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1.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(1): 83-6, 2020 Jan 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144915

RESUMEN

Treatment of tumors, especially the malignant tumors, is a world-class medical problem and still plagues clinicians and medical scientists a lot nowadays. Moxibustion therapy has been used in the treatment of tumors in clinic practice for many years and the related mechanism researches have achieved a lot of achievements. In the present paper, we reviewed researches on moxibustion treatment for tumor from the self-regulation of the immune system in patients and animal models. Outcomes display that moxibustion therapy has an action in resisting tumors by 1) regulating innate immune defensive function and enhancing adaptive immunity (by up-regulating activities of natural killer [NK] cells, and phagocytic function of macrophages), 2) stimulating cellular immunity (by increasing the ratio of CD4+/CD8+, lymphocyte transformation rate, etc.), and B lymphocyte-mediated humoral immunity (via regulating contents of IgG, IgA, IgM, etc.), 3) modulating levels of cytokines as interleukins, interferons, tumor necrosis factor superfamily colony stimulating factor, chemokine growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor,VEGF, etc., 4) regulating expression of many related proteins and genes, and 5) regulating related hormones, neurotransmitters, intracellular kinases signaling, etc., and other immune-related components.


Asunto(s)
Moxibustión , Neoplasias , Animales , Humanos , Inmunidad Celular , Células Asesinas Naturales , Neoplasias/terapia , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e19129, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150054

RESUMEN

Patients develop a number of oral complications during cancer treatments. Oral bacteria are associated with the onset of dental focal infections and the progression of oral mucositis. Dental focal infections are frequently associated with the systemic onset of bacteremia, sepsis, and pneumonia. The degeneration of oral function with these complications may become an obstacle to cancer treatments. Although comprehensive oral management, including oral care, the removal of dental focal infections, and improvements in oral function with dentures, is conducted for cancer patients in Japan, few studies have assessed its efficacy.The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of dental/oral complications in cancer patients with perioperative oral managements (POMs) based on a large number of case series with a multicenter retrospective analysis.The medical records of cancer patients with POMs were retrospectively reviewed and the incidence of oral complications and efficacy of oral management were investigated.A total of 2744 cancer patients with POMs (1684 males and 1080 females, mean age 65.9 ±â€Š13.0 years) were included and investigated in the present study. Among these patients, 2097 (76.4%) started POM before the initiation of cancer treatments, with 2130 (77.6%) receiving oral care only and 391 (14.2%) being subjected to invasive treatments, such as tooth extraction. The incidence of dental focal infections during the period of cancer treatments was 8.2%. The most frequent infection was acute periodontitis, including alveolar abscesses (112 patients, 4.1%). The incidence of grade 2 and 3 oral mucositis was 2.8%. Prolonged fever was observed in 113 patients (4.1%), with 7 having dental focal infections (6.2%). These incidence rates were lower than those reported previously.Based on analyses of a large number of patients, the present results support the efficacy of oral management in cancer patients. However, further studies are needed to establish adequate oral management guidelines for cancer patients.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Neoplasias/terapia , Estomatitis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Atención Perioperativa , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Estomatitis/etiología , Estomatitis/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
3.
Biomed Khim ; 66(1): 54-63, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116226

RESUMEN

Numerous studies confirm the high degree of involvement of the intestinal microbiota in most processes in the human body. There is evidence for the effect of intestinal microbiota on the success of chemo and immunotherapy of oncological diseases. It is assumed that the intestinal microbiota exhibits an indirect effect on the antitumor therapy through such mechanisms as general immunomodulation, an increase in cells that specifically respond to antigens of both microbial and tumor origin, metabolism, degradation (utilization) of drug compounds. The intestinal microbiota is currently considered as an additional, but important target for studying the effective use of antitumor therapy and reducing its toxicity, as well as a predictor of the success of immunotherapy. In this review, we highlight the results of studies published to date that confirm the relationship between gut microbiome and antitumor efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Despite the promising and theoretically substantiated conclusions, there are still some discrepancies among the existing data that will have to be addressed in order to facilitate the further development of this direction.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inmunoterapia , Intestinos/microbiología , Neoplasias/terapia , Humanos
5.
Bull Cancer ; 107(2): 209-214, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000968

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to explore the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and to identify their side effects, when used in cancer patients. We also assessed the communication of the patients and families with the oncologist about this issue. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 120 adult patients treated for cancer in our medical oncology department between January and April 2019, using an anonymous questionnaire to assess complementary and alternative medicine use. RESULTS: One hundred twenty patients participated in the survey, among them 102 used CAM (85%). A majority of users were female patients (n=72, 70.6%), and mean age was 52.4 years±11.6. Patients had breast cancer in 48% of cases. Wild herbs were the most commonly used alternative therapy (67.7%), particularly Ephedra foeminea (Alanda) in 52% of cases. Patients' families incited them to use CAM in 64.7% of cases. Internet and social network (Facebook) were the major sources of information on CAM (79.4%), followed by family and friends (72.5%). Fourteen patients (13.7%) reported nausea and vomiting secondary to CAM use. We reported disruption of liver function in 9.8% of cases, and renal failure in 1.96%, with fatal issue in one patient using Ephedra. Nineteen patients (18.6%) informed their oncologist about the alternative therapy they received. CONCLUSION: The oncologist has to explore the use of alternative therapies with their patients. Communication about CAM should be a part of cancer care. It may protect patients from some dangerous side effects and improve efficacy of conventional therapy.


Asunto(s)
Terapias Complementarias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Terapias Complementarias/efectos adversos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Náusea/inducido químicamente , Fitoterapia/estadística & datos numéricos , Plantas Medicinales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Túnez , Vómitos/inducido químicamente , Adulto Joven
6.
Bull Cancer ; 107(2): 181-190, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005357

RESUMEN

The Paul Strauss Center day-care accompaniment department ("SSAJ") is an oncologic supportive day-care, also an alternative to conventional hospitalization. In order to follow the SSAJ department's activity, in the "ambulatory turnover" context, we compared the 2008 and 2016 four first months activity. In 2016, there was an average of 4.96 patients per day versus 5.62 in 2008 (P<0.001); average day incoming of 653€ per stay in 2016 versus 775€ in 2008 (P<0.001). In 2016, there was an average 63.9 % of imagery done versus 27.7 % in 2008 (P<0.001). The 2016 average patient following period was of 84.7 days versus 67.6 days in 2008 (P=0.019). Average time between first day-care visit and death was 161.7 days in 2016 versus 133.5 days in 2008 (P=0.0033). Average day activity is lower in 2016 than 2008, nonetheless number of total stays and inpatients has increased on the four months period. The SSAJ intervenes more precociously in 2016 than 2008. Hospital technical platform is better used, but average per-stay incoming has statistically lowered. The SSAJ limits and prepares complete hospitalizations. Inpatient close reevaluation after a "shorter-willing" stay, home issues anticipation and identification with the home-care team, and worsening prevention gives this activity all its meaning.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones Oncológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Centros de Día/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias/terapia , Anciano , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Centros de Día/economía , Diagnóstico por Imagen/estadística & datos numéricos , Francia , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagen , Alta del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Transferencia de Pacientes/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
Bull Cancer ; 107(2): 191-199, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035649

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Cancer management is a public health issue in France. Its incidence is stabilizing even decreasing, but the prevalence increases. Public policies give at the general practitioner (GP) a central role in oncological care: it must be present at all stages of the disease, from screening to post-cancer. METHODS: One-year prospective monocentric study in a cancer institute. Distribution of a questionnaire to unplanned hospitalized patients and collection of socio-demographic and medical data in their files. RESULTS: Fifty-four percent of the study patients did not consult their GP for the health problem that motivated hospitalization. Sixty-nine percent of patients surveyed believe that GP is not the primary care physician for the management of complications and adverse effects of oncology treatments. A large majority of patients have metastatic cancer while only 40 % followed by the support care team. DISCUSSION: GP's are not yet integrated into the active management of cancer for study patients. The symptoms that GP's say they can easily manage are the most frequent reasons for hospitalization.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Médicos Generales , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias/psicología , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Anciano , Instituciones Oncológicas , Urgencias Médicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Francia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/terapia , Estudios Prospectivos , Evaluación de Síntomas
8.
Bull Cancer ; 107(2): 254-261, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035652

RESUMEN

The context and constraints of modern medicine (hospital beds and caregivers' reductions, ambulatory shift, new therapeutic approaches, integration of supportive care…) combined with new societal and Health system changes (ageing population, chronic diseases, new requirements of the patients…) redefine the orientations of care and question professional practices. The participative approach (PA) as a model of team organization proposes solutions involving the skills of the various interacting caregivers and experimental knowledge and consideration of patient needs. The multi-professional staff (MPS) is a collaborative tool of this participative approach that federates a team around a health or care project personalized from the crosschecked eyes of care professionals and from a shared decision-making process. Its objective is to combine the improvement of quality of care with quality of life at work. It requires a transversal mindset of teams, intrinsic values and specific characteristics. Its organization is simple but requires some rules and we will develop the main steps to success. This article, which is the result of a joint reflection and experience of health professionals, shows the principles and wants to demonstrate the weakness of MPS. The interest of the French National Cancer Institute for this collaborative tool is an asset for further work in the perspective of generalization of MPS for all patients with chronic disease and not only for patients at palliative phase.


Asunto(s)
Guías como Asunto , Sector de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Personal de Salud/organización & administración , Neoplasias/terapia , Admisión y Programación de Personal/organización & administración , Humanos , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Calidad de Vida
9.
Bull Cancer ; 107(2): 148-156, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057466

RESUMEN

Over the past years, planet oncology has kept changing and moving forward. Recent results of important clinical trials are challenging our daily practices. With modesty, the Editorial Board of BulletinduCancer has selected some clinical trials they consider as "must-know about" even if they go beyond our medical fields.


Asunto(s)
Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Neoplasias/terapia , Aminopiridinas/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias del Sistema Digestivo/terapia , Femenino , Neoplasias de los Genitales Femeninos/terapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Terapia Molecular Dirigida , Neoplasias Primarias Desconocidas/terapia , Neoplasias de la Próstata/terapia , Purinas/uso terapéutico
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1240: 25-33, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060885

RESUMEN

Interleukin (IL)-8 is a chemokine that is essential for inflammation and angiogenesis. IL-8 expression is elevated in tumor cell lines and tissues, as well as in peripheral blood obtained from cancer patients. Primary works have attempted to determine the biological effect of IL-8 on tumor cells, including cell proliferation, survival, and migration. More recently, IL-8 has acquired considerable attention as an immune modulator in the context of certain tumor microenvironments (TME); specifically, it can support a niche that favors tumor progression and metastasis. Tumor-derived IL-8 stimulates inflammation by interacting with the microenvironmental constituents, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells. However, the tumor immune system is complex, and mechanisms that construct the immune phenotype remain incompletely characterized. Herein, we will (1) address a potential role of IL-8 in regulating gene expression to establish immune landscape in tumor. Then, we will (2) review IL-8 signaling in the maintenance of stem cells and regulation of hematopoietic progenitors. Finally, (3) IL-8 functions will be discussed in naturally occurring animal cancers that offer a clinically realistic model for translational research. This chapter will provide a new insight into the tumor immune niche and help us develop immunotherapies for cancers.


Asunto(s)
Interleucina-8/inmunología , Neoplasias/inmunología , Neoplasias/patología , Microambiente Tumoral/inmunología , Animales , Humanos , Inmunoterapia , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1240: 73-82, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060889

RESUMEN

IL-21 is an immunomodulatory cytokine produced by natural killer (NK) cells and T cells that has pleiotropic roles in immune and nonimmune cells. IL-21 can modulate innate and specific immunity activities. It is a potent stimulator of T and natural killer cell-mediated antitumor immunity but also has pro-inflammatory functions in many tissues and is involved in oncogenesis. It is important to understand IL-21 biology in these different situations to ensure the maximal benefit of therapeutic strategies targeting this cytokine. This chapter summarizes IL-21 characteristics and signaling, its role in immune system components, and its use in cancer immunotherapies.


Asunto(s)
Interleucinas/inmunología , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Microambiente Tumoral , Animales , Carcinogénesis , Humanos , Células Asesinas Naturales/inmunología , Neoplasias/inmunología , Neoplasias/patología , Neoplasias/terapia , Linfocitos T/inmunología
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1240: 83-93, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060890

RESUMEN

Suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2), also known as interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1), is one of the natural receptors of IL-33. Three major isoforms, ST2L (transmembrane form), sST2 (soluble form), and ST2V, are generated by alternative splicing. Damage to stromal cells induces necrosis and release of IL-33, which binds to heterodimeric ST2L/IL-1RAcP complex on the membrane of a variety of immune cells. This IL-33/ST2L signal induces transcription of the downstream inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes by activating diverse intracellular kinases and factors to mount an adequate immune response, even in tumor microenvironment. For example, activation of IL-33/ST2L signal may trigger Th2-dependent M2 macrophage polarization to facilitate tumor progression. Notably, sST2 is a soluble form of ST2 that lacks a transmembrane domain but preserves an extracellular domain similar to ST2L, which acts as a "decoy" receptor for IL-33. sST2 has been shown to involve in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment and the progression of colorectal cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and gastric cancer. Therefore, targeting the IL-33/ST2 axis becomes a promising new immunotherapy for treatment of many cancers. This chapter reviews the recent findings on IL-33/ST2L signaling in tumor microenvironment, the trafficking mode of sST2, and the pharmacological strategies to target IL-33/ST2 axis for cancer treatment.


Asunto(s)
Proteína 1 Similar al Receptor de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Microambiente Tumoral , Animales , Humanos , Proteína 1 Similar al Receptor de Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteína 1 Similar al Receptor de Interleucina-1/inmunología , Interleucina-33/antagonistas & inhibidores , Interleucina-33/inmunología , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Neoplasias/inmunología , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patología , Neoplasias/terapia , Transducción de Señal/inmunología , Microambiente Tumoral/inmunología
14.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(1): 50-54, 2020 Jan 23.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023769

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the clinical features and risk factors of hepatic injury due to immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) therapy in malignant tumor. Methods: Data of 112 patients (64 men and 48 women) who received CPI between January 2016 and March 2019 in Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Shenzhen Hospital, and Huazhong University of Science and Techology Union Shenzhen Hospital were retrospectively collected. The median age of these patients was 60 years. Results: Hepatic adverse events were observed in 30 patients out of 112 patients (26.8%). Among them, the incidence of grade 3-5 hepatic adverse events were 7.14% (8/112). The median time of hepatic adverse event occurrence was 3 weeks (2-30) after undergoing therapy. The results of univariate and multivariate analyses showed that liver cancer was attributed to the CPI induced hepatitis (P<0.05). Patients with severe hepatic injury got almost complete resolution after receiving methlprednisolone for 4 to 6 weeks. Conclusion: Live cancer is the risk factor of CPI-related hepatic adverse events.


Asunto(s)
Inmunoterapia , Hepatopatías , Neoplasias , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoterapia/efectos adversos , Hígado , Hepatopatías/etiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
15.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 378(2): 21, 2020 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030541

RESUMEN

DNA nanostructures hold great promise for various applications due to their remarkable properties, including programmable assembly, nanometric positional precision, and dynamic structural control. The past few decades have seen the development of various kinds of DNA nanostructures that can be employed as useful tools in fields such as chemistry, materials, biology, and medicine. Aptamers are short single-stranded nucleic acids that bind to specific targets with excellent selectivity and high affinity and play critical roles in molecular recognition. Recently, many attempts have been made to integrate aptamers with DNA nanostructures for a range of biological applications. This review starts with an introduction to the features of aptamer-functionalized DNA nanostructures. The discussion then focuses on recent progress (particularly during the last five years) in the applications of these nanostructures in areas such as biosensing, bioimaging, cancer therapy, and biophysics. Finally, challenges involved in the practical application of aptamer-functionalized DNA nanostructures are discussed, and perspectives on future directions for research into and applications of aptamer-functionalized DNA nanostructures are provided.


Asunto(s)
Aptámeros de Nucleótidos/química , Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , ADN/química , Nanoestructuras/química , Técnicas Electroquímicas , Terapia Genética , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/terapia , Imagen Óptica/métodos , Fármacos Fotosensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotosensibilizantes/uso terapéutico
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1225: 71-87, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030648

RESUMEN

The tumour microenvironment (TME) surrounding tumour cells is a highly dynamic and heterogeneous composition of immune cells, fibroblasts, precursor cells, endothelial cells, signalling molecules and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Due to the heterogeneity and the constant crosstalk between the TME and the tumour cells, the components of the TME are important prognostic parameters in cancer and determine the response to novel immunotherapies. To improve the characterization of the TME, novel non-invasive imaging paradigms targeting the complexity of the TME are urgently needed.The characterization of the TME by molecular imaging will (1) support early diagnosis and disease follow-up, (2) guide (stereotactic) biopsy sampling, (3) highlight the dynamic changes during disease pathogenesis in a non-invasive manner, (4) help monitor existing therapies, (5) support the development of novel TME-targeting therapies and (6) aid stratification of patients, according to the cellular composition of their tumours in correlation to their therapy response.This chapter will summarize the most recent developments and applications of molecular imaging paradigms beyond FDG for the characterization of the dynamic molecular and cellular changes in the TME.


Asunto(s)
Imagen Molecular , Neoplasias/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Inmunoterapia , Neoplasias/inmunología , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patología , Microambiente Tumoral/efectos de los fármacos
17.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(2): 239-250, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035566

RESUMEN

Individuals with cancer commonly experience functional impairments. Symptoms may present immediately or years to decades following their treatment. These impairments may include fatigue, pain, neuropathy, lymphedema, or radiation fibrosis syndrome and have the potential to deleteriously impact their function and quality of life. Cancer rehabilitation is a comprehensive resource that facilitates maximizing and maintaining cancer survivors' physical, social, psychological, and vocational functioning. This article covers the common functional impairments experienced by cancer survivors and the treatment strategies used in cancer rehabilitation. Application of these services can enhance the ongoing care for cancer survivors.


Asunto(s)
Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Neoplasias/rehabilitación , Rendimiento Físico Funcional , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Recuperación de la Función
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1224: 53-62, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036604

RESUMEN

In the tumor microenvironment, CD8+ T cells play a major role in tumor immunity. CD8+ T cells differentiate to cytotoxic T cells, traffic into the tumor microenvironment, and exhibit cytotoxicity against tumor cells. These processes have both positive and negative effects. Enhancements in the cytotoxic activity of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells in the tumor microenvironment are crucial for the development of cancer immunotherapy. To achieve this, several immunotherapies, including cancer vaccines, T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells), and bispecific T-cell engagers (BiTEs), have been developed. In contrast to cancer vaccines, CAR T cells, and BiTEs, immune checkpoint inhibitors enhance the activity of cytotoxic T cells by inhibiting the negative regulators of T cells.The total number, type, and activity of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells in the tumor microenvironment need to be clarified, particularly for the development of companion diagnostics to identify patients for whom these therapies are effective. Therefore, technologies including TCR repertoire, single-cell, and T-cell cytotoxicity analyses using BiTEs have been developed.Based on these and future innovations, the generation of effective cancer immunotherapies is anticipated.


Asunto(s)
Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/inmunología , Neoplasias/inmunología , Microambiente Tumoral , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/citología , Vacunas contra el Cáncer/inmunología , Humanos , Inmunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Linfocitos T Citotóxicos/citología , Linfocitos T Citotóxicos/inmunología
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1224: 87-115, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036607

RESUMEN

Monocytes (Mos) are immune cells that critically regulate cancer, enabling tumor growth and modulating metastasis. Mos can give rise to tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and Mo-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), all of which shape the tumor microenvironment (TME). Thus, understanding their roles in the TME is key for improved immunotherapy. Concurrently, various biological and mechanical factors including changes in local cytokines, extracellular matrix production, and metabolic changes in the TME affect the roles of monocytic cells. As such, relevant TME models are critical to achieve meaningful insight on the precise functions, mechanisms, and effects of monocytic cells. Notably, murine models have yielded significant insight into human Mo biology. However, many of these results have yet to be confirmed in humans, reinforcing the need for improved in vitro human TME models for the development of cancer interventions. Thus, this chapter (1) summarizes current insight on the tumor biology of Mos, TAMs, and moDCs, (2) highlights key therapeutic applications relevant to these cells, and (3) discusses various TME models to study their TME-related activity. We conclude with a perspective on the future research trajectory of this topic.


Asunto(s)
Monocitos/patología , Neoplasias/patología , Microambiente Tumoral , Animales , Humanos , Inmunoterapia , Macrófagos/patología , Neoplasias/inmunología , Neoplasias/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral/inmunología
20.
Orv Hetil ; 161(9): 323-329, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088978

RESUMEN

Relation between the treating physician, the child with cancer and his/her parents is decisive in the field of pediatric oncology. Medical communication plays a crucial role in this relation. The quality of communication is particularly emphasized during the phase of palliative care in the case of children with incurable malignant disease. The proper medical communication during pediatric palliative care is subject of intensive research which is hindered by the sensitivity of the topic and the difficulties with inclusion of parents whose child has been lost or receiving palliative treatment and of health-care providers, respectively. In the present work, we review the publications focusing on palliative care in the field of pediatric oncology. Despite extensive research, only few investigations focus on the practical aspects of medical communication. Reports on the effectiveness of practical implementation of the existing theories are lacking. Drawing general conclusions is highly hindered by socio-cultural differences, including the diverse parental expectations towards doctors in different cultural and religious settings. However, there is a general agreement that early, simultaneous integration of palliative care at the time of diagnosis sharing is crucial. With the current knowledge, it is essential to conduct further research in this field considering the different socio-cultural backgrounds as well. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(9): 323-329.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos , Padres/psicología , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Niño , Humanos , Oncología Médica , Pediatría
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