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1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 148-151, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413811

RESUMEN

Community transmission of severe acute respiratory illness Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Arizona was noted in March 2020. It was our hypothesis that the associated implementation of physical distancing and masking led to a decline in circulation and detection of common respiratory viruses. Nasopharyngeal swabs processed with the Biofire, Film Array respiratory panel at Mayo Clinic Arizona were reviewed from January 1, 2017, to July 31, 2020. A total of 13,324 nasopharyngeal swabs were analyzed. Between April and July 2017- 2019 (Period A) a mean of 262 tests were performed monthly, falling to 128 for the corresponding months of 2020 (Period B). A reduction in the monthly mean number of positive tests (Period A 71.5; Period B 2.8) and mean positivity rate (Period A 25.04%; Period B 2.07%) was observed. Rhinovirus/enterovirus was the most prevalent virus, with a monthly mean of 21.6 cases (30.2% of positives) for Period A and 2 cases (72.7% of positives) for Period B. Positivity for a second virus occurred in a mean of 2.1 positive tests (3.3%) in Period A but was absent in Period B. Implementation of distancing and masking coincides with a marked reduction in respiratory virus detection and likely circulation. Data from the fall/winter of 2020 will help clarify the potential role for distancing and masking as a mitigation strategy, not only for SARS-CoV-2 but also in the seasonal battle against common respiratory viruses.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Máscaras , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/virología , Arizona/epidemiología , /transmisión , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
7.
Ann Emerg Med ; 77(1): 1-10, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893040

RESUMEN

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, many emergency departments have been using passive protective enclosures ("intubation boxes") during intubation. The effectiveness of these enclosures remains uncertain. We sought to quantify their ability to contain aerosols using industry standard test protocols. METHODS: We tested a commercially available passive protective enclosure representing the most common design and compared this with a modified enclosure that incorporated a vacuum system for active air filtration during simulated intubations and negative-pressure isolation. We evaluated the enclosures by using the same 3 tests air filtration experts use to certify class I biosafety cabinets: visual smoke pattern analysis using neutrally buoyant smoke, aerosol leak testing using a test aerosol that mimics the size of virus-containing particulates, and air velocity measurements. RESULTS: Qualitative evaluation revealed smoke escaping from all passive enclosure openings. Aerosol leak testing demonstrated elevated particle concentrations outside the enclosure during simulated intubations. In contrast, vacuum-filter-equipped enclosures fully contained the visible smoke and test aerosol to standards consistent with class I biosafety cabinet certification. CONCLUSION: Passive enclosures for intubation failed to contain aerosols, but the addition of a vacuum and active air filtration reduced aerosol spread during simulated intubation and patient isolation.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Infecciones/instrumentación , Intubación Intratraqueal/instrumentación , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Aerosoles , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Diseño de Equipo , Filtración/instrumentación , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Maniquíes , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Vacio
8.
Int J Health Serv ; 51(1): 101-106, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076739

RESUMEN

When a new infectious disease emerges as an epidemic or pandemic, strict and appropriate mitigation strategies are critical. Appropriate steps that facilitate defining of cases, carrying out accurate clinical diagnoses, and forming a powerful health surveillance that addresses public health policies and procedures are necessary. Tracking the number of COVID-19 cases over time and flattening the curve is another important element to establish research settings and identify therapeutic components to expedite and develop effective interventions. Addressing the various sections of the society in a philanthropic way is crucial to acquiring the public cooperation that is essential to controlling a disease like COVID-19. In this study, we discuss various strategies and measures adopted by Kerala, an Indian state, to combat the COVID-19 outbreak. Regular and timely updates by government public relations and health departments were used in many of the adopted strategies. The engagement of health information systems, together with the application of decentralized governance and community engagement, has contributed to effective population health management and surveillance of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , /epidemiología , Gobierno , Gestión de la Información en Salud/normas , Política de Salud , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 120-122, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988731

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Information on the effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) for preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare workers (HCWs), especially among HCWs with frequent contact with patients with SARS-CoV-2, is limited. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study on 49 HCWs who worked in close contact with patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. HCWs had blood samples taken every 2 weeks to test for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using two different types of assay. RESULTS: Forty-nine participants (31 nurses, 15 doctors, 3 other workers) were enrolled. In total, 112 blood samples are obtained from participants. The median work days in 2 weeks was 9 (interquartile range (IQR): 5-10) days. In a single work day, 30 of the 49 participants (61.5%) had contact with patients with suspected or conformed SARS-CoV-2 at least 8 times, and approximately 60% of participants had more than 10 min of contact with a single patient. The median self-reported compliance to PPE was 90% (IQR: 80-100%). Seven participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); however, none were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody, so the positive ELISA results were assumed to be false-positive. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence that appropriate PPE is sufficient to prevent infection amongHCWs. It is necessary to establish a system that provides a stable supply of PPE for HCWs to perform their duties.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Personal de Salud , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Adulto , Anciano , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto Joven
10.
Ann Epidemiol ; 53: 103-105, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919033

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To estimate the basic reproduction ratio () of SARS-CoV-2 inside a correctional facility early in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We developed a dynamic transmission model for a large, urban jail in the United States. We used the next generation method to determine the basic reproduction ratio We included anonymized data of incarcerated individuals and correctional staff with confirmed COVID-19 infections in our estimation of the basic reproduction ratio () of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The estimated is 8.44 (95% Credible Interval (CrI): 5.00-13.13) for the entire jail. CONCLUSIONS: The high of SARS-CoV-2 in a large urban jail highlights the importance of including correctional facilities in public health strategies for COVID-19. In the absence of more aggressive mitigation strategies, correctional facilities will continue to contribute to community infections.


Asunto(s)
Número Básico de Reproducción/estadística & datos numéricos , /transmisión , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 62-64, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896479

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As countermeasures against the COVID-19 outbreak, sports and entertainment events were canceled (VEC) in Japan for two weeks from 26 February through 13 March. Moreover, most schools were closed (SC). OBJECTIVE: For this study, we estimated the basic reproduction number (R0) and SC and VEC effects. METHOD: After constructing a susceptible-infected-recovered model with three age classes, we used data of symptomatic patients in Japan for 14 January through 24 March. The SC and VEC effects were incorporated into the model through changes in contact patterns and contact frequencies among age classes. RESULTS: Results suggest R0 as 2.56, with 95% CI of [2.51, 2.96] before SC and VEC. The respective effects of SC and VEC were estimated as 0.4 (95% CI [0.3, 0.5]) and 0.5 (95% CI [0.3, 0.7]). CONCLUSION: The estimated R0 is similar to those found from other studies of China and Japan. Significant reduction of contact frequency has been achieved by SC and VEC. Nevertheless, its magnitude was insufficient to contain the outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Instituciones Académicas/organización & administración , Adulto , Anciano , Número Básico de Reproducción , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Modelos Estadísticos
16.
Surg Clin North Am ; 101(1): 109-119, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212072

RESUMEN

New telehealth platforms and interventions have proliferated over the past decade and will be further spurred by the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging literature examines the efficacy and safety of these interventions. Early pilot studies and trials demonstrate equivalent outcomes of telehealth interventions that seek to replace routine postoperative care in low-risk patients who have undergone low-risk surgeries. Studies are underway to evaluate interventions in higher-risk populations undergoing more complex procedures. Tele-ICU platforms demonstrate promise to provide specialized, high-acuity care to underserved areas and may also be used to augment compliance with evidence-based protocols.


Asunto(s)
Atención Ambulatoria , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Cuidados Críticos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuidados Posoperatorios , Telemedicina , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2225: 25-38, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108655

RESUMEN

Various systems exist for the robust production of recombinant proteins. However, only a few systems are optimal for human vaccine protein production. Plant-based transient protein expression systems offer an advantageous alternative to costly mammalian cell culture-based systems and can perform posttranslational modifications due to the presence of an endomembrane system that is largely similar to that of the animal cell. Technological advances in expression vectors for transient expression in the last two decades have produced new plant expression systems with the flexibility and speed that cannot be matched by those based on mammalian or insect cell culture. The rapid and high-level protein production capability of transient expression systems makes them the optimal system to quickly and versatilely develop and produce vaccines against viruses such as 2019-nCoV that have sudden and unpredictable outbreaks. Here, expression of antiviral subunit vaccines in Nicotiana benthamiana plants via transient expression is demonstrated.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Plantas/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunas de Subunidad/administración & dosificación , Vacunas de Subunidad/biosíntesis , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Vectores Genéticos , Humanos , Plantas/genética , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología
18.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48000

RESUMEN

Motivada pela necessidade imediata de mudanças na resposta à pandemia do novo coronavírus e diante da inoperância por parte do Governo Federal, as organizações do campo da Saúde que participam da Frente pela Vida lançaram o Plano Nacional de Enfrentamento à pandemia de Covid-19 em 3 de julho. O documento foi elaborado pela Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva (ABRASCO), Centro Brasileiro de Estudos de Saúde (CEBES), Associação Brasileira Rede Unida (Rede Unida), Associação Brasileira de Economia em Saúde (ABrES), Associação Brasileira de Saúde Mental (ABRASME), Associação Brasileira de Saúde do Trabalhador e da Trabalhadora (ABRASTT), Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem (ABEn), Sociedade Brasileira de Virologia (SBV), Sociedade Brasileira de Bioética (SBB), Conselho Nacional de Saúde (CNS), Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical (SBMT), Sociedade Brasileira para a Qualidade do Cuidado e Segurança do Paciente (SOBRASP), Rede de Médicas e Médicos Populares (RMMP), Associação Brasileira de Médicas e Médicos pela Democracia (ABMMD) e Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (SBMFC). O documento, após Apresentação e Introdução, debate a complexidade da pandemia e faz uma análise aprofundada dos aspectos biomoleculares e clínicos e o panorama epidemiológico; analisando na sequência a Consolidação do SUS; a Ciência e Tecnologia (C&T) em saúde e produção de insumos estratégicos; o fortalecimento do sistema de proteção social; e a atenção às populações vulnerabilizadas e Direitos Humanos, mostrando que a ciência e sociedade brasileiras são capazes de produzir uma resposta alternativa ao descaso e descompasso geradores de morte. Ao final, indica responsabilidades e recomendações às autoridades políticas e sanitárias, aos gestores públicos e à sociedade em geral.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Sistema Único de Salud/organización & administración
20.
Radiología (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 62(6): 503-514, nov.-dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-FGT-6138

RESUMEN

La infección COVID-19 está obligando a toda la sociedad a adoptar numerosos cambios, al menos hasta que existan un tratamiento o vacuna eficaces. El impacto que está produciendo en nuestro sistema sanitario tiene pocos precedentes similares, al tratarse de una patología nueva y que ha obligado a tomar decisiones complejas a partir de una evidencia escasa. Los servicios de radiología tienen un papel fundamental en el manejo de esta patología, tanto en el diagnóstico como en el manejo posterior de los pacientes. Pero, para ello, se debe entender la infección, de forma que se puedan poner en marcha circuitos seguros para pacientes y trabajadores. En este artículo se resume la fisiopatología de la infección COVID-19 y se presentan las medidas que se deben adoptar en el servicio de radiología


The COVID-19 pandemic is forcing our entire society to adopt numerous changes, at least until an effective treatment and/or vaccine becomes widely available. Because COVID-19 is a new disease that has required us to make complex decisions based on scant evidence, the pandemic is having an enormous impact on our health system. Radiology departments play a fundamental role in the management of COVID-19, both in the diagnosis of the disease and in the posterior management of patients. To ensure the safety of patients and healthcare professionals, it is essential to understand the infection so that safe circuits can be implemented. This article summarizes the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection and explains the measures that radiology departments need to adopt during the pandemic


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Pandemias , Servicio de Radiología en Hospital/normas , Seguridad del Paciente/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Gestión de Riesgos
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