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1.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48058

RESUMEN

No início do mês, a União Europeia lançou um plano integrado de combate ao câncer que prevê investimentos de quase 5 bilhões de dólares e a promoção de políticas preventivas como a tributação de produtos não saudáveis. Com isso, espera-se reduzir em até 40% os casos evitáveis da doença na região.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Neoplasias/prevención & control , Factores de Riesgo
2.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48043

RESUMEN

Ações para o enfrentamento das doenças estão voltadas para o autoconhecimento do corpo no diagnóstico e tratamento precoce


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias/prevención & control , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
3.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés, Español, Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48046

RESUMEN

À véspera do Dia Mundial De Combate ao Câncer, comemorado no dia 4 de fevereiro, a diretora da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), Carissa F. Etienne, pediu para que o diagnóstico e o tratamento desta doença sejam garantidos nos países das Américas, onde os serviços foram seriamente interrompidos durante a pandemia de COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Américas , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Organización Panamericana de la Salud
4.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 56(1): 153-156, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549282

RESUMEN

Garlic originated in West China and has been used for its health qualities since 2600 bc. Garlic was brought to Great Britain in 1548 from the Mediterranean Sea. Early uses of garlic were to treat gastric infections, fevers, and diarrhea. Fresh garlic has the most health benefits through the compound allicin. Health benefits of garlic include the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, antioxidant effects, antimicrobial effects, and reduction of cancer risks.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Ajo , Neoplasias/prevención & control , Fitoterapia/métodos , Humanos
5.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 56(1): 47-57, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549285

RESUMEN

Vitamin D can be obtained from diet, direct sunlight, or supplementation. The most common form is synthesized in the skin after exposure to ultraviolet B radiation. Nevertheless, the thought is that vitamin D is more of a multifunctional hormone or prohormone. This is because vitamin D plays contributes to many processes in the body. Calcitriol has been shown to have enhancing effects on the immune system, the cardiovascular system, the endocrine system, and other metabolic pathways. There is evidence that vitamin D has also a role in depression, pain, and cancer.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Calcitriol/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/prevención & control , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Colecalciferol/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/prevención & control , Sustancias Protectoras/metabolismo , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Luz Solar
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e041070, 2021 01 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518518

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Having to access life-sustaining treatment during the emerging COVID-19 outbreak has placed patients with cancer at an especially vulnerable position notwithstanding their immunocompromised condition. The present study aimed to elucidate cancer patients' and their caregivers' experiences during this outbreak. DESIGN: Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted. SETTING: A tertiary cancer care facility. PARTICIPANTS: 16 patients with cancer and 14 caregivers. Inclusions criteria were: (A) diagnosed with cancer, (B) receiving active treatment or follow-ups, (C) aged 21 years and above and (D) fluent in English or Mandarin. RESULTS: Thematic analysis was conducted. Five themes were identified: heightened sense of threat, impact on healthcare experience, responsibility falls on oneself, striving for normalcy and sense of safety and trust. Heightened threat of COVID-19 was more pronounced in patients and linked to vulnerability and fear, uncertainty and actions of socially irresponsible others. Dominant in their healthcare experience was prioritising cancer and treatment amidst heightened threat and anticipatory worry about treatment disruptions. Both noted on the importance of taking responsibility for one's health, with caregivers reporting a reinforced sense of duty towards patients. They strived to maintain normalcy by viewing COVID-19 as beyond personal control, downplaying and living life as usual. Their resolve was supported by a sense of safety from the actions of authorities, hospitals and trust towards healthcare providers. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer intensifies threat and the emotional impact of COVID-19 and may trigger specific concerns related to treatment. Psychoeducation interventions led by healthcare providers over digital platforms could help address cancer-specific concerns and support patients and caregivers during the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Neoplasias , Distrés Psicológico , /epidemiología , /psicología , Salud de la Familia , Miedo , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/psicología , Neoplasias/terapia , Rol Profesional , Psicooncología/métodos , Sistemas de Apoyo Psicosocial , Investigación Cualitativa , Singapur/epidemiología , Poblaciones Vulnerables/psicología
7.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 48(2): 131-145, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600397

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To identify research priorities addressing COVID-19 that build on the 2019-2022 Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) Research Agenda, in alignment with ONS's mission to promote excellence in oncology nursing and quality cancer care. METHODS & VARIABLES: Priority areas were identified using a multistep approach combining rapid review of the literature; consultation with experts/stakeholders; and review of priorities from other funding agencies, public health, and cancer-focused organizations. RESULTS: The rapid research response team identified five priority areas for research related to COVID-19. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Oncology nurses are well positioned to address the research priorities and cross-cutting themes identified through this review. The use of innovative methodologic approaches and attention to disparities are necessary to advance cancer care related to COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Neoplasias/enfermería , Investigación en Enfermería , Enfermería Oncológica , Sociedades de Enfermería , Humanos
8.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 43(2): 218-223, 2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601488

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the latest progress of oncology drug clinical trials in China under COVID-19, as well as to provide decision-making evidence for related stakeholders. Research progress of oncology drug trials and approved cancer drugs in China in 2020 were systematically summarized and compared with 2019. Methods: Information Disclosure Platform for Drug Clinical Studies and China Food and Drug Administration Query System for Domestic and Imported Drug were searched for registered clinical trials and approved oncology drugs, respectively. The trial scope, stage, drug type, effect and mechanism of domestic and global pharmaceutical enterprises were compared between 2019 and 2020. Results: A total of 722 cancer drug trials registered in China in 2020, with an annual growth rate of 52.3%, accounting for 28.3% of all registered trials. Among them, 603 (83.5%) trials were initiated by domestic pharmaceutical enterprises, and 105 (14.5%) were international multicenter trials, phase I trials accounted for 44.5%. For all those trials, there were 458 cancer drug varieties, with an annual growth rate of 36.7%, and 361 (85.8%) were developed by domestic enterprises. Most of the investigational products were therapeutic innovative drugs (77.1%), major in tumor treatment (92.8%). In terms of mechanism, targeted drugs were the most popular, accounting for 76.6%, and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) were the most common targets. In addition, there were 19 anticancer drugs from 17 companies approved in China in 2019, with 10 drugs from domestic companies. Lung cancer and breast cancer are the most common indications for both registered trials and marketed drugs. No statistically significant differences were found between 2020 and 2019 in terms of the distribution of trial sponsor, scope and stage, as well as the distribution of drug type, effect and mechanism (P>0.05). Conclusions: During the Covid-19 epidemic period, clinical trials of oncology drugs in China progress smoothly and maintain a high growth rate. Series of innovative products obtained by domestic enterprises in 2020 is the main driving force of development of oncology drug clinical trials in China.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , China , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Humanos , Oncología Médica , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
9.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605131

RESUMEN

An analytical review of the methods of cancer patients' rehabilitation with peripheral polyneuropathy induced by cytostatics (PNPIC) was carried out. Studies from electronic databases were investigated: Scopus, Web of Science, MedLine, World Health Organization, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ScienceDirect, US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, PubMed Cancer, eLIBRARY, CyberLeninka. Despite the improvement of anticancer therapy and an increase in patients' life expectancy, the emerging peripheral polyneuropathy remains an urgent problem, since it significantly affects both the patients' life quality and the selection of adequate therapy. The frequency of detection of PNPIC is 90%, after discontinuation of treatment; symptoms of damaged peripheral nerve fibers remain in 30% of patients. The clinical symptoms of PNPIC are varied and most often include numbness in the extremities and / or increased sensitivity to thermal or mechanical stimuli, neuropathic pain. Currently, to prevent PNPIC, treatment is being modified with a reduction in the duration of courses and doses of cytostatics, and interruption of treatment. Official guidelines do not recommend any prophylaxis other than the possible use of duloxetine or a topical gel containing baclofen, amitriptyline, and ketamine. Over the past few years, there has been no significant progress in the prevention and treatment of PNPIC. The most common drug treatment method in clinical practice is the prescription of vitamins B. Among the non-drug treatment methods of PNPIC, the authors used acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, manual therapy, massage, gymnastics, yoga, sensorimotor training, general vibration therapy, percutaneous electro-neuro-stimulation, electro-analgesia, local cryotherapy, hydrotherapy, low-intensity alternating magnetic radiation. The studies included in the review are heterogeneous in design and protocol, number of patients, and time points for assessing outcomes. In connection with the existing differences, it is not possible to carry out a comparative analysis of the results of these rehabilitation types and to give an unambiguous answer about their effectiveness. As the analysis has shown, peripheral PNPIC is well known all over the world, however, the search for methods of its treatment is far from complete.


Asunto(s)
Citostáticos , Neoplasias , Neuralgia , Polineuropatías , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Manejo del Dolor , Polineuropatías/tratamiento farmacológico
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 493-513, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519198

RESUMEN

Nanotechnology has prompted the development of hollow inorganic nanomedicine. These medicines are now widely investigated as photothermal-based therapies for various diseases due to their high loading capacity, tuneable wavelength, relatively small size and low density. We begin this review with a brief introduction, followed by a summary of the development of imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT) for cancer treatment during the last three years (from 2017 to 2020). We then introduce the antibacterial effects of these medicines on some bacterial infections, in which the pathogenic bacteria can be killed by mild photothermal effects, ions and antibiotic release. Other diseases can also be treated using hollow inorganic photothermal agents. Specifically, we discuss the use of PTT for treating Alzheimer's disease, obesity and endometriosis. Finally, we share our perspectives on the current challenges and future prospects of using hollow inorganic materials in clinical PTT for various diseases.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Inorgánicos/uso terapéutico , Nanomedicina , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 863, 2021 02 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558489

RESUMEN

A concept of polyclonal metastasis has recently been proposed, wherein tumor cell clusters break off from the primary site and are disseminated. However, the involvement of driver mutations in such polyclonal mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we show that non-metastatic AP cells metastasize to the liver with metastatic AKTP cells after co-transplantation to the spleen. Furthermore, AKTP cell depletion after the development of metastases results in the continuous proliferation of the remaining AP cells, indicating a role of AKTP cells in the early step of polyclonal metastasis. Importantly, AKTP cells, but not AP cells, induce fibrotic niche generation when arrested in the sinusoid, and such fibrotic microenvironment promotes the colonization of AP cells. These results indicate that non-metastatic cells can metastasize via the polyclonal metastasis mechanism using the fibrotic niche induced by malignant cells. Thus, targeting the fibrotic niche is an effective strategy for halting polyclonal metastasis.


Asunto(s)
Metástasis de la Neoplasia/patología , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patología , Animales , Agregación Celular , Proliferación Celular , Células Clonales , Fibrosis , Células Estrelladas Hepáticas/efectos de los fármacos , Células Estrelladas Hepáticas/metabolismo , Hígado/irrigación sanguínea , Hígado/patología , Ratones Endogámicos NOD , Organoides/patología , Fenotipo , Bazo/trasplante , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta/farmacología
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1290: 99-110, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559858

RESUMEN

Interleukin (IL)-24 is a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines. Due to its unique ability to function as both a tumor suppressor and cytokine, IL-24-based cancer therapy has been developed for treating a broad spectrum of human cancers. Majority of the studies reported to date have focused on establishing IL-24 as a cancer therapeutic by primarily focusing on tumor cell killing. However, the ability of IL-24 treatment on modulating the tumor microenvironment and immune response is underinvestigated. In this article, we summarize the biological and functional properties of IL-24 and the benefits of applying IL-24-based therapy for cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Microambiente Tumoral , Apoptosis , Línea Celular Tumoral , Genes Supresores de Tumor , Humanos , Inmunidad , Interleucinas/genética , Neoplasias/terapia
14.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 66(1): 15-21, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567168

RESUMEN

The study was performed in 9 cancer patients with sepsis. A clinical blood test of patients with sepsis was accompanied by a neutrophilic leukemoid reaction, with the appearance in the differential count of white blood cells of young cells (myelocytes, metamyelocytes). According to the literature, it is shown that in severe sepsis, a local infection is accompanied by systemic of neutrophil activation (NF). Moreover, excessive activation and location of NF in the microvasculature, especially its young forms and the formation of extracellular trap networks (NETs), can contribute to pathological manifestations of multiple organ failure and thrombosis.


Asunto(s)
Trampas Extracelulares , Neoplasias , Sepsis , Humanos , Neutrófilos , Periodo Posoperatorio
15.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 43, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526095

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, partially owing to their compromised immune systems and curbed or cut cancer healthcare services caused by the pandemic. As a result, cancer caregivers may have to shoulder triple crises: the COVID-19 pandemic, pronounced healthcare needs from the patient, and elevated need for care from within. While technology-based health interventions have the potential to address unique challenges cancer caregivers face amid COVID-19, limited insights are available. Thus, to bridge this gap, we aim to identify technology-based interventions designed for cancer caregivers and report the characteristics and effects of these interventions concerning cancer caregivers' distinctive challenges amid COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature will be conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Scopus from the database inception to the end of March 2021. Articles that center on technology-based interventions for cancer caregivers will be included in the review. The search strategy will be developed in consultation with an academic librarian who is experienced in systematic review studies. Titles, abstracts, and full-text articles will be screened against eligibility criteria developed a priori. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses procedures will be followed for the reporting process. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has upended cancer care as we know it. Findings of this study can shed light on evidence-based and practical solutions cancer caregivers can utilize to mitigate the unique challenges they face amid COVID-19. Furthermore, results of this study will also offer valuable insights for researchers who aim to develop interventions for cancer caregivers in the context of COVID-19. In addition, we also expect to be able to identify areas for improvement that need to be addressed in order for health experts to more adequately help cancer caregivers weather the storm of global health crises like COVID-19 and beyond. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020196301.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Invenciones , Neoplasias/enfermería , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Humanos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e24525, 2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530281

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the potential prognostic role of ANO1 in cancers. METHODS: A total of 1760 patients from 7 eligible studies were included into the analysis. Pooled hazard ratios or odds ratios were extracted and calculated with a random-effects model, and analyses of heterogeneity bias were conducted. RESULTS: Our results showed that over expression of ANO1 was significantly correlated with poor overall survival in all cancers (HR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.19-1.92; P = .0006). Subgroup analysis indicated that there was a significant association between over expression of ANO1 and poor prognosis breast cancer (HR = 3.24; 95% CI: 1.74-6.04), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.00-1.30), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.07-3.50), gastric cancer (HR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.12-2.34) and colorectal cancer (HR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.03-1.85). In addition, over expression of ANO1 was not associated with TNM stage, histological grade, lymph node metastasis, tumor size, age and gender. However, ANO1 was significantly associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, but not associated with progesterone receptor or estrogen receptor in breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that ANO1 can be a predictive factor for prognosis of cancer.


Asunto(s)
Anoctamina-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Biomarcadores/sangre , Femenino , Expresión Génica , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/mortalidad , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales
17.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 34, 2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622412

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pain is one of the most common and unpleasant symptoms of patients with cancer. The Short Form Brief Pain Inventory (SF-BPI), has been psychometrically validated in several languages and widely used globally. Availability of a validated pain tool in Sinhala is a current requirement enabling the use among the majority of Sinhala-speaking cancer patients in Sri Lanka. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of Sinhala translated version of SF BPI. METHODS: The translation was done by forward-backward translation method. Content and face validity were evaluated by a panel of experts and patients with cancer pain respectively. The study included 151 participants with cancer pain, registered at the Pain Clinic, Apeksha Hospital, Sri Lanka. The reliability, discriminant and convergent validity were assessed. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted and evaluated the two factor (severity, interference) and three factor models (severity, affective/ activity interference). In the three factor model-1, item 'sleep' was included within the affective interference along with mood, relationship with others and enjoyment of life. In the three factor model-2, item 'sleep' was included within the activity interference along with general activities, walking and normal works. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Review Committee, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. RESULTS: A total of 151 participants (79 males, 72 females) with a mean age of 54.6 (+/- 13.2) years were included. The composite reliability (0.902, 0.879), average variance extracted (AVE) (0.647, 0.568) and Cronbach's alpha (0.819, 0.869) calculated for each severity and interference subscales were acceptable. The discriminant validity assessed with the heterotrait-monotrait criterion was 0.18. According to the Fornell-Larcker criterion, the square root of AVE of severity and interference factors (0.804, 0.753) greater than the correlation between the factors (0.140) demonstrated the discriminant validity. The CFA supported the three-factor model-2 (CFI-0.959, SRMR-0.0513, RMSEA-0.0699) and the values for two-factor and three-factor model-1 were marginally acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: The Sinhala version of SF BPI is a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of cancer pain among Sinhala speaking patients in Sri Lanka.


Asunto(s)
Dolor en Cáncer , Neoplasias , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dolor , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sri Lanka
19.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535351

RESUMEN

The human epigenetic gene of SET domain containing 2 (SETD2) is located at the cytogenetic band p21.31 of chromosome 3, which encodes the histone3 lysine36 trimethyltransferase SETD2, the major enzyme that catalyzes the trimethylation of lysine 36 on histone 3 (H3K36me3) of human. SETD2 involves in many pathologic and physiological processes such as transcriptional elongation, DNA damage repair, alternative splicing, epigenetic modifications of gene expression, viral immunology, embryonic development, and angiogenesis. A growing list of tumor types including renal cell carcinoma and mesothelioma develops with mutation or inactivation of SETD2. SETD2 loss-of-function promotes the occurrences and development of cancers by inhibiting process of transcription extension, damage repair, cell cycles, apoptosis and cell metabolism. The under expression and mutation of SETD2 is synthetically lethal with the inhibition of G2M checkpoint and PI3K-AKT pathway and SETD2 is considered as a potential epigenetic therapy targets. Furthermore, a loss of SETD2 indicates worse pathological features. There are huge prospects in the diagnosis and treatment of related cancers.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas , Epigénesis Genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutación , Neoplasias/genética
20.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116359, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535363

RESUMEN

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been produced for almost a century and some of them are still used, even after they have been proved to be toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and prone to long-range transport. Brazil has used and produced pesticides in industrial scales for both agricultural and public health purposes. Urban and industrial regions are of special concern due to their high population density and their increased exposure to chemical pollution, many times enhanced by chemical production, application or irregular dumping. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the occurrence of OCPs in outdoor air of urban sites from two major regions of southeast Brazil. Some of these sites have been affected by OCP production and their irregular dumping. Deterministic and probabilistic inhalation cancer risk (CR) assessments were conducted for the human populations exposed to OCPs in ambient air. Ambient air was mainly affected by Æ©-HCH (median = 340 pg m-3) and Æ©-DDT (median = 233 pg m-3), the only two OCPs registered for domissanitary purposes in Brazil. OCP concentrations tended to be higher in summer than in winter. Dumping sites resulted in the highest OCP atmospheric concentrations and, thus, in the highest CR estimations. Despite of all limitations, probabilistic simulations suggested that people living in the studied regions are exposed to an increased risk of hepatic cancer. Infants and toddlers (0 < 2 y) were exposed to the highest inhalation CRs compared to other age groups. Other exposure pathways (such as ingestion and dermic uptake) are needed for a more comprehensive risk assessment. Moreover, this study also highlights the need to review the human exposure to OCPs through inhalation and their respective CR in other impacted areas worldwide, especially where high levels of OCPs are still being measured.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Clorados , Neoplasias , Plaguicidas , Brasil , Preescolar , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Hidrocarburos Clorados/análisis , Plaguicidas/análisis
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