Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.670
Filtrar
2.
Acad Med ; 96(1): 134-141, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394664

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The combination of power and conflict is frequently reported to have a detrimental impact on communication and on patient care, and it is avoided and perceived negatively by health care professionals. In view of recent recommendations to explicitly address power and conflict in health professions education, adopting more constructive approaches toward power and conflict may be helpful. This study examined the role of power in conflicts between health care professionals in different cultural contexts to make recommendations for promoting more constructive approaches. METHOD: The authors used social bases of power (positional, expert, informational, reward, coercive, referent) identified in the literature to examine the role of power in conflicts between health care professionals in different cultural settings. They drew upon semistructured interviews conducted from 2013 to 2016 with 249 health care professionals working at health centers in the United States, Switzerland, and Hungary, in which participants shared stories of conflict they had experienced with coworkers. The authors used a directed approach to content analysis to analyze the data. RESULTS: The social bases of power tended to be comparable across sites and included positional, expert, and coercive power. The rigid hierarchies that divide health care professionals, their professions, and their specialties contributed to negative experiences in conflicts. In addition, the presence of an audience, such as supervisors, coworkers, patients, and patients' families, prevented health care professionals from addressing conflicts when they occurred, resulting in conflict escalation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that fostering more positive approaches toward power and conflict could be achieved by using social bases of power such as referent power and by addressing conflicts in a more private, backstage, manner.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Personal de Salud/psicología , Incivilidad/prevención & control , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Negociación/métodos , Negociación/psicología , Poder Psicológico , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos
3.
Health Commun ; 36(1): 109-115, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222539

RESUMEN

Aotearoa New Zealand's public health crisis communication approach amidst the COVID-19 pandemic effectively mobilized the nation into swift lockdown, significantly reducing community transmission. This communication approach has been applauded around the world. How did communities situated amongst the "margins of the margins" in Aotearoa New Zealand navigate through the existing structural barriers to health during the pandemic? In this study, we use a culture-centered analysis to foreground the structural context of disenfranchisement amidst the COVID-19 lockdown. Drawing on in-depth interviews with participants in a larger ethnographic project on poverty and health across three communities in Aotearoa New Zealand, we attend to the ways in which health is negotiated amidst the COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown response at the "margins of the margins." The narratives point out that health communication interventions to prevent COVID-19 in the context of Aotearoa New Zealand furthered the marginalization of communities at the margins, and community voices were largely erased from the enactment of interventions. With the extant structures failing to recognize these aspects of everyday struggles of health at the margins, the health and access challenges were further magnified during COVID-19. Our attention to communication situated in relationship to structures builds a register for health communication scholarship in the context of COVID-19 that is committed to disrupting the behaviorally based hegemonic health communication literature and transforming the unequal terrains of health experiences.


Asunto(s)
/etnología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Pobreza/psicología , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antropología Cultural , Comunicación , Competencia Cultural , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Negociación , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica , Pandemias , Factores Socioeconómicos , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Adulto Joven
4.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(2): 66-82, jul.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1125732

RESUMEN

Este artigo se propõe a discutir os desafios na formação para o trabalho com grupos e o papel dos coordenadores, com base na experiência de coordenação de grupos de sala de espera realizado em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde, a partir de um estágio de graduação em Psicologia. Através de recortes do diário de campo, buscamos discutir a mediação grupal nesse contexto de intervenção, ressaltando possibilidades, expectativas e dificuldades vivenciadas. Considerando a escassez de trabalhos publicados com relação à temática de grupos em sala de espera e ênfase em grupos informativos, o presente trabalho buscou ampliar a discussão para grupo enquanto processo, expondo reflexões sobre nossa postura e intervenções, discussões ampliadas para pensar coordenação de grupos e formação profissional.


This article proposes to discuss the challenges in training for group work and the role of coordinators, based on the experience of coordinating groups in a waiting room held in a Basic Health Unit, from a graduation internship in Psychology. Through field diary clippings, we sought to discuss group mediation in this context of intervention, highlighting possibilities, expectations, and difficulties experienced. Considering the scarcity of studies regarding the theme of groups in the waiting room, besides an emphasis on informative groups, this study aimed to expand the discussion to the group as a process, exposing reflections on our posture and interventions, extended discussions to think coordinating groups and professional qualification.


Este artículo se propone discutir los desafíos en la formación para el trabajo con grupos y el papel de los coordinadores, con base en la experiencia de coordinación de grupos de sala de espera realizado en una Unidad Básica de Salud, a partir de una etapa de graduación en Psicología. A través de recortes del diario de campo, buscamos discutir la mediación grupal en ese contexto de intervención, resaltando posibilidades, expectativas y dificultades vivenciadas. Considerando la escasez de trabajos publicados con relación a la temática de grupos en sala de espera y énfasis en grupos informativos, el presente trabajo buscó ampliar la discusión para grupo en cuanto proceso, exponiendo reflexiones sobre nuestra postura e intervenciones, discusiones ampliadas para pensar coordinación de grupos y formación profesional.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Citas y Horarios , Postura , Rol , Apoyo a la Formación Profesional , Centros de Salud , Negociación , Atención Médica , Capacitación Profesional , Internado y Residencia
5.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 51(4): 25-37, oct.-dic. 2020. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-1297

RESUMEN

En este estudio se pretende conocer la calidad de vida que tienen los trabajadores con discapacidad respecto a la inclusión social, así como si los problemas existentes en el trabajo (conflicto de rol) consideran que son determinantes en dicha inclusión. Además, proponemos un modelo donde se plantea que la autodeterminación tiene un efecto mediador entre el conflicto de rol y la inclusión social. El trabajo se ha realizado con un total de 51 trabajadores con discapacidad pertenecientes a un Centro Especial de Empleo que prestan un servicio de limpieza en la Administración Pública. Los resultados indican que los trabajadores valoran la inclusión social y que el conflicto de rol puede afectar a su inclusión social. Además, los hallazgos respaldan el modelo propuesto, ofreciendo una orientación para conseguir la inclusión social del colectivo con discapacidad. Al final planteamos las implicaciones prácticas del presente trabajo y, también, se debate en torno al relevante papel que desempeña el trabajo en la inclusión social


This study aims to know the perception that workers with disability have regarding social inclusion, as well as whether the problems at work (role conflict) consider them to be determinants in such inclusion. In addition, we propose a mediation model that states that self-determination has effect between role conflict and social inclusion. The work has been carried out with a total of 51 workers with disability from a Special Employment Center that they perform a cleaning job in the Public Administration. The results indicate that workers value social inclusion and that role conflict can affect their social integration. In addition, the findings support the proposed model, offering guidance to achieve social inclusion of the group with disability. In the end we propose the practical implications of this work and, also, we discuss the relevant role that work plays in social inclusion


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Trabajo/psicología , Negociación/psicología , Autonomía Personal , Relaciones Interpersonales , Negociación/métodos , Socialización , Calidad de Vida , Participación de la Comunidad/psicología
6.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 48(287): 375-378, 2020 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130803

RESUMEN

Poland is a country with an increasing number of claims based on medical errors, especially in the following surgical disciplines: obstetrics and gynaecology, orthopaedics and emergency medicine, general surgery. This problem raises the need to seek out-of-court dispute solutions beneficial to the physician, the patient and the national health care system. Mediation - a procedure commonly used and well-established in Polish law, however, not widespread, as far as medical claims are concerned - creates this opportunity. The purpose of this article is to summarize international experiences in mediation in physician-patient disputes, and to try to popularize them in Poland. An analysis of foreign literature has provided evidence that mediation is an effective tool to resolve disputes by compromise, while reducing the costs and time of proceedings, and preventing burnout among physicians and the patients' loss of trust in medical care.


Asunto(s)
Disentimientos y Disputas , Médicos , Femenino , Humanos , Negociación , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Polonia , Embarazo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236650, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877445

RESUMEN

This study investigates the relationship between supervisory behavior, conflict management strategies, and sustainable employee performance and inquires the mediating effect of conflict management strategies. Data were collected from the SMEs of the manufacturing industry of Pakistan. The significance of the model was assessed using the PLS-SEM (structural equation modeling). The findings of the study revealed a positive and significant relationship between supervisory behavior and sustainable employee behavior. Similarly, conflict management strategies had a positive effect on the relationship between supervisory behavior and sustainable employee behavior. This study adds in the current literature of supervisory behavior as a critical predictor of sustainable employee performance in two ways. Firstly, this study validates Conflict management strategies as an influential mediator between the relationship of supervisory behavior and sustainable employee performance. Secondly, this study provides substantial practical implications for managers at SMEs to enhance sustainable employee performance through supervisory behavior, stimulated by conflict management strategies. This study is based on cross-sectional data; more longitudinal studies can further strengthen the generalizability of relationships between the constructs. The study adds in the current literature of PLS-SEM as an assessment model for direct and mediation relationships.


Asunto(s)
Negociación , Rendimiento Laboral , Adulto , Empleo/organización & administración , Femenino , Humanos , Industrias/organización & administración , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Negociación/métodos , Organización y Administración , Pakistán , Rendimiento Laboral/organización & administración , Adulto Joven
10.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(11): 2388-2406, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935251

RESUMEN

How youth learn to manage emotions during mother-child conflict influences their socioemotional development. Ninety-four mother-preadolescent (aged 9-13, 57.4% female) dyads were observed during conflict discussions and completed questionnaire measures at one prior time-point (Time 1; ages 6-10) and one subsequent time-point (Time 3; ages 11-16) to the observations (Time 2). The temporal associations between individuals' emotional expressions and their own and their partners' verbal conflict behaviors were observed. Mothers and preadolescents were more attacking and assertive when angry, and more conciliatory and avoidant when sad. Neutral affect predicted the most constructive behaviors, while positive affect promoted avoidance. The responses were similar following their partners' emotions. Maternal conflict-escalating responses to anger were associated with difficult characteristics in earlier childhood and socioemotional difficulties in adolescence. Maternal and child de-escalation following sadness predicted socioemotional adjustment in adolescence. These results demonstrate that conflict resolution between preadolescents and their mothers is influenced by the emotional climate of the interaction, and that the management of negative emotions within the dyad is tied to youth's socioemotional development.


Asunto(s)
Madres , Negociación , Adolescente , Ira , Niño , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Relaciones Madre-Hijo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236696, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998159

RESUMEN

In developing countries, the emergence of informal groundwater markets is accidental rather than planned due to the water scarcity and supply-side constraints. It is less often that water markets are assessed for agents bargaining power and equity impacts. In this paper, I examine the relative bargaining power of sellers and buyers in informal groundwater markets in India. To understand the process of bargaining, a framed-field experiment is conducted with actual buyers and sellers in groundwater contracts. In the experiment, sellers and buyers make a series of choices between output-shared and fixed-price contracts under varied risk conditions, first individually and then jointly. I define bargaining power as the relative ability of the agent to influence the joint decision for their individually preferred contract type. I find that there is a large preference disagreement between sellers and buyers. Buyers have preferences for output-shared contracts while sellers' choices are motivated by expected earnings. Using the random-parameter probit model, I show that sellers have relatively more power to drive the joint decision in their favour. Nevertheless, factors like interpersonal relationships between buyers and sellers, such as kinship ties, long contractual history, and higher education of buyers augment buyers' power relative bargaining power.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/métodos , Negociación/psicología , Agua Subterránea , Humanos , India , Motivación , Factores Socioeconómicos
13.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(9): 917-927, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747803

RESUMEN

Standardized classroom experiments provide evidence about how well scientific results reproduce when nearly identical methods are used. We use a sample of around 20,000 observations to test reproducibility of behaviour in trading and ultimatum bargaining. Double-auction results are highly reproducible and are close to equilibrium predictions about prices and quantities from economic theory. Our sample also shows robust correlations between individual surplus and trading order, and autocorrelation of successive price changes, which test different theories of price dynamics. In ultimatum bargaining, the large dataset provides sufficient power to identify that equal-split offers are accepted more often and more quickly than slightly unequal offers. Our results imply a general consistency of results across a variety of different countries and cultures in two of the most commonly used designs in experimental economics.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/economía , Negociación , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Juegos Experimentales , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751334

RESUMEN

Objectives: The mobile phone (MP) is an indispensable digital device in adolescents' daily lives in the contemporary era, but being addicted to MP can lead to more risk-taking behavior. However, little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. To address the gaps in the literature, the present study examined the idea that MP addiction is associated with reduced self-control, which further associates with increased risk-taking behavior. In addition, this study also investigated the moderation effect of adolescent sex in the association between MP addiction and self-control. Methods: A three-wave longitudinal study, each wave spanning six months apart, was conducted in a sample of Chinese adolescents (final N = 333, 57.4% girls). Results: Results of the moderated mediation model suggest that after controlling for demographic variables and baseline levels of self-control and risk-taking behavior, MP addiction at T1 positively predicted increased risk-taking behavior at T3 through reduced self-control at T2 for girls but not for boys. Conclusions: Theoretically, these findings contribute to the understanding about the working processes in the association between MP addiction and risk-taking behavior in adolescents. Practically, the results implied that boosting self-control appeared as a promising way to reduce girls' risk-taking behavior, particularly for those who are addicted to MPs.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Conducta Adictiva , Teléfono Celular , Asunción de Riesgos , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Negociación
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751346

RESUMEN

This paper was part of a large study that aimed to explore determinants of increased suicides among African youths in South Australia. As part of this larger study, narratives from participants indicated that identity crisis could be a potential determinant of suicide. This paper reports on how African youths negotiate and form identity in Australia. A qualitative inquiry was undertaken with 31 African youths using a focus group and individual interviews. Data analysis was guided by a framework for qualitative research. These youths negotiated multiple identities, including those of race, gender, ethnicity and their origin. 'Freedom and opportunity', 'family relationships', 'neither belonging here nor there' and 'the ability to cope against the paradox of resourcefulness in Australia' appeared to be important themes in negotiating individual identities. An opportunity was used to acknowledge privileges available in Australia relative to Africa. However, the extent to which individuals acted on these opportunities varied, affecting a person's sense of purpose, identity formation and belonging in Australia. The loss of social networks following migration, and cultural differences between African and Australian societies, shaped the experience of belonging and identity formation. These findings are crucial as they indicate the need for policies and practices that consider experiences of youths as they form their identity in Australia. Further studies with large numbers of participants are needed to explore these issues further among African youths in Australia.


Asunto(s)
Negociación , Identificación Social , Suicidio , Adulto , África , Australia , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Australia del Sur , Suicidio/psicología , Adulto Joven
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237859, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833986

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study is to examine the association between knowledge about the World War II (WWII)-related traumatic experiences of their ancestors and subjective well-being (SWB) of young adults, i.e., descendants of Polish survivors of WWII. Specifically, we focus on the life satisfaction and the mental, physical, and psychosocial well-being of our participants in relation to their knowledge about WWII trauma in their family histories. METHOD: The sample comprised 500 Polish young adults recruited from a nonclinical general population. Participants first filled out a questionnaire assessing their knowledge about traumatic events that their ancestors could have experienced during WWII (see grandparents/mothers, great-grandparents/mothers). After that, subjects were given inventories to assess their SWB, i.e., the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). RESULTS: Latent profile analysis was applied to extract profiles of participants differing with regard to the scope of knowledge about WWII-related traumatic experiences among ancestors. Specifically, six profiles were observed, and a general lack of knowledge about this kind of trauma in the family was characteristic of the sample. We also found differences in SWB across profiles of participants, with worse SWB in the profiles with the highest lack of knowledge about WWII-related traumatic experiences in the family. CONCLUSION: Our study adds to the literature on intergenerational trauma by applying a person-centred perspective, a methodological approach almost invisible in research on that topic. In addition, our findings can serve as a stimulus for more comprehensive debate on WWII trauma in Polish society.


Asunto(s)
Familia , Conocimiento , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Segunda Guerra Mundial , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Negociación , Satisfacción Personal , Estadística como Asunto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824724

RESUMEN

Nursing burnout is associated with reduced nursing performance outcomes. Positive psychological capital is known to play an important role in improving workers' job performance. However, the association among the three variables has rarely been addressed. The purpose of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to explore the association between burnout and nursing performance outcomes among Korean nurses working at a tertiary hospital and the mediating role of psychological capital in this relationship. Recruited through convenience sampling, a total of 285 nurses provided data on their demographic characteristics and completed a structured questionnaire consisting of items from the Professional Quality of Life Scale (burnout), Nursing Performance Scale, and Psychology Capital Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, student's t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and multiple linear regression analyses were used to analyze data. The significance of the mediation effect was obtained using a bootstrap approach with the PROCESS macro. The mean age of participants was 30.51 years, and most participants were females (94.0%) and unmarried (71.6%); more than half (57.5%) experienced a severe workload. The average (±standard deviation) scores of burnout, nursing performance outcomes, and positive psychological capital were 28.77 ± 4.93, 2.98 ± 0.32, and 3.19 ± 0.45, respectively. Burnout was associated with nursing performance among clinical nurses (ß = -0.20, p < 0.001). Positive psychological capital mediated the association between burnout and nursing performance outcomes (ß = 0.41, p < 0.001). These findings contribute to the understanding that burnout among nurses could be reduced by increased positive psychological capital, which results in improved performance outcomes. The findings also indicate that interventions to improve positive psychological capital should be developed and implemented for nurses' burnout management and improvement in nursing performance outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital , Adulto , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Masculino , Negociación , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Rev Med Chil ; 148(2): 211-215, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730498

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mediation in healthcare is a non-adversarial process to resolve a dispute risen between patients and health providers during medical attention Aim: To characterize the mediation process taking place in the public health system in Chile, from its start until 2017. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Under the Transparency Law, information about mediation processes between 2005 and 2017 was requested to the State Defense Council (CDE in its Spanish acronym). This data was complemented with the information available on the website of this agency. RESULTS: Ninety four percent of the complaints filed at the CDE were deemed eligible for mediation. Only 19% of the concluded cases led to an agreement between the disputing parties. The agreements reached were mostly monetary compensation, medical assistance, and apologies/explanation of the facts. The average amount of compensation reached $14,862,088 (Chilean pesos). The most commonly claimed damage resulting from medical care was partial disability. The medical specialties more often claimed were Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Surgery, and Internal Medicine. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of conducted mediations is a source of feedback for healthcare staff and health institutions. It would greatly contribute to prevent possible damage and medical conflicts, specially within the specialties with the most complaints. Improvements to the existing legislation are required to ensure free access for all the population.


Asunto(s)
Negociación , Chile , Estudios Transversales , Disentimientos y Disputas , Femenino , Humanos , Obstetricia , Embarazo
20.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110889, 2020 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721327

RESUMEN

The opposing objectives of the groundwater stakeholders, ranging from maximum withdrawal for economic gain to minimum withdrawal for aquifer and environmental protection, lead stakeholders to behave non-cooperatively. In this study, dynamic non-cooperative games are applied to model these conflicts. These games incorporate stakeholders' non-cooperative decision-making processes and groundwater exploitation details over time. The two key players considered in this study are the government, which aims to minimize the groundwater drawdown, and local farmers, who pursue maximum economic gain. In order to calculate the players' payoffs over the modeling period, a simulation-optimization model is developed. For evaluation, the proposed methodology is implemented in the Bad-Khaledabad study area in Iran. Therefore, two dynamic non-cooperative games are developed, considering weak governmental power and players' interaction. It is concluded that creating a transactional relationship, involving the cropping patterns changes and the irrigation efficiency enhancement, will increase farmers' profits by 28% and decrease withdrawal from the aquifer by 21%.


Asunto(s)
Teoría del Juego , Agua Subterránea , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Irán , Negociación
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...