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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(11): e69, 2020 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193900

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence and development of de novo malignancy (DNM) after liver transplantation (LT) are the major causes of late recipient death. METHODS: We analyzed the incidence of extrahepatic DNM following living donor LT according to the status of pretransplant hepatic malignancy. We selected 2,076 adult patients who underwent primary LDLT during 7 years from January 2010 to December 2016. RESULTS: The pretransplant hepatic malignancy group (n = 1,012) showed 45 cases (4.4%) of the following extrahepatic DNMs: posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in 10; lung cancer in 10; stomach cancer in 6; colorectal cancer in 5; urinary bladder cancer in 3; and other cancers in 11. The pretransplant no hepatic malignancy group (n = 1,064) showed 25 cases (2.3%) of the following extrahepatic DNMs: colorectal cancer in 3; stomach cancer in 3; leukemia in 3; lung cancer in 3; PTLD in 2; prostate cancer in 2; and other cancers in 9. Incidences of extrahepatic DNM in the pretransplant hepatic malignancy and no hepatic malignancy groups were as follows: 1.1% and 0.5% at 1 year, 3.2% and 2.0% at 3 years, 4.6% and 2.5% at 5 years, and 5.4% and 2.8% at 8 years, respectively (P = 0.006). Their overall patient survival rates were as follows: 97.3% and 97.2% at 1 year, 91.6% and 95.9% at 3 years, 89.8% and 95.4% at 5 years, and 89.2% and 95.4% at 8 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Pretransplant hepatic malignancy was the only significant risk factor for posttransplant extrahepatic DNM. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that patients who had pretransplant hepatic malignancy be followed up more strictly because they have a potential risk of primary hepatic malignancy recurrence as well as a higher risk of extrahepatic DNM than patients without pretransplant hepatic malignancy.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiología , Trasplante de Hígado , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Donadores Vivos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Tasa de Supervivencia
2.
Cancer Invest ; 38(3): 143-149, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063067

RESUMEN

The USA Defense Threat Reduction Agency provided data in 2014 on the health status, including cancer, of the 4,843 sailors on the nuclear-powered United States Ship (USS) Ronald Reagan over the 2.55-year period from May 12, 2011 to Dec 31, 2013. Also provided were data on a matched control group of 65,269 US Navy personnel. Examination of the control population relative to the US national data gives a relative risk for all malignancies of RR = 9.2 (95% CI 8.48 < 9.2 < 9.96). The result suggests a significant cancer risk associated with serving on a nuclear-powered ship, one which is not predicted by the science underlying current radiation protection legislation.


Asunto(s)
Elementos Radiactivos/análisis , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Relación Dosis-Respuesta en la Radiación , Elementos Radiactivos/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/etiología , Programa de VERF , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
3.
Tumour Biol ; 42(2): 1010428320907544, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098581

RESUMEN

Cancer researchers require accurate diagnoses for the samples, cell lines, patients or populations that they study. These diagnoses are underpinned by an internationally accepted taxonomy - the World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. This is still largely based on the histopathological examination of biopsy specimens, but increasingly also molecular methods and radiological examination of patients. Classifications evolve as new evidence arises, and for tumours that evidence is available in a quantity that is both remarkable and daunting. Evaluating this deluge of new information and incorporating it into the World Health Organization Classification of Tumours is now the responsibility of an editorial board, and up to 200 editors and authors work on each system to update it within the new 5th edition. Just as cancer researchers depend on the classification for diagnoses, so too the classification depends on the generation of high-quality, trustworthy data by cancer researchers. It is not just a case of quantity but quality too. Scientific fraud is thankfully rare, but high-profile cases are damaging and standards need to improve, not least to ensure that accurate information enters the classification.


Asunto(s)
Clasificación/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Neoplasias/clasificación , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Investigadores , Organización Mundial de la Salud
6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 491-499, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892604

RESUMEN

This article is a narrative review of recent epidemiological findings regarding ultraviolet-B (UVB) dose or exposure, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, vitamin D supplementation, and genetic variations in 25(OH)D concentration for incidence, survival, and mortality rates of overall and breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer. According to ecological studies, solar UVB doses are inversely correlated with incidence/mortality rates for about 20 cancer types. Observational studies support a role of higher 25(OH)D concentrations in reducing risk of breast and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates but, for prostate cancer, in increasing incidence rates while reducing mortality rates. Mendelian randomization studies offer little support for vitamin D in reducing cancer risk. Their primary limitation is that they only investigate small variations in genetically predicted 25(OH)D concentration near the population mean value. The secondary analyses from the VITAL clinical trial indicated significant reductions from 2000 IU/d of vitamin D3 supplementation in all-cancer incidence and mortality rates for selected subgroups. Thus, Hill's criteria for causality in a biological system are now largely satisfied for supporting the claim that vitamin D reduces the risk of cancer incidence and death.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias/epidemiología , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , Neoplasias/sangre , Neoplasias/mortalidad , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Riesgo , Vitamina D/sangre
7.
BMJ ; 368: l6794, 2020 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941657

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of modifications to contemporary cancer protocols, which minimize exposures to cardiotoxic treatments and preserve long term health, on serious cardiac outcomes among adult survivors of childhood cancer. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 27 institutions participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. PARTICIPANTS: 23 462 five year survivors (6193 (26.4%) treated in the 1970s, 9363 (39.9%) treated in the 1980s, and 7906 (33.6%) treated in the 1990s) of leukemia, brain cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, renal tumors, neuroblastoma, soft tissue sarcomas, and bone sarcomas diagnosed prior to age 21 years between 1 January 1970 and 31 December 1999. Median age at diagnosis was 6.1 years (range 0-20.9) and 27.7 years (8.2-58.3) at last follow-up. A comparison group of 5057 siblings of cancer survivors were also included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cumulative incidence and 95% confidence intervals of reported heart failure, coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, pericardial disease, and arrhythmias by treatment decade. Events were graded according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Multivariable subdistribution hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios by decade, and mediation analysis examined risks with and without exposure to cardiotoxic treatments. RESULTS: The 20 year cumulative incidence of heart failure (0.69% for those treated in the 1970s, 0.74% for those treated in the 1980s, 0.54% for those treated in the 1990s) and coronary artery disease (0.38%, 0.24%, 0.19%, respectively), decreased in more recent eras (P<0.01), though not for valvular disease (0.06%, 0.06%, 0.05%), pericardial disease (0.04%, 0.02%, 0.03%), or arrhythmias (0.08%, 0.09%, 0.13%). Compared with survivors with a diagnosis in the 1970s, the risk of heart failure, coronary artery disease, and valvular heart disease decreased in the 1980s and 1990s but only significantly for coronary artery disease (hazard ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.92 and 0.53, 0.36 to 0.77, respectively). The overall risk of coronary artery disease was attenuated by adjustment for cardiac radiation (0.90, 0.78 to 1.05), particularly among survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (unadjusted for radiation: 0.77, 0.66 to 0.89; adjusted for radiation: 0.87, 0.69 to 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: Historical reductions in exposure to cardiac radiation have been associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease among adult survivors of childhood cancer. Additional follow-up is needed to investigate risk reductions for other cardiac outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01120353.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Supervivientes de Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Cardiopatías , Neoplasias , Radioterapia , Ajuste de Riesgo , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administración & dosificación , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Cardiotoxicidad , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Cardiopatías/inducido químicamente , Cardiopatías/clasificación , Cardiopatías/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Neoplasias/clasificación , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Radioterapia/efectos adversos , Radioterapia/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Ajuste de Riesgo/métodos , Ajuste de Riesgo/tendencias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
9.
Cancer Sci ; 111(3): 974-984, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925977

RESUMEN

Although occupational sitting time has been associated with adverse health outcomes and mortality, the association with cancer incidence remains unknown. This study investigated the association between occupational sitting time and risk of total and site-specific cancer in a Japanese population. We evaluated 33 307 participants aged 50-79 years who responded to a questionnaire in 2000-2003 in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and were followed until 2013. Participants were grouped by sitting time at work. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of cancer incidence were calculated with adjustment for potential confounders including moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. During 10.2 years of follow-up, 3807 newly diagnosed cases of cancer were identified. Occupational sitting time was marginally associated with total cancer, with multivariable HRs for the ≥7 h/d vs 1 to <3 h/d category of 1.12 (95% CI, 0.99-1.26; P for trend = .071) in men, but not women. Among findings for cancers at specific sites, long occupational sitting time was associated with increased risk of pancreas cancer, with multivariable HRs for the ≥7 h/d vs 1 to <3 h/d category of 2.25 (95% CI, 1.17-4.34; P for trend = .021) in men, and lung cancer, with multivariable HRs for the ≥7 h/d vs 1 to <3 h/d category of 2.80 (95% CI, 1.33-5.90; P for trend = .013) in women. Extended sitting time at work was associated with an increased risk of pancreas cancer in men and lung cancer in women.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias/epidemiología , Anciano , Ejercicio/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Salud Pública , Factores de Riesgo , Sedestación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo
10.
Gene ; 733: 144366, 2020 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972306

RESUMEN

Koala retrovirus is thought to be an underlying cause of high levels of neoplasia and immunosuppression in koalas. While epidemiology studies suggest a strong link between KoRV and disease it has been difficult to prove causality because of the complex nature of the virus, which exists in both endogenous and exogenous forms. It has been difficult to identify koalas completely free of KoRV, and infection studies in koalas or koala cells are fraught with ethical and technical difficulties, respectively. This study uses KoRV infection of the susceptible human cell line HEK293T and RNAseq to demonstrate gene networks differentially regulated upon KoRV infection. Many of the pathways identified are those associated with viral infection, such as cytokine receptor interactions and interferon signalling pathways, as well as viral oncogenesis pathways. This study provides strong evidence that KoRV does indeed behave similarly to infectious retroviruses in stimulating antiviral and oncogenic cellular responses. In addition, it provides novel insights into KoRV oncogenesis with the identification of a group of histone family genes that are part of several oncogenic pathways as upregulated in KoRV infection.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Carcinogénesis/patología , Neoplasias/patología , Phascolarctidae/virología , Infecciones por Retroviridae/veterinaria , Retroviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Carcinogénesis/genética , Células HEK293 , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Humanos , Incidencia , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/virología , Infecciones por Retroviridae/virología
11.
Bull Cancer ; 107(1): 21-29, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980144

RESUMEN

The HIV infection remains a serious public health concern in France and around the world. Cancers are frequent among people living with HIV (PLWH) and have become the leading cause of mortality among this population in France. Certain non-AIDS-defining cancers are much more common among PLWH, such as anal carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer. The incidence of cancer among PLWH depending on various factors, virological control under combined antiretrovial therapies (cART), exposure prevention to oncogenic virus and toxics are of utmost importance, such as the implementation of specific screening programmes. Drug interactions between cART and oncologic treatments can lead to serious adverse effects or to a reduction in the therapeutic effects, therefore they require a close monitoring. The PLWH have been excluded from the oncologic clinical trials assessing the efficacy and toxicity profile of the immune checkpoints inhibitors (ICPi) because of an increased theoretical risk of inducing adverse events and a feared lack of efficacy in the immunocompromised population. However, the mostly retrospective clinical data reporting the use of ICPi among PLWH are somewhat reassuring with a safety and efficacy profile similar to what observed in HIV-negative patients. Regarding the "shock and kill" anti-HIV effects of ICPi, the preliminary clinical data available are still modest and relatively disappointing despite encouraging results obtained in vitro. HIV-associated cancers represent a particular care challenge due to the multiple comorbidities in the population and the high risk of drug interactions, thus the CANCERVIH national network is of particular interest within this context.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Sobrevivientes de VIH a Largo Plazo , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Fármacos Anti-VIH/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Neoplasias del Ano/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Ano/tratamiento farmacológico , Interacciones de Drogas , Francia , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Inmunoterapia Adoptiva/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidad , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/inmunología
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(4): e18779, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977868

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors and elucidate the clinical characteristics of cancer-associated ischemic stroke to differentiate it from conventional ischemic stroke in China and East Asia. Between June 2012 and June 2016, a retrospective analysis was performed on 609 stroke patients with cancer. They were divided into 3 groups: cancer-stroke group (CSG, 203 cases), stroke group (SG, 203 cases), and cancer group (CG, 203 cases). The D-dimer levels and diffusion-weighted imaging lesion (DWI) pattern were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group. The most common cancer types were colorectal cancer (20.2%) and lung cancer (18.72%). The average D-dimer level in stroke patients and cancer patients were 0.34 and 1.50 mg/L, respectively. The descending levels of D-dimer from cancer types were lung cancer (2.06 mg/L), pancreas (1.74 mg/L), gastric (1.61 mg/L), among others. Univariate analysis of the CSG and the others shows there were significant differences in the prevalence of the levels of D-dimer and DWI pattern, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and thrombus. CSG has a unique pathological characteristic including high plasma D-dimer levels and multiple vascular lesions. The results show that D-dimer and DWI can be used as diagnostic index in clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Productos de Degradación de Fibrina-Fibrinógeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Accidente Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Casos y Controles , China/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Imagen de Difusión por Resonancia Magnética , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Curva ROC , Factores de Riesgo , Accidente Cerebrovascular/clasificación , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etiología
13.
J Surg Res ; 246: 599-604, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653413

RESUMEN

As more and more health systems have converted to the use of electronic health records, the amount of searchable and analyzable data is exploding. This includes not just provider or laboratory created data but also data collected by instruments, personal devices, and patients themselves, among others. This has led to more attention being paid to the analysis of these data to answer previously unaddressed questions. This is especially important given the number of therapies previously found to be beneficial in clinical trials that are currently being re-scrutinized. Because there are orders of magnitude more information contained in these data sets, a fundamentally different approach needs to be taken to their processing and analysis and the generation of knowledge. Health care and medicine are drivers of this phenomenon and will ultimately be the main beneficiaries. Concurrently, many different types of questions can now be asked using these data sets. Research groups have become increasingly active in mining large data sets, including nationwide health care databases, to learn about associations of medication use and various unrelated diseases such as cancer. Given the recent increase in research activity in this area, its promise to radically change clinical research, and the relative lack of widespread knowledge about its potential and advances, we surveyed the available literature to understand the strengths and limitations of these new tools. We also outline new databases and techniques that are available to researchers worldwide, with special focus on work pertaining to the broad and rapid monitoring of drug safety and secondary effects.


Asunto(s)
Macrodatos , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/epidemiología , Registros Electrónicos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias/inducido químicamente , Minería de Datos/estadística & datos numéricos , Bases de Datos Factuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/prevención & control , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/prevención & control , Medición de Riesgo/métodos
14.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 72(2): 216-224, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529686

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and analyze any cancer-associated factors in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), differentiating between hormone-sensitive (HS) and non-HS cancers. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter study of a patient cohort from the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Registry of the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. Included were the first cancer post-SLE diagnosis, clinical and sociodemographic information, cumulative damage, severity, comorbidities, treatments, and refractoriness. Cancers were classified as HS (prostate, breast, endometrium, and ovarian) and non-HS (the remainder). The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated and logistic regression models were built. RESULTS: A total of 3,539 patients (90.4% women) were included, 154 of whom had cancer (91% female), and 44 had HS cancer (100% female). The cancer SIR was 1.37 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.15-1.59), with higher values in women age <65 years (SIR 2.38 [95% CI 1.84-2.91]). The SIR in women with HS versus non-HS cancer was 1.02 (95% CI 0.13-1.91) and 1.93 (95% CI 0.98-2.89). In HS versus non-HS cancers, SLE diagnostic age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04 [P = 0.002] versus 1.04 [P = 0.019]), and period of disease evolution (OR 1.01 [P < 0.001] versus 1.00 [P = 0.029]) were associated with cancer. The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (OR 1.27 [P = 0.022]) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor prescriptions (OR 2.87 [P = 0.048]) were associated with non-HS cancers. CONCLUSION: Cancer incidence in patients with SLE was higher than in the Spanish population, particularly among young women. This increase might be due to non-HS cancers, which would be associated with SLE involving greater cumulative damage where more ACE inhibitors are prescribed.


Asunto(s)
Hormonas/sangre , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/sangre , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/epidemiología , Neoplasias/sangre , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/diagnóstico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , España/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(1): 53-58, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535416

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics, outcomes and longitudinal trends of sepsis occurring in cancer patients. METHOD: Retrospective study using statewide Victorian Cancer Registry data linked to various administrative datasets. RESULTS: Among 215,763 incident cancer patients, incidence of sepsis within one year of cancer diagnosis was estimated at 6.4%. The incidence of sepsis was higher in men, younger patients, patients diagnosed with haematological malignancies and those with de novo metastatic disease. Of the 13,316 patients with a first admission with sepsis, 55% had one or more organ failures, 29% required care within an intensive care unit and 13% required mechanical ventilation. Treatments associated with the highest sepsis incidence were stem cell/bone marrow transplant (33%), major surgery (4.4%), chemotherapy (1.1%) and radical radiotherapy (0.6%). The incidence of sepsis with organ failure increased between 2008 and 2015, while 90-day mortality decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Sepsis in patients with cancer has high mortality and occurs most frequently in the first year after cancer diagnosis. Implications for public health: The number of cancer patients diagnosed with sepsis is expected to increase, causing a substantial burden on patients and the healthcare system.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad Hospitalaria/tendencias , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Sepsis/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Web Semántica , Victoria/epidemiología
16.
Int J Cancer ; 146(5): 1261-1267, 2020 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125113

RESUMEN

Free thiol groups of intra and extracellular molecules are considered to be antioxidative and to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. However, the associations of serum total thiol levels (TTL) with the incidences of the four most frequent cancer sites have not yet been investigated in a large population-based, prospective study. TTL was measured in case-cohort design in a sample from the population-based, Norwegian Tromsø 3 study (cancer cases: n = 941; random subcohort: n = 1,000) and was repeatedly measured at Tromsø 5. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by weighted multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with time-dependent modeling of TTL for incident lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancer. High serum TTL were associated with a reduced risk of all four major cancers. The associations with lung (top vs. bottom tertile: HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41, 0.99) and breast cancer (top vs. bottom tertile: HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42, 0.96) were statistically significant, whereas associations with colorectal (top vs. bottom tertile: HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.54, 1.16) and prostate cancer (top vs. bottom tertile: HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.53, 1.17) were not statistically significant but pointed in the same protective direction. These findings from a large, prospective Norwegian cohort study suggest a preventive role of thiols against the development of the four most frequent cancers. Whereas associations with breast and lung cancer could be shown with statistical significance, larger studies are needed to corroborate potential associations of TTL with colorectal and prostate cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias/sangre , Compuestos de Sulfhidrilo/sangre , Adulto , Anciano , Neoplasias de la Mama/sangre , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Neoplasias Colorrectales/sangre , Neoplasias Colorrectales/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangre , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Noruega/epidemiología , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Neoplasias de la Próstata/sangre , Neoplasias de la Próstata/epidemiología , Riesgo , Adulto Joven
17.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 987-998, 2020 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115907

RESUMEN

High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with an increased risk of several cancers. Evidence relating body fatness, especially based on different anthropometric measures, to risk of major cancers in China from prospective cohort studies is lacking. The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank study recruited 0.5 million adults aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse areas across China during 2004-2008, recording 21,474 incident cancers during 8.95 years of follow-up. BMI, body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured at baseline. We assessed the associations of body fatness with 15 major cancers by calculating Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). Each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with an increased risk of endometrial (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.72-2.35), postmenopausal breast (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.18-1.40), colorectal (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.10-1.25) and cervical (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.29) cancer, whereas it was associated with a reduced risk of esophageal (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.67-0.79), lung (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.74-0.82), liver (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.79-0.92) and gastric (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82-0.94) cancer. Significant linear trends of BMI-cancer associations were observed, excluding for lung, gastric and cervical cancer (both overall and nonlinear p < 0.05). The relation between BFP, WC and WHR and the above cancers was similar to that of BMI. Our study indicates that either high or low body fatness contributes to the incidence of different types of cancer in China.


Asunto(s)
Adiposidad , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Tejido Adiposo , Adulto , Anciano , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Índice de Masa Corporal , China/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dinámicas no Lineales , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos
18.
Int J Cancer ; 146(6): 1499-1502, 2020 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162837

RESUMEN

The currently high cancer incidence rates in the U.S. and other high-income countries have been strongly affected by the acquisition of environmental and lifestyle risk factors that accompanied socioeconomic growth in the second half of the last century. The very same factors are now operating in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) undergoing rapid socioeconomic transition. A parallel is drawn between the past cancer trends in the U.S. and those anticipated in LMIC transitioning towards higher levels of socioeconomic development. We expect to see a major upsurge in the (still low to intermediate) cancer incidence and mortality rates in LMIC over the next decades, which coupled with population aging and growth, would translate to a scale of individuals diagnosed with, living and dying from cancer unparalleled in history. On account of resource constraints and organizational limitations, prevention strategies need to be prioritized in LMIC.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Global/tendencias , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Programa de VERF/tendencias , Países en Desarrollo/economía , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Neoplasias/prevención & control , Factores de Riesgo , Programa de VERF/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
19.
Int J Cancer ; 146(5): 1198-1207, 2020 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077359

RESUMEN

The extent to which a favorable lifestyle may lower cancer risk in subjects with a family history of cancer is unknown. We conducted a prospective study in two Swedish cohorts, the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS; n = 25,604) and the Malmö Preventive Project (MPP; n = 16,216). The association between a favorable lifestyle (based on nonsmoking, normal weight, absence of excessive drinking, regular physical activity and healthy diet) and cancer incidence and mortality risk was assessed using Cox regression stratified by family history of cancer (all types). A favorable lifestyle was associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18-26%) and 40% (95% CI: 36-44%) lower risk of cancer incidence and mortality, respectively, compared to an unfavorable lifestyle. No significant effect modification by family history was observed but there was a null association between lifestyle and cancer incidence among subjects with two or more affected first-degree relatives. The observed relative risk estimates comparing an unfavorable with a favorable lifestyle corresponded to standardized 10-year cancer incidence rates of 11.2 vs. 9.5% in the MDCS, and 4.4 vs. 3.2% in the MPP, and a reduction in 20-year cancer mortality rate from 11.7% to 7.4% in the MDCS and 6.7% to 3.9% in the MPP. Improved adherence to cancer prevention recommendations may reduce cancer incidence and mortality risk in the general population, however, further studies are needed to assess the impact of lifestyle on cancer incidence among subjects with strong familial or polygenic risk for specific cancers.


Asunto(s)
Estilo de Vida Saludable , Anamnesis , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Herencia Multifactorial , Neoplasias/genética , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Suecia/epidemiología
20.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 5-8, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650294

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gabapentinoid use for long-term cancer pain control may be problematic, given unclear mechanisms of action and increased concerns for physical dependence. The purpose of this report is to examine trends of gabapentinoid use among US adults with cancer from 2005 to 2015. METHODS: We conducted a serial, cross-sectional study using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). We performed multiple logistic regression to examine the annual percentages of gabapentinoid users, which were adjusted for age, sex, and US region of residence. The amount of gabapentinoid prescriptions filled in 2015 was also estimated. RESULTS: The adjusted percentage of gabapentinoid users in 2015 was 5.60% (3.79%, 7.41%), 2.39 times greater than the percentage in 2005 (p < .001). By 2015, the number of gabapentinoid prescriptions had grown to approximately 3.52 million (2.40 million, 4.65 million). CONCLUSION: We observed greater than a twofold increase in the trend of gabapentinoid medication use among US adults with cancer. Investigations on the long-term efficacy of gabapentinoids for complex pain syndromes, and mitigation of risks, is essential to guide informed clinical management and keep patients safe.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos/uso terapéutico , Dolor en Cáncer/tratamiento farmacológico , Gabapentina/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Manejo del Dolor/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Dolor en Cáncer/epidemiología , Dolor Crónico/tratamiento farmacológico , Dolor Crónico/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Gabapentina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Cuidados Paliativos/estadística & datos numéricos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/etiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
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