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1.
Actas urol. esp ; 48(3): 228-237, abr. 2024. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-231928

RESUMEN

Introducción Los tumores malignos del tracto urinario están asociados a gran morbimortalidad siendo su prevalencia variable a nivel global. Recientemente el estudio IDENTIFY ha publicado resultados sobre la prevalencia del cáncer del tracto urinario a nivel internacional. Este estudio evalúa la prevalencia de cáncer dentro de la cohorte española del estudio IDENTIFY para determinar si los resultados publicados son extrapolables a nuestra población. Material y métodos Se realizó un análisis de los datos de la cohorte de pacientes españoles del estudio IDENTIFY. Se trata de una cohorte prospectiva de pacientes derivados al hospital con sospecha de cáncer, predominantemente por hematuria. Los pacientes fueron reclutados entre diciembre de 2017 y diciembre de 2018. Resultados En total 706 pacientes procedente de 9 centros españoles fueron analizados. Doscientos setenta y siete pacientes (39,2%) fueron diagnosticados de cáncer, 259 (36,7%) de cáncer vejiga, 10 (1,4%) de tracto urinario superior, 9 (1,2%) renal y 5 (0,7%) de próstata. El aumento de la edad (OR: 1,05; IC 95%: 1,03-1,06; p<0,001), presencia de hematuria visible (OR: 2,19; IC 95%: 1,13-4,24; p=0,02) y el hábito tabáquico (exfumadores: OR: 2,11; IC 95%: 1,30-3,40; p=0,002; fumadores: OR: 2,36; IC 95%: 1,40-3,95; p=0,001) se asocia con mayor probabilidad de cáncer vesical. Conclusión Este estudio resalta el riesgo que existe en pacientes con HV y hábito tabáquico de presentar cáncer de vejiga. El cáncer de vejiga presentó la mayor prevalencia, siendo esta mayor que la expuesta en series previas y la presentada en el estudio IDENTIFY. Trabajos futuros deben evaluar otros factores asociados que permitan crear modelos de predicción de cáncer para seguir aumentando la detección de estos en nuestros pacientes. (AU)


Introduction Malignant tumors of the urinary tract are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and their prevalence can vary worldwide. Recently, the IDENTIFY study has published results on the prevalence of urinary tract cancer at a global level. This study evaluates the prevalence of cancer within the Spanish cohort of the IDENTIFY study to determine whether the published results can be extrapolated to our population. Patients and methods An analysis of the data from the Spanish cohort of patients in the IDENTIFY study was performed. This is a prospective cohort of patients referred to secondary care with suspected cancer, predominantly due to hematuria. Patients were recruited between December 2017 and December 2018. Results A total of 706 patients from 9 Spanish centers were analyzed. Of these, 277 (39.2%) were diagnosed with cancer: 259 (36.7%) bladder cancer, 10 (1.4%) upper tract urothelial carcinoma, 9 (1.2%) renal cancer and 5 (0.7%) prostate cancer. Increasing age (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06; P<.001), visible hematuria (VH) OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.13-4.24; P=.02)and smoking (ex-smokers: OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.30-3.40; P=.002); (smokers: OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.40-3.95; P=.001) were associated with higher probability of bladder cancer. Conclusion This study highlights the risk of bladder cancer in patients with VH and smoking habits. Bladder cancer presented the highest prevalence; higher than the prevalence reported in previous series and presented in the IDENTIFY study. Future work should evaluate other associated factors that allow us to create cancer prediction models to improve the detection of cancer in our patients. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Neoplasias Renales , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , España , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Prospectivos
2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 12(4)2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589249

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Interferons (IFNs) are essential for activating an effective immune response and play a central role in immunotherapy-mediated immune cell reactivation for tumor regression. Type III IFN (λ), related to type I IFN (α), plays a crucial role in infections, autoimmunity, and cancer. However, the direct effects of IFN-λ on the tumor immune microenvironment have not been thoroughly investigated. METHODS: We used mouse MB49 bladder tumor models, constructed a retroviral vector expressing mouse IFN-λ3, and transduced tumor cells to evaluate the antitumor action of IFN-λ3 in immune-proficient tumors and T cell-deficient tumors. Furthermore, human bladder cancer samples (cohort 1, n=15) were used for immunohistochemistry and multiplex immunoflurescence analysis to assess the expression pattern of IFN-λ3 in human bladder cancer and correlate it with immune cells' infiltration. Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed in neoadjuvant immunotherapy cohort (cohort 2, n=20) to assess the correlation between IFN-λ3 expression and the pathological complete response rate. RESULTS: In immune-proficient tumors, ectopic Ifnl3 expression in tumor cells significantly increased the infiltration of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, Th1 cells, natural killer cells, proinflammatory macrophages, and dendritic cells, but reduced neutrophil infiltration. Transcriptomic analyses revealed significant upregulation of many genes associated with effective immune response, including lymphocyte recruitment, activation, and phagocytosis, consistent with increased antitumor immune infiltrates and tumor inhibition. Furthermore, IFN-λ3 activity sensitized immune-proficient tumors to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. In T cell-deficient tumors, increased Ly6G-Ly6C+I-A/I-E+ macrophages still enhanced tumor cell phagocytosis in Ifnl3 overexpressing tumors. IFN-λ3 is expressed by tumor and stromal cells in human bladder cancer, and high IFN-λ3 expression was positively associated with effector immune infiltrates and the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that IFN-λ3 enables macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and antitumor immune responses and suggests a rationale for using Type III IFN as a predictive biomarker and potential immunotherapeutic candidate for bladder cancer.


Asunto(s)
Interferón lambda , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Animales , Ratones , Humanos , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Macrófagos , Inmunidad , Fagocitosis , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 36(3): 155-163, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573204

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The most common definitive treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is radical cystectomy. However, removing the bladder and surrounding organs poses risks of morbidity that can reduce quality of life, and raises the risk of death. Treatment strategies that preserve the organs can manage the local tumor and mitigate the risk of distant metastasis. Recent data have demonstrated promising outcomes in several bladder-preservation strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Bladder preservation with trimodality therapy (TMT), combining maximal transurethral resection of the bladder tumor, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy (RT), was often reserved for nonsurgical candidates for radical cystectomy. Recent meta-analyses show that outcomes of TMT and radical cystectomy are similar. More recent bladder-preservation approaches include combining targeted RT (MRI) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), ICIs and chemotherapy, and selecting patients based on genomic biomarkers and clinical response to systemic therapies. These are all promising strategies that may circumvent the need for radical cystectomy. SUMMARY: MIBC is an aggressive disease with a high rate of systemic progression. Current management includes neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy and radical cystectomy with lymph node dissection. Novel alternative strategies, including TMT approaches, combinations with RT, chemotherapy, and/or ICIs, and genomic biomarkers, are in development to further advance bladder-preservation options for patients with MIBC.


Asunto(s)
Preservación de Órganos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Biomarcadores , Músculos
4.
Mymensingh Med J ; 33(2): 461-465, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557526

RESUMEN

Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common malignancy of urinary bladder. It is the 9th leading cause of death worldwide and second most common genitourinary malignancy among male. Incidence is increasing in developing countries like Bangladesh. About 80% of patients are found between 50 to 80 years of age. It is 3-4 times more common in male than in female. Determination of therapeutic strategy and prediction of progression of urothelial carcinoma is a major clinical challenge. Treatment of urothelial carcinoma still now mostly depends on pathological stages. Amplification or genomic alteration of Cyclin D1 (a proto-oncogene) may cause protein overexpression which is frequently realized as a clonal pathology in various human neoplasms including bladder cancer. Evaluation of Cyclin D1 expression is promising for guiding therapeutic strategies, risk stratification and prediction of tumor progression. The aim of the study was to determine the expression of Cyclin D1 in urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder and its association with tumour grade. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in Department of Pathology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2019 to June 2021. Histomorphologically diagnosed 51 urothelial carcinomas were included. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Immunostaining with Cyclin D1 antibody was also done. Relevant information was collected and recorded in a predesigned data sheet. Statistical analysis was carried out as required. Mean age ±SD was 57.8±10.55 years. Male female ratio was 4.6:1. In this study 39(76.5%) patients were smoker. Regarding clinical presentations 36(70.6%) patients presented with painless hematuria alone. Lateral wall (64.7%) was the most frequent tumor location. Among 51 cases, 38(74.5%) cases were high grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC) and 13(25.5%) cases were low grade urothelial carcinoma (LGUC). Considering Cyclin D1 expression, most of the LGUC cases showed high level of expression by both percentage (84.6%) and intensity (84.6%). Most of the HGUC cases showed low level of expression by both percentage (63.2%) and intensity (60.5%). Cyclin D1 showed significant inverse association with HGUC (p<0.05). In urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder, Cyclin D1 expression was decreased with increasing grade of the tumor. Cyclin D1 expression was inversely associated with tumour grade.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Transicionales , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/patología , Estudios Transversales , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Vejiga Urinaria/metabolismo , Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2818, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561369

RESUMEN

Interplay between innate and adaptive immune cells is important for the antitumor immune response. However, the tumor microenvironment may turn immune suppressive, and tumor associated macrophages are playing a role in this transition. Here, we show that CD276, expressed on tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), play a role in diminishing the immune response against tumors. Using a model of tumors induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine in BLCA male mice we show that genetic ablation of CD276 in TAMs blocks efferocytosis and enhances the expression of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) of TAMs. This in turn increases CD4 + and cytotoxic CD8 + T cell infiltration of the tumor. Combined single cell RNA sequencing and functional experiments reveal that CD276 activates the lysosomal signaling pathway and the transcription factor JUN to regulate the expression of AXL and MerTK, resulting in enhanced efferocytosis in TAMs. Proving the principle, we show that simultaneous blockade of CD276 and PD-1 restrain tumor growth better than any of the components as a single intervention. Taken together, our study supports a role for CD276 in efferocytosis by TAMs, which is potentially targetable for combination immune therapy.


Asunto(s)
Macrófagos Asociados a Tumores , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Animales , Masculino , Ratones , Evasión Inmune , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/metabolismo
6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 33(4): 461-462, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566557

RESUMEN

Rates of waterpipe use increase with very little data reporting any potential health consequences. The current study, a large case-control study, of 4,194 patients from Iran denotes an elevated risk of bladder cancer in exclusive waterpipe smokers compared with non-users. Additional studies are needed to further understand the risk waterpipe smoking has on bladder cancer. See related article by Hadji et al., p. 509.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Fumar en Pipa de Agua , Humanos , Fumar en Pipa de Agua/efectos adversos , Fumar en Pipa de Agua/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Fumadores , Irán/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/etiología
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(6): 2387-2395, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567601

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a relatively rare but aggressive type of urologic cancer that includes renal pelvic tumors and ureteral tumors with a poor prognosis. Full-length nephroureterectomy plus sleeve bladder resection is the standard treatment for the disease, but patients are prone to recurrence of bladder tumors after surgery. Intravesical infusion therapy is the main means to prevent the recurrence and progression of bladder cancer. Epirubicin and gemcitabine are widely used in clinical practice as first-line or salvage therapy for intravesical chemotherapy; however, the efficacy of these agents is rarely discussed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of epirubicin and gemcitabine on the occurrence of bladder cancer after radical nephroureterectomy for UTUC and to analyze the risk factors affecting the recurrence of postoperative bladder cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 215 patients with diagnosed UTUC and treated in our hospital from June 2019 to August 2021 were retrospectively selected as the research subjects, and they were divided into an observation group (120 cases) and a control group (95 cases) according to different treatment methods. The patients in the control group were treated with epirubicin, while those in the observation group received gemcitabine. All patients were followed up by telephone or outpatient examination for 12 months to record the occurrence of adverse reactions. The occurrence of bladder cancer was recorded at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the surgery. According to the occurrence of bladder cancer after surgery, the patients were divided into a bladder cancer group (63 cases) and a non-bladder cancer group (152 cases). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of bladder cancer after surgery. RESULTS: The total incidence of adverse reactions in the control group was 49.47%, which was higher than that in the observation group with 15.00% (p<0.01). The incidence of bladder tumors in the observation group and the control group was 0.00% and 2.11% at 3 months, 5.00% and 8.42% at 6 months, 13.33% and 15.79% at 12 months, without significant difference (p>0.05). After 12 months of perfusion, the levels of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the two groups were significantly lower than those before perfusion (p<0.05). In the observation group, the levels of these three factors were slightly decreased compared with those in the control group, without a significant difference (p>0.05). Between the bladder cancer and non-bladder cancer groups, there were significant differences in tumor location, number of lesions, tumor stage, preoperative ureteral examination, and preoperative history of bladder cancer (p<0.05). The above indexes were all risk factors for postoperative bladder cancer (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Epirubicin and gemcitabine reduced the occurrence of bladder cancer and effectively inhibited tumor angiogenesis after radical nephroureterectomy for UTUC. The tumor location, number of lesions, tumor stage, preoperative ureteral examination, and preoperative history of bladder cancer were risk factors for postoperative bladder cancer.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Transicionales , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Nefroureterectomía , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/cirugía , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Epirrubicina/uso terapéutico , Gemcitabina , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular , Factores de Riesgo , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/patología , Nefrectomía
8.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 29(1): 46, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561669

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Small extracellular vesicles (sEV) are closely associated with the development and metastasis of many types of mammalian cancer. Glycoconjugates are highly expressed on sEV and play important roles in sEV biogenesis and their interaction with other cells. However, the study on vesicular glycoconjugates are far behind proteins and nucleic acids. Especially, the functions of sialic acids which are the terminal components of glycoconjugates, are poorly understood in sEV. METHODS: Sialic acid levels on sEV from plasma and bladder cancer cells were determined by ELISA and lectin blotting. Effects of sialylation on sEV uptake were determined by flow cytometry. Vesicular glycoproteins bearing sialic acids responsible for sEV uptake was identified by proteomics and density gradient centrifugation, and their site-specific sialylation functions were assayed by N-glycosylation site mutation. Effects of integrin ß1 bearing sialic acids on the pro-metastatic function of sEV in vivo were explored using Balb/c nu/nu mice. RESULTS: (1) Increased sialic acid levels were observed in sEV from malignant bladder cancer cells. (2) Elimination of sialic acids on sEV impaired sEV uptake by recipient cells. (3) Vesicular integrin ß1 bearing sialic acids was identified to play a key role in sEV uptake. (4) Desialylation of the hybrid domain of vesicular integrin ß1 inhibited its binding to matrix fibronectin, and reduced sEV entry into recipient cells. (5) Sialylation on integrin ß1 affected pro-metastatic function of sEV in Balb/c nu/nu mice. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings indicate important functional roles of sialic acids in sEV uptake and reprogramming plasticity of surrounding normal epithelial cells.


Asunto(s)
Vesículas Extracelulares , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Animales , Ratones , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Glicoconjugados , Integrina beta1/metabolismo , Mamíferos , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo
9.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 43(1): 101, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566204

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Regulatory B cells (Bregs), a specialized subset of B cells that modulate immune responses and maintain immune tolerance in malignant tumors, have not been extensively investigated in the context of bladder cancer (BLCA). This study aims to elucidate the roles of Bregs and Breg-related genes in BLCA. METHODS: We assessed Breg infiltration levels in 34 pairs of BLCA and corresponding paracancerous tissues using immunohistochemical staining. We conducted transwell and wound healing assays to evaluate the impact of Bregs on the malignant phenotype of SW780 and T24 cells. Breg-related genes were identified through gene sets and transcriptional analysis. The TCGA-BLCA cohort served as the training set, while the IMvigor210 and 5 GEO cohorts were used as external validation sets. We employed LASSO regression and random forest for feature selection and developed a risk signature using Cox regression. Primary validation of the risk signature was performed through immunohistochemical staining and RT-qPCR experiments using the 34 local BLCA samples. Additionally, we employed transfection assays and flow cytometry to investigate Breg expansion ability and immunosuppressive functions. RESULTS: Breg levels in BLCA tissues were significantly elevated compared to paracancerous tissues (P < 0.05) and positively correlated with tumor malignancy (P < 0.05). Co-incubation of SW780 and T24 cells with Bregs resulted in enhanced invasion and migration abilities (all P < 0.05). We identified 27 Breg-related genes, including CD96, OAS1, and CSH1, which were integrated into the risk signature. This signature demonstrated robust prognostic classification across the 6 cohorts (pooled HR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.52-3.33). Moreover, the signature exhibited positive associations with advanced tumor stage (P < 0.001) and Breg infiltration ratios (P < 0.05) in the local samples. Furthermore, the signature successfully predicted immunotherapeutic sensitivity in three cohorts (all P < 0.05). Knockdown of CSH1 in B cells increased Breg phenotype and enhanced suppressive ability against CD8 + T cells (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Bregs play a pro-tumor role in the development of BLCA. The Breg-related gene signature established in this study holds great potential as a valuable tool for evaluating prognosis and predicting immunotherapeutic response in BLCA patients.


Asunto(s)
Linfocitos B Reguladores , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/genética , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/terapia , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos , Citometría de Flujo , Inmunoterapia , Pronóstico
11.
Int Wound J ; 21(4): e14718, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571455

RESUMEN

This study comprehensively compared the effects of laparoscopic and open radical cystectomies on postoperative wound infections and complications in patients with bladder cancer. We conducted a systematic search for relevant studies in PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases, from database inception to October 2023. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted data, and assessed the quality based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data analysis was performed using Stata 17.0 software. Overall, 16 studies involving 1427 patients with bladder cancer were included. The analysis revealed that, compared with open radical cystectomy, laparoscopic radical cystectomy significantly reduced the incidence of wound infections (odds ratio [OR] = 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23-0.64, p < 0.001) and complications (OR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.26-0.47, p < 0.001) and significantly shortened the hospital stay duration (standardised mean difference [SMD] = -1.85, 95%CI: -2.34 to -1.36, p < 0.001). Thus, this study determined that laparoscopic radical cystectomy for the treatment of bladder cancer effectively reduced the occurrence of wound infections and complications, and significantly shortened the patient's hospital stay, demonstrating notable therapeutic effectiveness worthy of clinical application.


Asunto(s)
Laparoscopía , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Cistectomía/efectos adversos , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/etiología , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/cirugía , Resultado del Tratamiento , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/cirugía , Laparoscopía/efectos adversos
12.
World J Urol ; 42(1): 210, 2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573431

RESUMEN

Over the last two to three decades the non-surgical curative management of bladder cancer has significantly progressed. Increasing evidence supports the use of bladder preservation as an alternative to radical cystectomy (RC) for localised muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Radiosensitisation with chemotherapy or hypoxia modification improves the efficacy of radiotherapy. Systemic treatments play an important role in the management of localised MIBC with the benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radical treatment well established. The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in the radical treatment of bladder cancer, their safe combination with radical radiotherapy regimens and whether the addition of ICIs improve rates of cure are outstanding questions beginning to be answered by ongoing clinical trials. In this narrative review, we discuss the current evidence for bladder preservation and the role of systemic treatments for localised MIBC.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Vejiga Urinaria/cirugía , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/cirugía , Cistectomía , Inhibidores de Puntos de Control Inmunológico , Músculos
13.
Cancer Med ; 13(7): e7148, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558536

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Non-canonical WNT family (WNT5A pathway) signaling via WNT5A through ROR1 and its partner, ROR2, or Frizzled2 (FZD2) is linked to processes driving tumorigenesis and therapy resistance. We utilized a large dataset of urothelial carcinoma (UC) tumors to characterize non-canonical WNT signaling through WNT5A, ROR1, ROR2, or FZD2 expression. METHODS: NextGen Sequencing of DNA (592 genes or WES)/RNA (WTS) was performed for 4125 UC tumors submitted to Caris Life Sciences. High and low expression of WNT5A, ROR1, ROR2, and FZD2 was defined as ≥ top and

Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Transicionales , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Vía de Señalización Wnt/genética , Receptores Huérfanos Similares al Receptor Tirosina Quinasa/genética , Proteína Wnt-5a/genética , Proteína Wnt-5a/metabolismo
14.
Oncol Res ; 32(4): 597-605, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560564

RESUMEN

Bladder cancer (BC) is the 10th most common cancer worldwide, with about 0.5 million reported new cases and about 0.2 million deaths per year. In this scoping review, we summarize the current evidence regarding the clinical implications of single-cell sequencing for bladder cancer based on PRISMA guidelines. We searched PubMed, CENTRAL, Embase, and supplemented with manual searches through the Scopus, and Web of Science for published studies until February 2023. We included original studies that used at least one single-cell technology to study bladder cancer. Forty-one publications were included in the review. Twenty-nine studies showed that this technology can identify cell subtypes in the tumor microenvironment that may predict prognosis or response to immune checkpoint inhibition therapy. Two studies were able to diagnose BC by identifying neoplastic cells through single-cell sequencing urine samples. The remaining studies were mainly a preclinical exploration of tumor microenvironment at single cell level. Single-cell sequencing technology can discriminate heterogeneity in bladder tumor cells and determine the key molecular properties that can lead to the discovery of novel perspectives on cancer management. This nascent tool can advance the early diagnosis, prognosis judgment, and targeted therapy of bladder cancer.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Transicionales , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/patología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/genética , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/terapia , Pronóstico , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
15.
Asian J Endosc Surg ; 17(2): e13307, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561598

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This study was performed to evaluate the differences in the perioperative results, renal function, and incidence of hydronephrosis over time between the use of Bricker anastomosis and Wallace anastomosis for robot-assisted intracorporeal ileal conduit urinary diversion (RICIC). METHODS: Fifty-five patients who underwent RICIC at two institutions were evaluated (Bricker, n = 23; Wallace, n = 32). We investigated changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate and hydronephrosis before surgery and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. RESULTS: The patients in the Bricker group were significantly older than those in the Wallace group. The urinary diversion time was significantly longer in the Bricker group. No significant difference in postoperative renal function was observed. Additionally, no significant difference was observed in the incidence of postoperative hydronephrosis. However, the incidence of right hydronephrosis tended to be high overall, especially in the Wallace group. No patients in either group required repair surgery or ureteral stent placement. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing RICIC, there was no difference in postoperative renal function or the incidence of hydronephrosis between Wallace and Bricker anastomosis. Symptomatic hydronephrosis was not observed in either group. The present study showed that each method was equally effective and safe.


Asunto(s)
Hidronefrosis , Robótica , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Derivación Urinaria , Humanos , Íleon/cirugía , Derivación Urinaria/métodos , Cistectomía/métodos , Hidronefrosis/cirugía , Anastomosis Quirúrgica/métodos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/cirugía
16.
Cancer Imaging ; 24(1): 49, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584289

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS) has demonstrated effectiveness in predicting muscle invasion in bladder cancer before treatment. The urgent need currently is to evaluate the muscle invasion status after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for bladder cancer. This study aims to ascertain the accuracy of VI-RADS in detecting muscle invasion post-NAC treatment and assess its diagnostic performance across readers with varying experience levels. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after NAC from September 2015 to September 2018 were included. VI-RADS scores were independently assessed by five radiologists, consisting of three experienced in bladder MRI and two inexperienced radiologists. Comparison of VI-RADS scores was made with postoperative histopathological diagnosis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (ROC) was used for evaluating diagnostic performance, calculating sensitivity, specificity, and area under ROC (AUC)). Interobserver agreement was assessed using the weighted kappa statistic. RESULTS: The final analysis included 46 patients (mean age: 61 years ± 9 [standard deviation]; age range: 39-70 years; 42 men). The pooled AUC for predicting muscle invasion was 0.945 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.893-0.977) for experienced readers, and 0.910 (95% CI: 0.831-0.959) for inexperienced readers, and 0.932 (95% CI: 0.892-0.961) for all readers. At an optimal cut-off value ≥ 4, pooled sensitivity and specificity were 74.1% (range: 66.0-80.9%) and 94.1% (range: 88.6-97.7%) for experienced readers, and 63.9% (range: 59.6-68.1%) and 86.4% (range: 84.1-88.6%) for inexperienced readers. Interobserver agreement ranged from substantial to excellent between all readers (k = 0.79-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: VI-RADS accurately assesses muscle invasion in bladder cancer patients after NAC and exhibits good diagnostic performance across readers with different experience levels.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Vejiga Urinaria , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Vejiga Urinaria/diagnóstico por imagen , Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Estudios Retrospectivos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología
17.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(3): 513-518, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591289

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate long-term outcomes in patients homogenously treated with radical cystectomy and ileal conduit for muscle invasive bladder cancer. METHODS: The retrospective study was conducted at the Urology Department of Pakistan Kidney and Liver Institute and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised data from December 25, 2017, to January 16, 2023, related to patients who underwent radical cystectomy with ileal conduit with or without neo-adjuvant and adjuvant radiation, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy for papillary urothelial carcinom of the bladder. Clinical trajectory, histopathological characteristics and long-term clinical outcomes were noted. Data was analysed using SPSS 20. RESULTS: In our study of 40 patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer, males predominated (32, 80%), with a median age of 57.4 years (IQR: 29-80). Diagnosis was early in 5 (12.5%) patients with varying haematuria durations, while 34 (85%) patients had a smoking history. Comorbidities included hypertension in 17 (42.5%) patients, diabetes in 1 (2.5%) patient, both hypertension and diabetes in 9 (22.5%) patients and a combination of hypertension, diabetes, and ischaemic heart disease in 3 (7.5%) patients. Transurethral resection was performed once in 13 (32.5%) patients and multiple times in 27 (67.5%) patients. Additionally, 5 (12.5%) patients received immunotherapy, 11 (27.5%) patients underwent non-adjuvant radiation, and 14 (35%) patients received non-adjuvant chemotherapy. Papillary urothelial carcinoma was the predominant histological subtype among 37 (92.5%) patients. Patients receiving chemotherapy had significantly better overall survival (p=0.02). No significant differences were noted in recurrence or survival by therapy modality (p>0.05). These findings highlight the significance of early diagnosis, tailored treatments, and comorbidity management in muscle invasive bladder cancer patients. Age stratification revealed significant survival differences across groups (χ²=10.923, df=3, p= 0.012). Analysis by complications did not show age-related survival variations (χ² =3.978, df = 3, p=0.264). Conclusion: Achieving excellent long-term survival in MIBC patients requires a multidisciplinary approach, emphasizing early diagnosis, tailored treatment, and adherence to guidelines and protocols.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Transicionales , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensión , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Derivación Urinaria , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/cirugía , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/diagnóstico , Cistectomía/métodos , Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Músculos/patología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Invasividad Neoplásica/patología
18.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(3): 570-572, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591300

RESUMEN

It is very un comm on to discover Paraga ngliomas in the uri nar y bladder. Thes e tu mo ur s origina te from the sympathetic nerves which supp ly chromaffin cells in the bladde r wall. They can be classified as functional or nonfunctional. If functional, the most common presentations are with hypertensive crisis or post-micturition syncope. A si lent pa raganglioma of th e bl adder ca n be easily m isdiagnosed w hich can resu lt in severe pe ri- oper ative morbidity. We pre sent a ca se of a male pati ent who was being m a naged fo r hype rt ension for 2-3 ye ars. He presented at The Indus Hospital, Karachi o n 7th August 2022 with gross painless haematuria. An ultrasound scan revealed an echogenic lesion aris ing from base of the urinar y bladder, wh ic h was trea ted via Transurethral Resection o f Bladde r Tumour (TURBT). Histopathological report revealed Paraganglioma of the Bladder. He was later scheduled for Partial Cystectomy (PC) and has been doing well ever since.


Asunto(s)
Paraganglioma , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Masculino , Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/cirugía , Paraganglioma/diagnóstico por imagen , Paraganglioma/cirugía , Cistectomía , Pelvis
19.
World J Urol ; 42(1): 220, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587653

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To conduct a comparative effectiveness analysis between robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) and open approach (ORC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted involving all patients undergoing radical cystectomy and urinary diversion for invasive bladder cancer at our institution from 2010 to 2018. Of a total 296 patients, we matched ORC and RARC cases based on age, BMI, Charlson comorbidity index, pathological TN staging of the tumor, prior radiotherapy, and type of diversion. The perioperative complications and oncological outcomes were compared. RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients were matched in the ORC and RARC groups. The median operative time was longer in RARC group (430 min) than that of ORC group (372 min) (p = 0.03); however, the median estimated blood loss (EBL) was significantly lower in RARC group (500 ml) than that of ORC (700 ml) (p < 0.0001). The median length of hospital stay (LOS) was significantly reduced in the RARC group (7 days) compared to the ORC group (8 days) (p = 0.02). There were no significant differences between both groups in 30- and 90-day postoperative complications (p = 0.3 and p = 0.2, respectively). A total of 68 deaths (38.2%) were observed, of which 36 (40.4%) were in ORC group while 32 (36%) were in RARC group (p = 0.5). The results were comparable in both groups regarding 5-year survival rate and cancer-specific survival (p = 0.3 and p = 0.1, respectively). CONCLUSION: RARC showed better perioperative outcomes in the form of less EBL and shortened LOS compared to ORC group. However, both RARC and ORC provide similar postoperative oncologic control, in terms of similar positive surgical margins, cancer-specific rates, and 5-year survival rates.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Cistectomía , Puntaje de Propensión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/cirugía
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8073, 2024 04 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580653

RESUMEN

The fishing cat, Prionailurus viverrinus, faces a population decline, increasing the importance of maintaining healthy zoo populations. Unfortunately, zoo-managed individuals currently face a high prevalence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), a form of bladder cancer. To investigate the genetics of inherited diseases among captive fishing cats, we present a chromosome-scale assembly, generate the pedigree of the zoo-managed population, reaffirm the close genetic relationship with the Asian leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis), and identify 7.4 million single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 23,432 structural variants (SVs) from whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of healthy and TCC cats. Only BRCA2 was found to have a high recurrent number of missense mutations in fishing cats diagnosed with TCC when compared to inherited human cancer risk variants. These new fishing cat genomic resources will aid conservation efforts to improve their genetic fitness and enhance the comparative study of feline genomes.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Transicionales , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Gatos , Animales , Humanos , Genoma/genética , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/patología , Genómica , Células Germinativas/patología
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