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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18455, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000358

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has been the mainstay treatment of brain metastases (BM) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients for years. Temozolomide (TMZ) could penetrate the blood-brain barrier and some studies showed that TMZ plus MBRT may improve clinical effectiveness. This meta-analysis is aim to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of TMZ plus MBRT in the NSCLC patients with BM. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We systematically searched databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and four Chinese databases (Chinese Biomedical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database and Chinese Scientific Journal Database) without language restrictions from inception until July 26, 2019. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared TMZ plus WBRT with single WBRT in the advanced NSCLC patients with BM were included. The outcomes analysis reported objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), quality of life (QOL), and adverse effects. Two reviewers will independently extract data from the selected studies and assess the quality of studies. Statistical analyses will be performed using Review manager 5.3 software. Random-effects or fixed models were used to estimate pooled hazard ratio and relative risk. RESULTS: This systemic review and meta-analysis will evaluate the effects of TMZ plus MBRT in the NSCLC patients with BM in RCTs. CONCLUSION: Our study will provide evidence to judge if TMZ plus MBRT are effective treatment for NSCLC patients with BM.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/tratamiento farmacológico , Temozolomida/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/secundario , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
3.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(1): 22-26, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927801

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) exclusion in favor of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) staging and surveillance in the management of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is controversial yet accepted by some centers. The use of MRI suggests performing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment for limited brain metastases. Data regarding SRS efficacy in this setting is limited. OBJECTIVES: To assess intracranial objective response rate (iORR), progression-free survival (iPFS), intracranial failure patterns, overall survival (OS) and time-to-whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT)/death, whichever occurred first (TTWD) with SRS in SCLC. METHODS: The study comprised 10 consecutive SCLC patients with brain metastases treated with SRS and followed-up at Davidoff Cancer center between Aug 2012 and March 2019. Brain MRI images were reviewed by a neuro-radiology specialist. RESULTS: iORR was 57% as assessed by response assessment in neuro-oncology brain metastases. Intracranial progression developed in 8 patients. Median iPFS was 4.0 months (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.7-7.2). In-site, off-site and combined pattern of intracranial failure was seen in 0, 5, and 3 patients, respectively; median number of new brain lesions following SRS was 4 (range, 1-12). SRS was performed 10 additional times in 6 patients (median number of lesions irradiated per round was 1, range 1-5). WBRT was administered in 3 patients. Median TTWD was 20.9 months (95% CI, 1.9-26.8). Median OS since SRS administration was 23.2 months (95% CI, 4.2-not reached). CONCLUSIONS: MRI surveillance with multiple rounds of SRS may serve a reasonable alternative to PCI or therapeutic WBRT in SCLC.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Radiocirugia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células Pequeñas/patología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neuroimagen , Supervivencia sin Progresión , Radiocirugia/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(1): 137-152, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813004

RESUMEN

With the advancement of imaging technology, systemic disease control rate and survival rate, the morbidity of brain metastases (BMs) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been riding on a steady upward trend (40%), but management of BMs from NSCLC remains obscure. Systemic therapy is anticipated to offer novel therapeutic avenues in the management of NSCLC BMs, and radiotherapy (RT) and immunotherapy have their own advantages. Recently, it was confirmed that immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and RT could mutually promote the efficacy in the treatment of BMs from NSCLC. In this paper, we provide a review on current understandings and practices of separating or combining ICIs and RT, which could provide a reference for the coming laboratory and clinical studies and contribute to the development of new approaches in NSCLC BMs.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administración & dosificación , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inhibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/inmunología , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inhibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/inmunología , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/inmunología , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/patología , Quimioradioterapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/inmunología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Receptor de Muerte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inhibidores , Receptor de Muerte Celular Programada 1/inmunología , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Estudios Retrospectivos
5.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(1): 273-285, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641854

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway plays a vital role in cancer development and progression. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between genotype variants in mTORC1 pathway and the risk of brain metastasis (BM) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: We extracted genomic DNA from blood samples of 501 NSCLC patients and genotyped eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three core genes [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), mammalian lethal with sec-13 protein 8 (mLST8) and regulatory-associated protein of mTOR (RPTOR)] of the mTORC1 pathway. The associations between these SNPs and the risk of BM development were assessed. RESULTS: The AG/GG genotype of mLST8:rs26865 and TC/CC genotype of mLST8:rs3160 were associated with an increased risk of BM [hazard ratios (HR) 2.938, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.664-5.189, p < 0.001 and HR = 2.490, 95% CI = 1.543-4.016, p < 0.001, respectively]. These risk polymorphisms had a cumulative effect on BM risk, with two risk genotypes exhibiting the highest increased risk (p < 0.001). Furthermore, these risk SNPs were associated with the lymph node metastasis (N2/3), body mass index (BMI) (≥ 25 kg/m2), high level of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen and Ki-67 proliferation index. Moreover, patients with AG/GG genotype of mLST8:rs26865 had significantly lower median overall survival than those with AA genotype (12.1 months versus 21.6 months, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that polymorphisms in mTORC1 pathway were significantly associated with increased risk of BM and may be valuable biomarkers to identify NSCLC patients with a high risk of BM.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Diana Mecanicista del Complejo 1 de la Rapamicina/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/patología , ADN de Neoplasias/sangre , ADN de Neoplasias/genética , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Genotipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Masculino , Diana Mecanicista del Complejo 1 de la Rapamicina/metabolismo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Estudios Retrospectivos , Transducción de Señal
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18306, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852112

RESUMEN

This retrospective analysis of patients aims to show the blood levels of preoperative inflammatory markers in patients with glioblastoma and brain metastasis and to provide the diagnostic accuracy of the neutrophil-lymphocyte (NLR), lymphocyte-monocyte (LMR), and platelet-lymphocyte (PLR) ratios between the 2 groups of patients.The retrospective reviews of the neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet counts were analyzed in 80 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and 70 patients with brain metastasis. The NLR, LMR, and PLR were calculated in each group. The differences in all the parameters were compared between the 2 groups.Although the neutrophil, monocyte, and platelet counts were higher and the lymphocyte count was lower in patients with metastasis, the difference was not significant. A significantly higher PLR (P = .004) and a lower LMR (P = .01) were found in patients with brain metastasis. Although both PLR and LMR had diagnostic accuracy in differentiating glioblastoma from brain metastasis, LMR showed the highest diagnostic accuracy. NLR showed no diagnostic accuracy.Systemic inflammation is more severe in glioblastoma than in brain metastasis, and LMR is more sensitive and/or specific than PLR in differentiating glioblastoma from brain metastasis. Therefore, LMR (less likely PLR) can be used as an index for differentiating between glioblastoma and brain metastasis before surgery.


Asunto(s)
Plaquetas/patología , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Linfocitos/patología , Monocitos/patología , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos , Neutrófilos/patología , Biomarcadores de Tumor/sangre , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Glioblastoma/cirugía , Humanos , Recuento de Linfocitos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Recuento de Plaquetas , Periodo Preoperatorio , Estudios Retrospectivos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(47): e18006, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764815

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: One-and-a-half syndrome (OAAH) is characterized as the combination of ipsilateral horizontal gaze palsy and internuclear ophthalmoplegia. OAAH syndrome accompanied with 7th and 8th cranial nerve palsy is called 16-and-a-half syndrome. We aimed to report the case of 16-and-a-half syndrome with metastatic pons tumor. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old male diagnosed with nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with brain metastasis occurring 15 months ago was referred to our clinic with the chief complaint of horizontal diplopia and right gaze palsy. DIAGNOSIS: According to the patient symptom, ocular examination, and radiographic findings, he was diagnosed as 16-and-a-half syndrome which was caused by brain tumor metastasis from NSCLC. INTERVENTIONS: We referred him to hemato-oncology department and he was treated with radiation and supportive therapy. OUTCOMES: Unfortunately, the patient passed away 1 month later without improvement of ophthalmoplegia. LESSONS: The clinical findings of our case indicate 16-and-a-half syndrome caused by brain tumor metastasis from NSCLC, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported. The case highlights a rare cause of OAAH spectrum disease and the importance of a systemic work-up including associated neurologic symptoms and brain imaging in patients with horizontal gaze palsy.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicaciones , Enfermedades del Nervio Facial/etiología , Trastornos de la Motilidad Ocular/etiología , Oftalmoplejía/etiología , Puente , Enfermedades del Nervio Vestibulococlear/etiología , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Síndrome
8.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(8): 860-866, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677901

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Stereotactic radiosurgery and hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy are standard treatments for brain metastases when they are small in size (at the most 3cm in diameter) and limited in number, in patients with controlled extracerebral disease and a good performance status. Large inoperable brain metastases usually undergo hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy while haemorrhagic brain metastases have often been contraindicated for both stereotactic radiosurgery or hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess a six 6Gy-fractions hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy scheme in use at our institution for haemorrhagic brain metastases, large brain metastases (size greater than 15cm3) or brain metastases located next to critical structures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with brain metastases treated with the 6×6Gy scheme since 2012 to 2016 were included. Haemorrhagic brain metastases were defined by usual criteria on CT scan and MRI. Efficacy, acute and late toxicity were evaluated. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients presenting 92 brain metastases were included (32 haemorrhagic brain metastases). Median follow up was 10.1 months. One-year local control rate for haemorrhagic brain metastases, large brain metastases, or brain metastases next to critical structures were 90.7%, 73% and 86.7% respectively. Corresponding overall survival rates were 61.2%, 32% and 37.8%, respectively. Haemorrhagic complications occurred in 5.3% of patients (N=5), including two cases of brain metastases with pretreatment haemorrhagic signal. Tolerance was good with only one grade 3 acute toxicity. CONCLUSION: The 6×6Gy hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy scheme seems to yield quite good results in patients with haemorrhagic brain metastases, which must be confirmed in a prospective way.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Hemorragia Cerebral/radioterapia , Hipofraccionamiento de la Dosis de Radiación , Radiocirugia/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patología , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Radiocirugia/efectos adversos , Radiocirugia/mortalidad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Tiempo , Carga Tumoral
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17773, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689842

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) with different metastatic patterns. METHODS: Data of pNETs cases were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database. They were classified according to the different metastatic patterns. We utilized chi-square test to compare the clinical and metastasis characteristics among different groups. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank testing for survival comparisons. Adjusted HRs with 95% CIs was calculated using Cox regression model to estimate prognostic factors. P < .05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Among the 3909 patients, liver is the most metastatic organ, and isolated brain metastasis is the least common. At the same time, many patients have had multiple metastases. We studied the overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CCS) of the groups. OS: Non-organ metastasis: 5-year OS = 77.1%; Bone metastasis: median survival time (MST) = 56 m, 5-year OS = 42.7%; Liver metastasis: MST = 24 m, 5-year OS = 25.5%; Lung metastasis: MST = 14 m, 5-year OS = 33.7%; multiple metastases: MST = 7m, 5-year OS = 12.0%. CCS: Non-organ metastasis: 5-year OS = 84.2%; Bone metastasis: 5-year OS = 52.5%; Liver metastasis: MST = 27 m, 5-year OS = 28.6%; Lung metastasis: MST = 49 m, 5-year OS = 40.1%; multiple metastases: MST = 8 m, 5-year OS = 14.5%. In addition, the results showed that there were all statistical significances between the surgery and the no surgery group (all, P < .001). Multivariate analysis revealed that brain metastasis, multiple metastases, age over 60 years, unmarried, grade III/IV, regional/distant and no surgery were independently associated with decreased OS and CCS. CONCLUSIONS: pNETs patients without organ metastasis had the best survival outcomes, while multiple had the worst outcomes. There were no significant differences in bone metastasis, liver metastasis and lung metastasis. Surgery was still an option for patients with metastasis.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Óseas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidad , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/mortalidad , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidad , Anciano , Neoplasias Óseas/secundario , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Femenino , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundario , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundario , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/secundario , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patología , Pronóstico , Programa de VERF , Tasa de Supervivencia
10.
World Neurosurg ; 130: 615-622, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581411

RESUMEN

Radiation therapy represents a mainstay of treatment for patients with brain metastases. Recently, the widespread adoption of immune checkpoint blockade has led to keen interest in treating cancers with checkpoint inhibitors in place of, or as an adjunct to, traditional chemotherapy. However, with the exception of melanoma, immune checkpoint blockade in solid tumors has failed to achieve significant brain control in patients with brain metastases. The possibility of combining immune checkpoint blockade with radiation for the treatment of brain and other metastases represents an exciting new strategy that is in its early stages of investigation. Success with this combinatorial strategy has the potential to result in enhanced rates of brain control, less brain exposure to radiation, and improved cognitive outcomes. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms behind this synergy, describe its limitations, and suggest ways to move the field forward.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Inmunoterapia/métodos , Radiocirugia/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/inmunología , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Factores Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Resultado del Tratamiento
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17390, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577744

RESUMEN

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is considered the initial treatment for lung cancer patients with small-sized and limited number of brain metastases. The objective of this study was to assess clinical outcomes of SRS treatment using CyberKnife (CK) for recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class II/III patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases from lung cancer and identify which patients in the high RPA class could benefit from SRS.A total of 48 lung cancer patients who received CK-based SRS for their metastatic brain lesions from 2010 to 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Radiographic response was evaluated during follow-up period. Overall survival (OS) and intracranial progression-free survival (IPFS) were calculated and prognostic variables associated with OS and IPFS were evaluated.Median follow-up time was 6.6 months. Local control rates at 6 months and 1-year following SRS were 98% and 92%, respectively. The median OS of all patients was 8 months. One-year and 2-year OS rates were 40.8% and 20.9%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, uncontrolled primary disease (P = .01) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or 3 (P = .001) were independent prognostic factors for inferior OS. These 2 factors were also significantly associated with inferior IPFS. In subgroup analysis according to RPA class, primary disease status was the only prognostic factor, showing statistically significant OS differences in both RPA class II and III (controlled vs uncontrolled: 41.1 vs 12.3 months in RPA class II, P = .03; 26.9 vs 4.1 months in RPA class III, P = .01).Our results indicated that SRS could be an effective treatment option for RPA class II/III patients with brain metastases from lung cancer in the modern treatment era. SRS might be particularly considered for patients with controlled primary disease.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirugía , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Radiocirugia/métodos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Análisis de Supervivencia
12.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 249, 2019 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646971

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiac myxoma is the most common benign cardiac tumor. Brain metastases or multiple cerebral aneurysms are extremely rare, especially for the case of both complications. Brain metastases are usually found at the same time or few months after the diagnosis or surgical removal of cardiac myxoma CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of patient, operated for a cardiac myxoma, who presented multiple central nervous system metastases associated, cerebral aneurysms and subsequent intracerebral hemorrhage CONCLUSIONS: The long-term follow-up of the patients with atrial myxoma even after complete surgical excision is recommended, especially for the patient with central nervous system manifestations before atrial myxoma excision.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Neoplasias Cardíacas/patología , Aneurisma Intracraneal/etiología , Mixoma/patología , Adulto , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiología , Femenino , Atrios Cardíacos/patología , Humanos
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17515, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626111

RESUMEN

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is difficult to be separated from solitary brain metastasis (sBM) in clinical practice. This study aimed to distinguish two entities by the histogram analysis of absolute cerebral blood volume (CBV) map.From March 2016 to June 2018, 24 patients with GBM and 18 patients with sBM were included in this retrospective study. The enhancing area was first segmented on the post-contrast T1WI, then the segmentation was copied to the absolute CBV map and histogram analysis was finally performed. Unpaired t test was used to select the features that could separate two entities and receiving operating curve was used to test the diagnostic performance. Finally, a machine learning method was used to test the diagnostic performance combing all the selected features.Six of 19 features were feasible to distinguish GBM from sBM (all P < .001), among which energy had the highest diagnostic performance (area under curve, 0.84; accuracy, 88%), while a machine learning method could improve the diagnostic performance (area under curve, 0.94; accuracy, 95%).Histogram analysis of the absolute CBV in the enhancing area could help us distinguish GBM from sBM, in addition, a machine learning method with combined features is preferable. It is quite helpful in the condition that the biological nature of peritumoral edema could not separate these two entities.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Volumen Sanguíneo Cerebral , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Interpretación de Imagen Asistida por Computador/estadística & datos numéricos , Aprendizaje Automático/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Humanos , Interpretación de Imagen Asistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Curva ROC , Estudios Retrospectivos
14.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4905-4909, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519594

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: The differentiation between cerebral metastases (CM) and high-grade gliomas (HGG) can be difficult on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of searching two MRI signs (signal alteration in the adjacent cortex, SAAC, and peripheral rim sign, PRS), in order to distinguish between these entities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 61 patients were retrospectively enrolled (28 HGG, 33 CM). Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) sequences were used to assess SAAC and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences for PRS. RESULTS: A positive SAAC sign was present in 61% of HGG, and 12% of CM. Conversely, in SAAC-negative lesions, PRS was observed in 78% of CM and in 32% of HGG. Their association had a higher frequency in HGG than in the CM group (21 vs. 3%). CONCLUSION: While SAAC is specific for HGG and PRS, in the absence of SAAC, is relatively specific for CMs, their combined presence is highly suggestive of HGG.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Corteza Cerebral/patología , Glioma/diagnóstico , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clasificación del Tumor , Curva ROC , Intensificación de Imagen Radiográfica , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
15.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(8): 917-921, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540838

RESUMEN

Nanomedicine has undergone significant development since the 2000s and it is only very recently that two metallic nanoparticles have emerged in clinical trials. The mechanism of these radiosensitizing agents is based on the presence of atoms with a high atomic number (Z) allowing a higher dose deposition into the tumor during irradiation. The first nanoparticle used in humans is NBTXR3, composed of hafnium (Z=79), with intratumor injection for the treatment of sarcoma. Another gadolinium-based nanoparticle (Z=64), AGuIX, has been used for intravenous injection in the treatment of brain metastases. The preliminary results are promising in terms of feasibility, safety and efficacy, as evidenced by the significant number of ongoing clinical trials. The upcoming challenges for the development of nanoparticles will be the targeting of cancer cells, their biodistribution into the body, their eventual toxicity and their industrial production. In the coming years, modalities of administration and optimal combinations with radiotherapy should be defined in connection with fundamental research.


Asunto(s)
Nanomedicina , Nanopartículas/uso terapéutico , Fármacos Sensibilizantes a Radiaciones/uso terapéutico , Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Adenocarcinoma/secundario , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Ensayos Clínicos Fase I como Asunto , Gadolinio/uso terapéutico , Oro/uso terapéutico , Hafnio/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Nanopartículas/efectos adversos , Fármacos Sensibilizantes a Radiaciones/efectos adversos , Sarcoma/radioterapia
16.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 143: 95-101, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563079

RESUMEN

Extensive disease Small cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC) represents a very aggressive malignancy in which brain metastases (BM) are quite common. Clinical trials on prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) have showed a clear decrease in the risk of developing BM but conflicting results concerning a possible survival advantage. A landmark European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) prospective trial, as well as multitude of retrospective series confirm survival benefit after PCI. Recently, a Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) study did not find such survival benefit, provided that non-irradiated patients are closely followed by MRI. Henceforth, the role of PCI in this population has been questioned, on the ground of the possible absence of survival benefit, leading to a gradual shift in oncology practice. We performed a review of the literature on the subject of PCI in ED-SCLC patients. We conclude that PCI could still play a crucial role in these patients, considering not only a possible survival benefit, but also alternative endpoints, such as improved local control, delay in the onset of symptomatic BM and lower toxicity of a prophylactic- rather than an eventual active-intent treatment. Individualized attitude should be discussed with patients, while addressing all arguments in favour and against PCI.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas/prevención & control , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Irradiación Craneana/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células Pequeñas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Irradiación Craneana/efectos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Estudios Prospectivos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Estudios Retrospectivos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células Pequeñas/patología
17.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(12): 3099-3104, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549227

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and Friends of Cancer Research submitted recommendations to the FDA to reduce barriers in clinical trial participation. They proposed the removal of several specific exclusion criteria, including brain metastasis. Clinical trials involving small cell lung cancer (SCLC) have varying exclusion criteria regarding brain metastasis. METHODS: We completed an online search of clinicaltrials.gov for the query "SCLC, extensive stage." The trials were classified into a group of strict exclusion, allowed only if treated, allowed without treatment, or undefined. Relationships between status of brain metastasis in exclusion criteria and study characteristics (trial status, trial design, sponsor, location, and treatment groups) were investigated by Chi-squared test. The trends of exclusion status were investigated by a comparison against the variable time. RESULTS: Of the 204 eligible trials, 32 strictly excluded any form or history of CNS metastases, 129 allowed patients that are undergoing or have undergone CNS-specific therapy, 9 allowed patients without any CNS-specific therapy, and 34 did not mention any criteria involving CNS metastases. Studies conducted outside the United States and with single systemic therapy were associated with strict exclusion of brain metastasis (p = 0.026 and 0.039, respectively). The proportion of clinical trials with strict exclusion has remained around 15% for the past few decades. CONCLUSION: Non-US and single systemic therapy studies are more commonly associated with strict exclusion of brain metastasis in ES-SCLC trials. The strict exclusion of brain metastases in clinical trials has remained relatively constant for the past few decades.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patología , Encéfalo/patología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células Pequeñas/patología , Animales , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Humanos , Estados Unidos
18.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(9): 1501-1513, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489465

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Brain metastases are a significant source of morbidity and mortality for patients with lung cancer. Lung cancer can induce local and systemic immunosuppression, promoting tumor growth and dissemination. One mechanism of immunosuppression is tumor-induced expansion of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expressing myeloid cells. Here, we investigate peripheral blood immune phenotype in NSCLC patients with or without brain metastasis. METHODS: Peripheral blood was collected from patients with lung metastatic brain tumors and pre-metastatic lung cancer. Immunosuppressive monocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were quantified through flow cytometry. T cell reactivity was analyzed via ELISpot. Brain metastasis conditioned media was collected from tumor-derived cell cultures and analyzed for cytokines by ELISA. Naïve monocytes were stimulated with brain metastasis conditioned media to evaluate PD-L1 stimulation. RESULTS: Patients with brain metastatic lung carcinoma demonstrated increased peripheral monocyte PD-L1, MDSC abundance, and Treg percentage compared to early stage pre-metastatic patients and healthy controls. Patients with elevated peripheral monocyte PD-L1 had less reactive T cells and worse survival. Brain metastasis conditioned media stimulation increased monocyte PD-L1, and conditioned media IL-6 levels correlated with PD-L1 induction. Treatment with anti-IL-6 or anti-IL-6 receptor antibodies reduced PD-L1 expression. In summary, patients with lung cancer and brain metastases exhibit multiple markers of peripheral immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of PD-L1+ myeloid cells correlated with the presence of brain metastases. Tumor-derived IL-6 was capable of inducing PD-L1+ myeloid cells in vitro, suggesting that monitoring of immunosuppressive factors in peripheral blood may identify new targets for therapeutic intervention in selected patients.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas/inmunología , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/inmunología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/inmunología , Células Supresoras de Origen Mieloide/inmunología , Linfocitos T Reguladores/inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Carcinogénesis , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/mortalidad , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/secundario , Células Cultivadas , Ensayo de Immunospot Ligado a Enzimas , Femenino , Citometría de Flujo , Humanos , Tolerancia Inmunológica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidad , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Análisis de Supervivencia , Regulación hacia Arriba
19.
World Neurosurg ; 132: 114-117, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476467

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Neurosurgical operating rooms are equipped with microscopes in order to provide a good standard of care. Nevertheless, in developing countries, microscopes are not always available. During a short period in a western Africa hospital, we adapted our smartphones as a valid alternative to the microscope. METHODS: Using a shaped tin can, a smartphone cover, and a rod fixed to the bed, we could make a support for a smartphone creating a simple "homemade" exoscope, which allowed us to have magnification and light in the surgical field. RESULTS: Among others, we performed 5 surgical interventions of both spinal and brain surgery using our smartphone as a magnifier. This allowed us to overcome the absence of a better magnification system. CONCLUSIONS: This simple "smartphone-based exoscope" allows surgeons to get an adequate magnification during surgery when microscopes or magnification goggles are not available. It can be a useful solution in developing countries where often nothing better is available.


Asunto(s)
Microscopía/instrumentación , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/instrumentación , Teléfono Inteligente , Equipo Quirúrgico/provisión & distribución , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirugía , Países en Desarrollo , Humanos , Desplazamiento del Disco Intervertebral/cirugía , Vértebras Lumbares , Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirugía , Meningioma/cirugía , Metastasectomía/métodos
20.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(6-7): 708-715, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477442

RESUMEN

Stereotactic radiation therapy of brain metastases is a treatment recognized as effective, well tolerated, applicable for therapeutic indications codified and validated by national and international guidelines. However, the effectiveness of this irradiation, the evolution of patient care and the technical improvements enabling its implementation make it possible to consider it in more complex situations: proximity of brain metastases to organs at risk; large, cystic, haemorrhagic or multiple brain metastases, combination with targeted therapies and immunotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with a pacemaker. This article aims to put forward the arguments available to date in the literature and those resulting from clinical practice to provide decision support for the radiation oncologists.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Irradiación Craneana/métodos , Órganos en Riesgo , Radiocirugia/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patología , Tronco Encefálico , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicaciones , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Contraindicaciones de los Procedimientos , Humanos , Inmunoterapia , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/efectos adversos , Terapia Molecular Dirigida , Nervio Óptico , Marcapaso Artificial , Carga Tumoral
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