistemática de los estudios de investigación primaria sobre m-Salud y e-Salud en la evaluación y tratamiento de la LR. Dos investigadores independientes examinaron las citas por título y resumen para determinar su pertinencia y, a continuación, se realizó una revisión del texto completo para obtener un resumen descriptivo de los estudios. Resultados Se incluyeron 37 artículos para el análisis. Las principales áreas de interés fueron: 1) botellas de agua «inteligentes» y aplicaciones de dispositivos móviles para el seguimiento del consumo de líquidos, que mostraron un aumento de la ingesta en la mayoría de los estudios; 2) plataformas de seguimiento de stent ureterales, que mejoraron la tasa de stent retenidos a largo plazo; 3) clínicas virtuales para el tratamiento de la LR, las cuales han mejorado el acceso, han reducido costes y han mostrado resultados satisfactorios; 4) plataformas de endoscopia para teléfonos inteligentes, que ofrecieron una buena calidad de imagen respecto a sus costes en entornos de recursos limitados, y 5) información sobre la LR en línea para pacientes, la cual generalmente se caracterizó por ser de mala calidad y/o precisión, particularmente en YouTube®. La mayoría de los estudios eran pruebas de concepto o estudios de intervención de un solo brazo, con una evaluación limitada de la eficacia o de los resultados clínicos a largo plazo. Conclusiones ... (AU)

Introduction Kidney stone disease (KSD) is a common urological condition that often requires long-term care. Mobile health (mHealth) and eHealth technologies have the potential to enhance chronic disease management and behavioral change. To assess opportunities to apply these tools to improve KSD treatment and prevention, we aimed to assess current evidence on the use, benefits, and limitations of mHealth and eHealth in KSD. Methods We performed a systematic review of primary research studies of mHealth and eHealth in the evaluation and management of KSD. Two independent researchers screened citations by title and abstract for relevance, then full-text review was performed for descriptive summary of the studies. Results A total of 37 articles were included for analysis. Primary domains of evidence included: 1) “smart” water bottles and mobile-device apps for tracking fluid consumption, which showed increased intake in most studies; 2) ureteral stent tracking platforms, which improved the rate of long-term retained stents; 3) virtual stone clinics, which have been suggested to increase access, lower costs, and have satisfactory outcomes; 4) smartphone-based endoscopy platforms, which offered cost-effective image quality in resource-limited settings; 5) patient information about KSD online, which was typically characterized as poor quality and/or accuracy, particularly on YouTube. Most studies were proof-of-concept or single-arm intervention designs, with limited assessment of effectiveness or long-term clinical outcomes. Conclusions Mobile and eHealth technologies have significant real-world applications to KSD prevention, intervention, and patient education. A lack of rigorous effectiveness studies currently limits evidence-based conclusions and incorporation in clinical guidelines. (AU)

Aplicaciones de la Informática Médica , Nefrolitiasis/prevención & control , Telemedicina/instrumentación , Telemedicina/tendencias
Actas urol. esp ; 48(1): 57-70, Ene-Febr. 2024. graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés, Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229107


Objetivo Identificar los últimos avances en los dispositivos de aspiración para la cirugía retrógrada intrarrenal (CRIR) y la ureteroscopia en el tratamiento de la litiasis, y evaluar los resultados de su aplicación. Procedimiento El 4 de enero de 2023 se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica sistemática en Scopus, PubMed y EMBASE. Solo se incluyeron artículos en inglés; se aceptaron estudios en la población pediátrica y estudios en adultos. Se excluyeron los estudios duplicados, los informes de casos, las cartas al editor y los resúmenes de congresos. Hallazgos principales Se seleccionaron 21 trabajos. Se han propuesto varios sistemas de aspiración para la CRIR: a través de la vaina de acceso ureteral o directamente por el endoscopio. La inteligencia artificial también puede desempeñar un papel, monitorizando los valores de la presión y del flujo de irrigación. Todas las técnicas propuestas mostraron resultados perioperatorios satisfactorios en cuanto a tiempo quirúrgico, tasa libre de cálculos (TLC) y fragmentos residuales. Además, la reducción de la presión intrarrenal (mediante la aspiración) también se asoció a una tasa de infección menor. Incluso los estudios que incluyen cálculos renales con un diámetro de 20mm o superior informan de una mayor TLC y una reducción de las complicaciones postoperatorias. Sin embargo, la falta de parámetros bien establecidos para la presión de la aspiración y el flujo de líquido impide la estandarización del procedimiento. Conclusión Como ha sido demostrado en los estudios incluidos, el uso de dispositivos de aspiración en el tratamiento quirúrgico de los cálculos urinarios favorece la obtención de una TLC mayor y reduce las complicaciones infecciosas. La CRIR con sistema de aspiración podría sustituir a la técnica tradicional, gracias a sus ventajas asociadas al control de la presión intrarrenal y aspiración del polvo fino. (AU)

Objective To identify the latest advances in suction devices and evaluate their effect in Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and ureteroscopy for stones. Basic procedures A systematic literature search was performed on 4th January 2023 using Scopus, PubMed, and EMBASE. Only English papers were included; both pediatric and adult studies were accepted. Duplicate studies, case reports, letters to the editor, and meeting abstracts were excluded. Main findings Twenty-one papers were selected. Several methods have been proposed for suction use in RIRS, such as through the ureteral access sheath or directly to the scope. Artificial intelligence can also regulate this system, monitoring pressure and perfusion flow values. All the proposed techniques showed satisfactory perioperative results for operative time, stone-free rate (SFR), and residual fragments. Moreover, the reduction of intrarenal pressure (induced by aspiration) was also associated with a lower infection rate. Even the studies that considered kidney stones with a diameter of 20mm or higher reported higher SFR and reduced postoperative complications. However, the lack of well-defined settings for suction pressure and fluid flow prevents the standardization of the procedure. Conclusion Aspiration device in the surgical treatment of urinary stones favours a higher SFR, reducing infectious complications, as supported by the included studies. RIRS with a suction system provided to be a natural successor to the traditional technique, regulating intrarenal pressure and aspirating fine dust. (AU)

Humanos , Succión/instrumentación , Nefrolitiasis/cirugía
Actas urol. esp ; 48(1): 71-78, Ene-Febr. 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés, Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229108


Objetivo Las guías actuales para el tratamiento intervencionista sugieren el diámetro acumulativo de la litiasis (DAL) como factor decisivo en la elección del tratamiento quirúrgico óptimo (ureteroscopia [URS], litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque [LEOCh] y nefrolitotomía percutánea [NLPC]). El volumen litiásico (VL) se ha introducido recientemente para obtener una estimación más precisa de la carga litiásica. El objetivo de esta revisión es resumir los métodos disponibles para calcular el VL y su aplicación quirúrgica. Material y métodos En diciembre de 2022 se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura mediante búsquedas en las bases de datos Embase, Cochrane y Pubmed. Los artículos se consideraron elegibles si describían la medición del VL o la tasa libre de litiasis (TLL) tras diferentes modalidades de tratamiento (LEOCh, URS, NLPC) o la expulsión espontánea, basándose en la medición del VL. Dos revisores evaluaron de forma independiente la elegibilidad y la calidad de los artículos y realizaron la extracción de datos. Resultados En total se incluyeron 28 estudios. Todos los estudios utilizaron diferentes técnicas para calcular el VL. La medición automática del volumen pareció ser más precisa que la estimación del volumen. Los estudios in vitro mostraron que la medición automática del volumen se ajustaba más al volumen real de la litiasis, con una menor variabilidad interobservador. A diferencia de la NLPC y la LEOCh, en la URS se observó que el VL era un mejor predictor de mejor la TLL que el diámetro litiásico mayor o el diámetro acumulativo en litiasis >20mm. Conclusiones Calcular el VL —de forma manual o automática— es factible, y probablemente se ajuste más a la carga litiásica real. Aunque en el caso de las litiasis grandes tratadas mediante cirugía intrarrenal retrógrada el VL parece predecir mejor la TLL, la superioridad del VL en todas las cargas litiásicas y para todos los tipos de tratamiento está aún por demostrar. ... (AU)

Objective Current interventional guidelines refer to the cumulative stone diameter to choose the appropriate surgical modality (ureteroscopy (URS), extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)). The stone volume (SV) has been introduced recently, to better estimate the stone burden. This review aimed to summarize the available methods to evaluate the SV and its use in urolithiasis treatment. Material and methods A comprehensive review of the literature was performed in December 2022 by searching Embase, Cochrane and Pubmed databases. Articles were considered eligible if they described SV measurement or the stone free rate after different treatment modalities (SWL, URS, PCNL) or spontaneous passage, based on SV measurement. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility and the quality of the articles and performed the data extraction. Results In total, 28 studies were included. All studies used different measurement techniques for stone volume. The automated volume measurement appeared to be more precise than the calculated volume. In vitro studies showed that the automated volume measurement was closer to actual stone volume, with a lower inter-observer variability. Regarding URS, stone volume was found to be more predictive of stone free rates as compared to maximum stone diameter or cumulative diameter for stones >20mm. This was not the case for PCNL and SWL. Conclusions Stone volume estimation is feasible, manually or automatically and is likely a better representation of the actual stone burden. While for larger stones treated by retrograde intrarenal surgery, stone volume appears to be a better predictor of SFR, the superiority of stone volume throughout all stone burdens and for all stone treatments, remains to be proven. Automated volume acquisition is more precise and reproducible than calculated volume. (AU)

Humanos , Tamaño de la Partícula , Nefrolitiasis/cirugía , Nefrolitotomía Percutánea , Ureteroscopía , Litotricia , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
Actas urol. esp ; 48(1): 79-104, Ene-Febr. 2024. graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés, Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229109


Introducción La litiasis en el receptor del injerto renal puede ser una enfermedad peligrosa cuyo riesgo potencial es el deterioro de la función renal. Adquisición de la evidencia Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura hasta febrero del 2023. El objetivo primario era evaluar la incidencia de litiasis en receptores de trasplante renal (TR). El secundario era valorar el momento de formación, la localización y la composición de la litiasis, las opciones de tratamiento disponibles y la incidencia de la pérdida del injerto. Síntesis de la evidencia Un total de 41 estudios no aleatorizados compuestos por 699 pacientes cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. La edad en el momento del diagnóstico de la litiasis oscilaba entre 29 y 53 años. La incidencia de urolitiasis se encontraba entre 0,1 y 6,3%, siendo diagnosticada generalmente a los 12 meses del TR. La mayoría de las litiasis detectadas se localizaron en los cálices o en la pelvis. La composición más frecuente fue la de oxalato cálcico. Se consideraron diferentes estrategias de tratamiento como vigilancia activa, ureteroscopia, abordaje percutáneo/combinado o cirugía abierta. Del total de pacientes, 15,73% fueron tratados con litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque (LEOCh) y 26,75% se sometieron a litotricia endoscópica o extracción quirúrgica. De estos sujetos, 18,03% se abordaron mediante nefrolitotomía percutánea, mientras que 3,14% se sometieron a un manejo combinado. Se realizó litotomía quirúrgica en 5,01% de los casos. La tasa libre de litiasis (TLL) global se situó en torno a 80%. Conclusiones La litiasis en el TR es una patología poco frecuente que suele diagnosticarse al año de la cirugía. Su localización más común son los cálices y la pelvis renal, y en la mayoría de los casos está compuesta de oxalato cálcico. Todos los tratamientos activos han demostrado resultados satisfactorios en términos de TLL, ... . (AU)

Introduction Lithiasis in renal graft recipients might be a dangerous condition with a potential risk of organ function impairment. Evidence acquisition A systematic literature search was conducted through February 2023. The primary objective was to assess the incidence of lithiasis in kidney transplant (KT) recipients. The secondary objective was to assess the timing of stone formation, localization and composition of stones, possible treatment options, and the incidence of graft loss. Evidence synthesis A total of 41 non-randomized studies comprising 699 patients met our inclusion criteria. The age at lithiasis diagnosis ranged between 29-53 years. Incidence of urolithiasis ranged from 0.1 to 6.3%, usually diagnosed after 12 months from KT. Most of the stones were diagnosed in the calyces or in the pelvis. Calcium oxalate composition was the most frequent. Different treatment strategies were considered, namely active surveillance, ureteroscopy, percutaneous/combined approach, or open surgery. 15.73% of patients were submitted to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), while 26.75% underwent endoscopic lithotripsy or stone extraction. 18.03% of patients underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy whilst 3.14% to a combined approach. Surgical lithotomy was performed in 5.01% of the cases. Global stone-free rate was around 80%. Conclusions Lithiasis in kidney transplant is a rare condition usually diagnosed after one year after surgery and mostly located in the calyces and renal pelvis, more frequently of calcium oxalate composition. Each of the active treatments is associated with good results in terms of stone-free rate, thus the surgical technique should be chosen according to the patient's characteristics and surgeon preferences. (AU)

Humanos , Trasplante de Riñón , Nefrolitiasis
JAMA Intern Med ; 184(3): 265-274, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285598


Importance: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with an increased risk of kidney stones. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) might lower the risk of nephrolithiasis by altering urine composition. However, no studies have investigated the association between SGLT2i use and nephrolithiasis risk in patients receiving routine care in the US. Objective: To investigate the association between SGLT2i use and nephrolithiasis risk in clinical practice. Design, Setting, and Participants: This new-user, active comparator cohort study used data from commercially insured adults (aged ≥18 years) with T2D who initiated treatment with SGLT2is, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), or dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4is) between April 1, 2013, and December 31, 2020. The data were analyzed from July 2021 through June 2023. Exposure: New initiation of an SGLT2i, GLP-1RA, or DPP4i. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was nephrolithiasis diagnosed by International Classification of Diseases codes in the inpatient or outpatient setting. New SGLT2i users were 1:1 propensity score matched to new users of a GLP-1RA or DPP4i in pairwise comparisons. Incidence rates, rate differences (RDs), and estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were calculated. Results: After 1:1 propensity score matching, a total of 716 406 adults with T2D (358 203 pairs) initiating an SGLT2i or a GLP-1RA (mean [SD] age, 61.4 [9.7] years for both groups; 51.4% vs 51.2% female; 48.6% vs 48.5% male) and 662 056 adults (331 028 pairs) initiating an SGLT2i or a DPP4i (mean [SD] age, 61.8 [9.3] vs 61.7 [10.1] years; 47.4% vs 47.3% female; 52.6% vs 52.7% male) were included. Over a median follow-up of 192 (IQR, 88-409) days, the risk of nephrolithiasis was lower in patients initiating an SGLT2i than among those initiating a GLP-1RA (14.9 vs 21.3 events per 1000 person-years; HR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.67-0.72]; RD, -6.4 [95% CI, -7.1 to -5.7]) or a DPP4i (14.6 vs 19.9 events per 1000 person-years; HR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.71-0.77]; RD, -5.3 [95% CI, -6.0 to -4.6]). The association between SGLT2i use and nephrolithiasis risk was similar by sex, race and ethnicity, history of chronic kidney disease, and obesity. The magnitude of the risk reduction with SGLT2i use was larger among adults aged younger than 70 years vs aged 70 years or older (HR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.79-0.91]; RD, -3.46 [95% CI, -4.87 to -2.05] per 1000 person-years; P for interaction <.001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that in adults with T2D, SGLT2i use may lower the risk of nephrolithiasis compared with GLP-1RAs or DPP4is and could help to inform decision-making when prescribing glucose-lowering agents for patients who may be at risk for developing nephrolithiasis.

Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV , Nefrolitiasis , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Adolescente , Persona de Mediana Edad , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios de Cohortes , Nefrolitiasis/inducido químicamente , Nefrolitiasis/epidemiología , Pacientes Internos , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV/efectos adversos , Glucosa , Sodio , Hipoglucemiantes , Receptor del Péptido 1 Similar al Glucagón , Estudios Retrospectivos