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1.
s.l; CONETEC; mar. 2021.
No convencional en Español | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1150458

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cáncer del cuello uterino es una enfermedad prevenible, e incluso puede curarse si se detecta en una fase temprana y se trata debidamente. A pesar de ello, sigue siendo uno de los tipos de cáncer más comunes y una de las causas de muerte por cáncer entre mujeres de todo el mundo. Más del 85% de las mujeres afectadas son mujeres jóvenes y con escasa instrucción que viven en los países más pobres. Muchas de ellas también tienen hijos de corta edad cuya supervivencia se ve truncada por la muerte prematura de sus madres1 . Pocas enfermedades reflejan las desigualdades a nivel mundial como el cáncer del cuello uterino. En los países de ingresos bajos y medianos, su incidencia es de casi el doble y su tasa de mortalidad el triple que las de los países de ingresos altos. En palabras del Director General de la OMS: «Mediante intervenciones costo-eficaces y basadas en pruebas científicas, en particular la vacunación de las niñas contra el virus del papiloma humano, la detección y el tratamiento de lesiones precancerosas y la mejora del acceso al diagnóstico y el tratamiento de cánceres invasivos, podemos eliminar el cáncer del cuello uterino como problema de salud pública y lograr que se convierta en una enfermedad del pasado¼2 . Un reciente comunicado a todos los países en mayo de 2018 aboga por el fin al sufrimiento provocado por el CCU y una renovada voluntad política para hacer realidad su eliminación, instando a todas las partes interesadas a que se unieran en pos de ese objetivo común3 . Este esfuerzo mundial está en consonancia con los instrumentos que consagran la salud como derecho humano, 4 así como con la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible y su principio general de no dejar a nadie atrás. Respalda el logro de varios Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible y metas conexas 5 y es uno de los componentes de la Estrategia Mundial del Secretario General de las Naciones Unidas para la Salud de la Mujer, el Niño y el Adolescente (2016-2030). OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente informe será evaluar entre sí las distintas tecnologías para test de VPH disponibles en nuestro país, utilizadas en estrategias de detección precoz de CCU. Se analizarán diferencias en eficacia, seguridad, conveniencia y costos para el sistema de salud de Argentina. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó la búsqueda bibliográfica de manera independiente por distintos investigadores. Se revisaron bases de datos y buscadores: MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, Universidad de York, HTAi, OMS, Tripdatabase, Google académico, agencias de ETS, agencias reguladoras de alimentos y medicamentos, repositorios de guías de práctica clínica y productores de guías como OMS-OPS, Ministerio de Salud de la República Argentina, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologist,Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Health Care, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist y Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologist of Canada. Se realizó una búsqueda de informes en el repositorio BRISA de la OPS-RedETSA y en el repositorio de RedArets, así como otras agencias de ETS de nuestro país y del mundo. Se solicitó a través de las autoridades de CONETEC a todos los productores y vendedores de marcas y modelos de test de VPH disponibles en Argentina que acerquen evidencias sobre eficacia, seguridad y conveniencia de sus marcas y modelos. RESULTADOS: La prueba de detección del VPH ofrece máxima especificidad y tiene un sólido valor de predicción negativa, lo que significa que la mujer que obtiene un resultado negativo no necesita ser examinada de nuevo en un mínimo de cinco años. A su vez, dar a las mujeres la posibilidad de realizar por sí mismas la prueba (auto-toma) mejora la aceptabilidad y facilita el acceso a los servicios, aunque se requiere una compleja y dinámica articulación entre las capacidades de detección y atención del sistema de salud para captar la gran cantidad de casos positivos en la primera prueba, y continuar los estudios confirmatorios con PAP y las instancias terapéuticas derivadas. A diferencia de otros países, Argentina no logra reducir la mortalidad por CCU en forma significativa, pero existe desde 2011 una decisión de política sanitaria para implementar el test de VPH como prueba primaria. Como otros países, existe en Argentina una elevada inequidad en el acceso a rastreo y mortalidad por CCU, relacionándose las mismas con los determinantes sociales de la salud. CONCLUSIÓN: La detección y el tratamiento del CCU constituyen una prioridad en políticas sanitárias. Existe en Argentina una decisión de política sanitaria para implementar el test de VPH como prueba primaria en el screening de CCU (iniciada progresivamente desde 2011), que debe enfrentar de manera primordial la alta inequidad en el acceso a rastreo y mortalidad por CCU, relacionándose las mismas con los determinantes sociales de la salud. El test de VPH respecto al test de PAP: Es más sensible aunque levemente menos específico. Se recomienda en Argentina como rastreo en serie (HPV seguido de PAP). Permite la auto-toma que incrementa la tasa de realización del rastreo. Comparado con PAP, el test HPV demostró salvar vidas y ser costo-ahorrativo. En la revisión de la evidencia realizada no se identificaron diferencias en performance diagnóstica entre las diferentes marcas y modelos de tests de VPH disponibles en Argentina; algunas marcas comerciales aún no tienen validada la auto-toma y otras requieren adquirir por separado (con otro proveedor) este dispositivo. Las guías clínicas propuesta por OMS y varios países en el mundo apoyan el uso de estas metodologías como estrategia diagnóstica; su cobertura es explícita en países desarrollados y se encuentra en implementación en nuestra región Las evaluaciones económicas evaluadas de organismos de referencia avalan su utilización, demostrando ahorros de costos y mejor perfil de eficacia global en la patología, aunque consideran mandatorio un gran cambio operativo y cultural para los médicos, pacientes y laboratorios para que la implementación sea exitosa (requiriendo adecuada planificación, financiación y coordinación).


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Pruebas de ADN del Papillomavirus Humano/instrumentación , Prueba de Papanicolaou/instrumentación , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica , Análisis Costo-Beneficio
2.
Prev Med ; 144: 106294, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678225

RESUMEN

Cervical cancer remains the fourth most common cancer in women, with 85% of deaths occurring in LMICs. Despite the existence of effective vaccine and screening tools, efforts to reduce the burden of cervical cancer must be considered in the context of the social structures within the health systems of LMICs. Compounding this existing challenge is the global COVID-19 pandemic, declared in March 2020. While it is too soon to tell how health systems priorities will change as a result of COVID-19 and its impact on the cervical cancer elimination agenda, there are opportunities to strengthen cervical screening by leveraging on several trends. Many LMICs maximized the strengths of their long established community-based primary care and public health systems with expansion of surveillance systems which incorporated mobile technologies. LMICs can harness the momentum of the measures taken against COVID-19 to consolidate the efforts against cervical cancer. Self-sampling, molecular human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and digital health will shift health systems towards stronger public health and primary care networks and away from expensive hospital-based care investments. While COVID-19 will change health systems priorities in LMICs in ways that may de-prioritize cervical cancer screening, there are significant opportunities for integration into longer-term trends towards universal health coverage, self-care and digital health.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo , Prioridades en Salud , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , /prevención & control , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Femenino , Humanos
3.
Ginekol Pol ; 92(2): 165-173, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751524

RESUMEN

The Polish Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathophysiology (PTKiPSM) together with the Polish Society of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (PTGiP) issued a final summary of interim guidelines for secondary cervical cancer prevention during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic based on the analysis of the latest directional publications and the authors' own experiences. The aim of the summary is to facilitate the implementation of the most effective possible screening of cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer due to temporary significant limitation of screening as a consequence of the ongoing epidemiological threat. These final guidelines are taking into account the 2020 call of the World Health Organization (WHO) for global epidemiological elimination of cervical cancer. The guidelines supplement the interim guidelines of PTKiPSM and PTGiP announced in March 2020 on the possible deferral of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients with abnormal screening tests results in secondary prevention of cervical cancer in current pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Colposcopía , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Prevención Secundaria , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Algoritmos , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias , Polonia , Lesiones Precancerosas/diagnóstico , Lesiones Precancerosas/prevención & control , Lesiones Precancerosas/cirugía , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/cirugía
4.
Ther Umsch ; 78(2): 93-98, 2021.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615865

RESUMEN

Importance of the Pap smear in the age of HPV testing Abstract. Screening for cervical cancer prevention is considered a success story. Since the introduction of the Pap test in the 1950s, the incidence and mortality of cervical carcinomas has decreased dramatically in the industrialized world. In developing countries, and especially in certain countries in Africa, cervical cancer is still one of the most common fatal cancers due to the lack of screening and therapeutic options. For decades, Pap tests and colposcopy were the basis of cervical cancer screening. In the early 1980s, it became known that almost without exception cervical carcinomas require infection with certain human papilloma viruses (HPV). Among other things, this finding also revolutionized cervical cancer screening. The quality of the Pap test is influenced by the conditions of collection and by the so-called interobserver variability. Overall, cytology shows a good specificity of 95 % with a lower sensitivity of 70 %. Additional immunohistochemical tests to determine the biomarkers p16 and Ki-67 can increase the sensitivity of the Pap test up to 94 % (analogous to the HPV test), which is why cytological tests are still considered very effective in countries with sufficient resources and expertise. In contrast, the HPV test is not subjective and has a high sensitivity of 94 %. However, the specificity is worse than for the Pap test, which is why HPV-based screening carries an increased risk of unnecessary clarification and therapy. The superiority of HPV versus cytological screening seems to be proven under defined study conditions, but only after the second or third screening round. If screening is performed opportunistically, as in Switzerland, there is a risk of so-called lost follow-up. It is precisely the failure to take advantage of screening examinations or their performance at irregular intervals that is considered the most significant risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. It should also be remembered that the HPV test only reflects the current viral shedding but does not provide any information about the time and duration of HPV infection. Further studies are necessary to determine long-term results and cost-effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Papillomaviridae , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Femenino , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo , Prueba de Papanicolaou , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Embarazo , Suiza , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico
5.
Yonsei Med J ; 62(3): 231-239, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635013

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To determine whether the prognostic impact of lymph node ratio (LNR), defined as the ratio between the number of positive lymph nodes and removed lymph nodes, differs between open and minimally invasive surgical approaches for radical hysterectomy (RH) in node-positive, early-stage cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB1-IIA2 patients who underwent primary type C RH between 2010 and 2018. Among them, only those with pathologically proven lymph node metastases who received adjuvant radiation therapy were included. The prognostic significance of LNR was investigated according to open surgery and minimally invasive surgery (MIS). RESULTS: In total, 55 patients were included. The median LNR (%) was 9.524 (range, 2.083-62.500). Based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cut-off value for LNR (%) was determined as 8.831. Overall, patients with high LNR (≥8.831%; n=29) showed worse disease-free survival (DFS) than those with low LNR (<8.831%, n=26) (p=0.027), whereas no difference in overall survival was observed. Multivariate analyses adjusting for clinicopathologic factors revealed that DFS was adversely affected by both MIS [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 8.132; p=0.038] and high LNR (adjusted HR, 10.837; p=0.045). In a subgroup of open surgery cases, LNR was not associated with disease recurrence. However, in a subgroup of MIS cases, high LNR was identified as an independent poor prognostic factor for DFS (adjusted HR, 14.578; p=0.034). CONCLUSION: In patients with node-positive, early-stage cervical cancer, high LNR was associated with a significantly higher disease recurrence rate. This relationship was further consolidated among patients who received MIS RH.


Asunto(s)
Histerectomía , Índice Ganglionar , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Mínimamente Invasivos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/patología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/cirugía , Adulto , Anciano , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Ganglios Linfáticos/patología , Metástasis Linfática/patología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/patología , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Pronóstico , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Análisis de Supervivencia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD011512, 2021 02 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617665

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The strain on public resources to meet the healthcare needs of populations through publicly-provided health insurance programmes is increasing and many governments turn to private health insurance (PHI) to ease the pressure on government budgets. With the goal of improving access to basic health care for citizens through PHI programmes, several high-income countries have developed strong regulations for PHI schemes. Low- and middle-income countries have the opportunity to learn from this experience to optimise PHI. If poorly regulated, PHI can hardly achieve an adequate quantity or quality of population coverage, as can be seen in the USA where a third of adults younger than 65 years of age have no insurance, sporadic coverage or coverage that exposes them to high out-of-pocket healthcare costs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of policies that regulate private health insurance on utilisation, quality, and cost of health care provided. SEARCH METHODS: In November 2019 we searched CENTRAL; MEDLINE; Embase; Sociological Abstracts and Social Services Abstracts; ICTRP; ClinicalTrials.gov; and Web of Science Core Collection for papers that have cited the included studies. This complemented the search conducted in February 2017 in IBSS; EconLit; and Global Health. We also searched selected grey literature databases and web-sites.  SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials, non-randomised trials, interrupted time series (ITS) studies, and controlled before-after (CBA) studies conducted in any population or setting that assessed one or more of the following interventions that governments use to regulate private health insurance: legislation and licensing, monitoring, auditing, and intelligence. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias and certainty of the evidence resolving discrepancies by consensus. We planned to summarise the results (using random-effects or fixed-effect meta-analysis) to produce an overall summary if an average intervention effect across studies was considered meaningful, and we would have discussed the implications of any differences in intervention effects across studies. However, due to the nature of the data obtained, we have provided a narrative synthesis of the findings. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven CBA studies, conducted in the USA, and that directly assessed state laws on cancer screening. Only for-profit PHI schemes were addressed in the included studies and no study addressed other types of PHI (community and not for-profit). The seven studies were assessed as having 'unclear risk' of bias. All seven studies reported on utilisation of healthcare services, and one study reported on costs. None of the included studies reported on quality of health care and patient health outcomes. We assessed the certainty of evidence for patient health outcomes, and utilisation and costs of healthcare services as very low. Therefore, we are uncertain of the effects of government mandates on for-profit PHI schemes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our review suggests that, from currently available evidence, it is uncertain whether policies that regulate private health insurance have an effect on utilisation of healthcare services, costs, quality of care, or patient health outcomes. The findings come from studies conducted in the USA and might therefore not be applicable to other countries; since the regulatory environment could be different. Studies are required in countries at different income levels because the effects of government regulation of PHI are likely to differ across these income and health system settings. Further studies should assess the different types of regulation (including regulation and licensing, monitoring, auditing, and intelligence). While regulatory research on PHI remains relatively scanty, future research can draw on the rich body of research on the regulation of other health financing interventions such as user fees and results-based provider payments.


Asunto(s)
Regulación Gubernamental , Seguro de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Sector Privado/legislación & jurisprudencia , Gobierno Estatal , Sesgo , Neoplasias Colorrectales/diagnóstico , Estudios Controlados Antes y Después/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Seguro de Salud/economía , Masculino , Sector Privado/economía , Neoplasias de la Próstata/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico
9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(2): 245-247, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547144

RESUMEN

Self-sampling is poised to be a disruptor for cervical screening. So far, cancer screening has been a causality of COVID-19; however, the opposite may transpire for self-sampling. Self-sampling enables socially distanced cervical screening with an outreach that extends to underserved populations. As evidence mounts that self-sampling is noninferior to clinician-taken samples, the focus for self-sampling is now as a primary screening option for all women. Now, we have evidence from a modeling study (using Australia as an exemplar) to suggest that program effectiveness with primary self-sampling would be better than the current program, even if sensitivity is lower. Regulatory issues, suitable triage strategies, and clear communication about self-sampling are hurdles yet to be overcome. Nevertheless, existing evidence coupled with COVID-19 could be the tipping point for wider introduction of self-sampling.See related article by Smith et al., p. 268.


Asunto(s)
Papillomaviridae , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Australia , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Femenino , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Manejo de Especímenes , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico
10.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(2): 114-120, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631883

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the characteristics of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) diagnosed by cervical tissue sampling in postmenopausal women. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 2 013 patients with HSIL diagnosed by cervical tissue sampling under colposcopy and treated by cervical conization at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from June 2017 to November 2018, to compare the difference of patients' clinical features, HPV test, liquid-based thin-layer cytology (TCT), performance of colposcopy and biopsy pathology, pathology after cervical conization between 439 postmenopausal patients and 1 574 pre-menopausal patients. Results: (1) Clinical features: the proportion of contact bleeding showed no significant difference between postmenopausal patients and pre-menopausal patients [4.3% (19/439) vs 6.4% (101/1 574); χ²=2.672, P=0.102]. Among the patients with contact bleeding, the proportion of cervical cancer after cervical cone resection was significantly higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [10/19 vs 22.8% (23/101); χ²=7.157, P=0.007]. Among the patients found by routine screening, the proportion of cervical cancer after cervical cone resection was significantly higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [9.0% (38/420) vs 4.3% (63/1 473); χ²=14.726, P<0.01]. The proportion of smooth cervix was higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [63.6% (279/439) vs 35.5% (558/1 574); χ²=111.601, P<0.01]. (2) High-risk HPV infection: there was no significant difference in the high-risk HPV positive rate between the postmenopausal group and the pre-menopausal group [92.0% (404/439) vs 94.4% (1 486/1 574); χ²=3.394, P=0.065]; the HPV 16 infection was the most common type, but there was no significant difference in the HPV 16 infection rate between the two groups [65.8% (289/439) vs 68.0% (1 070/1 574); χ²=0.722, P=0.395]. (3) TCT test: TCT test results included negative for intraepithelial lesion and malignancy (NILM), atypical squamous cell of undetermined signification (ASCUS), atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade lesion (ASC-H), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), HSIL, compared with the different results of TCT examination, there were not statistically significant difference between postmenopausal and pre-menopausal patients (all P>0.05). (4) The performance of colposcopy: the proportion of insufficient colposcopy and the proportion of cervical type Ⅲ conversion area were higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [87.5% (384/439) vs 32.5% (511/1 574), P<0.01; 80.0% (351/439) vs 21.9% (344/1 574), P<0.01]. The proportion and positive rate of endocervical curettage (ECC) in postmenopausal patients were higher than those in pre-menopausal patients [35.3% (155/439) vs 20.4% (322/1 574), P<0.01; 67.7% (105/155) vs 53.1% (171/322), P=0.003]. The proportion of lesions involving the vaginal wall was higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [5.9% (26/439) vs 1.0% (16/1 574); χ²=40.443, P<0.01]. There was a positive correlation between vaginal wall lesions and cervical lesions in postmenopausal patients (r=0.660, P<0.01). (5) Postoperative pathology: the positive rate of margin and the proportion of pathological escalation after cervical conization were significantly higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [14.6% (64/439) vs 4.8% (75/1 574), 10.9% (48/439) vs 5.5% (86/1 574); P<0.01]. Conclusions: Colposcopy in postmenopausal women is often inadequate, and the cervix is mostly type Ⅲ transformation zone. The lesion in postmenopausal women is more likely to involve the cervical canal and vaginal wall. Clinical attention should be paid to cervical tube curettage and comprehensive examination of the vaginal wall. The high rate of positive margins and a high proportion of pathological upgrading after cervical conization in postmenopausal patients requires further active intervention.


Asunto(s)
Biopsia/métodos , Colposcopía/métodos , Posmenopausia , Lesiones Precancerosas/epidemiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Lesiones Precancerosas/diagnóstico , Lesiones Precancerosas/patología , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/patología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/cirugía , Frotis Vaginal/métodos
11.
APMIS ; 129(4): 195-203, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445208

RESUMEN

In the high-income countries, the amount of cervical adenocarcinomas is on the rise. The pap smear sampling has a low sensitivity and a low specificity for endocervical malignancies, and there are only a few cytomorphological features, that are specifically associated with glandular atypia. In this study, 298 pap smears of 60 patients with endocervical adenocarcinoma or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and 30 patients with high-grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in histology were reviewed. The pap smear type (screening/clinical), the HPV status and the time from sampling to the histological confirmation of diagnosis were recorded for each case. Despite that no cytomorphological features could be associated with adenocarcinoma statistically, 70% of the pap smears were initially correctly diagnosed as an endocervical glandular lesion. Palisading cell borders, nuclear pleomorphism and the lack of single atypical cells present simultaneously were found to be associated with adenocarcinoma and AIS with the corresponding ORs of 5.89 (95% CI 1.96-17.70), 3.71 (95% CI 1.14-12.02) and 10.76 (95% CI 1.20-59.50). This combination of features was seen in smears taken up to 5 years before the histological diagnosis. Of all our screening samples, 10.9% were HPV-positive. There were no HPV-negative samples among patients with adenocarcinoma.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Frotis Vaginal , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
12.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(2): 147-155, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392906

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers are cancers that can be detected early through screening. Despite organized cancer screening programs in Ontario, Canada participation remains low among marginalized populations. Although extensive research has been done about factors contributing to under-screening by cancer site, the predictors of under/never screened conjointly for all three types of cancer remain unknown. METHODS: Using provincial-level linked administrative data sets, we examined Ontario women who were screen-eligible for all three types of cancer over a 36-month period (i.e., April 2014-March 2017) and determined how many were up to date on 0, 1, 2, and all three types of screenings. Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to examine individual and structural predictors of screening with the group overdue for all screening being the reference group. RESULTS: Of the 1,204,551 screen-eligible women, 15% were overdue for all. Living in the lowest income neighborhoods (AOR 0.46 [95% CI 0.45-0.47]), being recent immigrants (AOR 0.54 [95% CI 0.53-0.55]), having no primary care provider (AOR 0.17 [95% CI 0.16-0.17]), and having no contact with health care services (AOR 0.09 [95% CI 0.09-0.09]) significantly increased the likelihood of being overdue for all versus no screening type. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that more than 15% of screen-eligible women in Ontario were overdue for all types of cancer screening, it is imperative to address structural barriers such as lack of a primary care provider. Innovative interventions like "one-stop shopping" where screening for different cancers can be offered at the same time could promote screening uptake.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/diagnóstico , Cooperación del Paciente , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Femenino , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ontario , Adulto Joven
14.
Trials ; 22(1): 94, 2021 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499911

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that health intervention designed to increase cervical cancer screening has been effective to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of a home-based health education intervention for increasing cervical cancer screening uptake delivered by trained female community health volunteers (FCHVs), a category of community health worker in Nepal. METHODS: A community-based, open-label, two-armed, cluster-randomized trial [seven clusters (geographical wards) randomized for the intervention, and seven for the control arm]. The participants are recruited from a population-based survey with a sample size of 884. Based on population proportion size, 277 women will be recruited for the intervention group and 413 women recruited for the control group. A 12-month community-based health education intervention will be administered mobilizing the FCHVs, based on the Health Belief Model. The primary outcome measure of the study will be the difference in percentage of cervical cancer screening uptake between the two study arms. The primary outcomes will be modeled by using mixed-effect logistic regression analysis. DISCUSSION: COBIN-C is the first study investigating the effect of a community-based health education intervention by FCHVs on increasing cervical cancer screening uptake among women in Nepal. The purpose of this study is to develop and implement a home-based, culturally sensitive program to increase cervical cancer screening coverage at the community level. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03808064 . Registered on January 14, 2019.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Tamizaje Masivo/organización & administración , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Adulto , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud/organización & administración , Participación de la Comunidad , Femenino , Implementación de Plan de Salud , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nepal , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento , Población Urbana , Voluntarios
15.
Anticancer Res ; 41(1): 497-502, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419848

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is under investigation in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 49 patients with FIGO stage IB1-IIB cervical cancer who underwent two different regimens of weekly dose-dense NACT were included. The objective was to evaluate clinical/pathological response and toxicity profile. RESULTS: A clinical complete response and partial response were obtained in 43 patients with a clinical overall response rate of 88%. Among the 42 surgically treated patients, 7 (17%) and 35 (83%) achieved a pathological overall optimal response and a suboptimal pathological response, respectively. G3-G4 neutropenia occurred in 16% of patients, whereas no cases of G3 thrombocytopenia, G3 anemia and febrile neutropenia were observed. CONCLUSION: Dose-dense NACT is safe, has acceptable toxicity, and obtains good clinical response, but is less effective in terms of pathological overall optimal response rates compared to other regimens.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Anciano , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Carboplatino/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Imagen Multimodal , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Paclitaxel/administración & dosificación , Resultado del Tratamiento , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/mortalidad
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(2): 29-35, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444294

RESUMEN

Screening for breast cancer, cervical cancer, and colorectal cancer (CRC) reduces mortality from these cancers.* However, screening test receipt has been below national targets with disparities observed in certain populations (1,2). National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data from 2018 were analyzed to estimate percentages of adults up to date with U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) screening recommendations. Screening test receipt remained below national Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) targets, although CRC test receipt neared the target. Disparities were evident, with particularly low test receipt among persons who were uninsured or did not have usual sources of care. Continued monitoring helps assess progress toward targets and could inform efforts to promote screening and reduce barriers for underserved populations.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/diagnóstico , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Programas Gente Sana , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Adulto Joven
17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 224(4): 368.e1-368.e8, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316278

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the United States, more than half of cervical cancers occur in women who are inadequately screened. Interventions to improve access to cervical cancer preventive care is critical to reduce health inequities. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the need for cervical cancer screening among women seeking assistance with basic needs and to assess best approaches to facilitate Papanicolaou test referral. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of low-income female callers to 2-1-1 Missouri, a helpline for local health and social services. The need for cervical cancer screening was assessed. Callers were randomized to 1 of 3 arms, each providing a Papanicolaou test referral: verbal referral only, verbal referral and tailored print reminder, or verbal referral and navigator. The primary outcome was contacting a Papanicolaou test referral 1 month following intervention. Student t tests or Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze significant differences in continuous variables, whereas Fisher exact or χ2 tests were used for categorical variables. We stratified by number of unmet basic needs (0-1 vs ≥2) and compared success of contacting a Papanicolaou test referral among study groups (verbal referral vs tailored reminder vs navigator) using the Fisher exact test and χ2 test, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for nonadherence for Papanicolaou test at baseline and at 1 month follow-up, adjusting for race and ethnicity, age, insurance status, self-rated health, smoking, and study group. RESULTS: Among 932 female callers, 250 (26.8%) needed cervical cancer screening. The frequency of unmet basic needs was high, the most common being lack of money for unexpected expenses (91.2%) and necessities, such as food, shelter, and clothing (73.2%). Among those needing a Papanicolaou test, 211 women received screening referrals. Women in the navigator group (21 of 71, 29.6%) reported higher rates of contacting a Papanicolaou test referral than those exposed to verbal referral only (11/73, 15.1%) or verbal referral and tailored print reminder (9/67, 13.4%) (P=.03). Among 176 women with ≥2 unmet needs who received a Papanicolaou test referral, the provision of a navigator remained associated with contacting the referral (navigator [33.9%] vs verbal referral [17.2%] vs tailored reminder [10.2%]; P=.005). Assignment to the navigator group (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.5) and nonwhite race (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.8) were independent predictors of contacting a Papanicolaou test referral. CONCLUSION: Low-income women seeking assistance with basic needs often lack cervical cancer screening. Health navigators triple the likelihood that women will make contact with Papanicolaou test services, but most 2-1-1 callers still fail to schedule Papanicolaou testing despite assistance from navigators. Interventions beyond health navigators are needed to reduce cervical cancer disparities.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Pobreza , Derivación y Consulta , Frotis Vaginal , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Missouri , Cooperación del Paciente , Navegación de Pacientes , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico
18.
Future Oncol ; 17(10): 1197-1207, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331168

RESUMEN

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of TruScreen (TS01) for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) women compared with other methods in reducing colposcopy referral rates in hospitals. Methods: A single-center, prospective, case-control study was conducted from December 2019 to June 2020. Results: Among 139 (46.2%) HR-HPV-positive patients, 58 were CIN1, 52 were CIN2-3 and 29 had cervical cancer (n = 29). The sensitivity and specificity of detecting CIN2+ by TS01, colposcopy and HPV16/18 testing were 96.3% and 46.4%, 85.2% and 40.5% and 59.3% and 74.1%, respectively. The highest sensitivity was 96.3% at HPV16/18 and TS01 (each positive results), and the highest specificity was 83.6% at HPV16/18 and TS01 (both positive) for CIN2+ compared with the other methods. Conclusion: TS01 is a noninvasive screening method and can be used to diagnose cervical lesions quickly. It is especially suitable as triage tool for HR-HPV-positive women facing SARS-CoV-2 exposure and infection risks in hospital.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Colposcopía , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Triaje/métodos , Adulto Joven
20.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 61(1): 135-141, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350455

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Indigenous women in the high-income countries of Canada, Australia, New Zealand and USA, have a higher incidence and mortality from cervical cancer than non-Indigenous women. Increasing cervical screening coverage could ultimately decrease cervical cancer disparities. AIMS: To increase cervical screening for under-screened/never-screened Maori women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a cluster randomised controlled trial. Inclusion criteria were women aged 25-69, last screened ≥4 years ago, in Northland, New Zealand. The intervention arm was the offer of a human papilloma virus (HPV) self-test and the control arm was the usual offer of standard care - a cervical smear. The primary outcome was rate of cervical screening in the intervention group compared to control in Maori, the Indigenous peoples of New Zealand. Six primary care clinics were randomly allocated to intervention or control. RESULTS: Of 500 eligible Maori women in the intervention arm, 295 (59.0%) were screened. Of 431 eligible Maori women in the control arm, 94 (21.8%) were screened. Adjusting for age, time since last screen, deprivation index, Maori women in the intervention arm were 2.8 times more likely to be screened than women in the control arm (95% CI: 2.4-3.1, P-value <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Offer of HPV self-testing could potentially halve the number of under-screened/never-screened Maori women and decrease cervical morbidity and mortality. These results may be generalisable to benefit Indigenous peoples facing similar barriers in other high-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Adulto , Anciano , Australia , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Femenino , Humanos , Pueblos Indígenas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Zelanda , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/etiología
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