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1.
Nervenarzt ; 92(9): 892-906, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342677

RESUMEN

Cognitive control (CC) represents one of six constructs within the research domain criteria (RDoC) domain of cognitive systems, which can be examined using different units of analyses (from genetic and molecular mechanisms to neural circuits and self-reports). The CC is defined as the ability to execute top-down control over task-specific processes and to coordinate thought and actions to achieve a specific goal. Within the field of cognitive neuroscience, recent studies provided important findings about central neuronal components of the CC network and the interactions with other relevant functional systems. In the development and maintenance of distinct psychiatrically relevant symptoms, such as auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) or hearing voices, dysfunctional CC is thought to play an essential transdiagnostic role. This selective literature review addresses the specific and clinically relevant question of the extent to which the RDoC construct of CC has been incorporated into studies investigating the neurobiological mechanisms of AVH. In addition, an overview of the extent to which findings exploring the underlying mechanisms have been transferred into daily clinical routine is provided. Furthermore, future research perspectives and therapeutic approaches are discussed. Based on currently preferred neurobiological models of AVH, nonpharmacological strategies, such as brain stimulation techniques and psychotherapy can be derived. Further research perspectives arise in the field of interventional studies oriented towards the RDoC matrix.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencia Cognitiva , Alucinaciones , Cognición , Alucinaciones/diagnóstico , Alucinaciones/terapia , Humanos
2.
Nervenarzt ; 92(9): 878-891, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374803

RESUMEN

In this paper, the domain positive valence systems (PVS) of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) matrix and its subconstructs are presented and discussed. The PVS basically reflect different forms and aspects of reward processing. These have been investigated in psychiatry in the context of addiction, schizophrenia and depression for decades; the latter are therefore not the topic of this paper. This article presents the heuristic value of the RDoC system in understanding other disorders and constructs, namely the transdiagnostic symptom of anhedonia, autism spectrum disorder and eating disorders. In addition, it outlines how the PVS domain has also enriched the clinical perspective of traditional psychopathology and stimulated the development of new behavioral measurement instruments. Finally, the limitations and potential future developments of the framework are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Neurociencia Cognitiva , Esquizofrenia , Anhedonia , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Humanos , Recompensa , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14448, 2021 07 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262075

RESUMEN

Faces hold a substantial value for effective social interactions and sharing. Covering faces with masks, due to COVID-19 regulations, may lead to difficulties in using social signals, in particular, in individuals with neurodevelopmental conditions. Daily-life social participation of individuals who were born preterm is of immense importance for their quality of life. Here we examined face tuning in individuals (aged 12.79 ± 1.89 years) who were born preterm and exhibited signs of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a dominant form of brain injury in preterm birth survivors. For assessing the face sensitivity in this population, we implemented a recently developed experimental tool, a set of Face-n-Food images bordering on the style of Giuseppe Arcimboldo. The key benefit of these images is that single components do not trigger face processing. Although a coarse face schema is thought to be hardwired in the brain, former preterms exhibit substantial shortages in the face tuning not only compared with typically developing controls but also with individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. The lack of correlations between the face sensitivity and other cognitive abilities indicates that these deficits are domain-specific. This underscores impact of preterm birth sequelae for social functioning at large. Comparison of the findings with data in individuals with other neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric conditions provides novel insights into the origins of deficient face processing.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Reconocimiento Facial , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos , Nacimiento Prematuro , Cognición Social , Adolescente , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , COVID-19 , Niño , Cognición , Neurociencia Cognitiva , Expresión Facial , Femenino , Humanos , Leucomalacia Periventricular , Embarazo , Calidad de Vida , Reconocimiento en Psicología/fisiología , Factores Sexuales , Conducta Social , Percepción Visual/fisiología
4.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 128: 467-478, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245758

RESUMEN

Laboratory animal research has provided significant knowledge into the function of cortical circuits at the laminar level, which has yet to be fully leveraged towards insights about human brain function on a similar spatiotemporal scale. The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with neural models provides new opportunities to gain important insights from current knowledge. During the last five years, human studies have demonstrated the value of high-resolution fMRI to study laminar-specific activity in the human brain. This is mostly performed at ultra-high-field strengths (≥ 7 T) and is known as laminar fMRI. Advancements in laminar fMRI are beginning to open new possibilities for studying questions in basic cognitive neuroscience. In this paper, we first review recent methodological advances in laminar fMRI and describe recent human laminar fMRI studies. Then, we discuss how the use of laminar fMRI can help bridge the gap between cortical circuit models and human cognition.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencia Cognitiva , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Animales , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Mapeo Encefálico , Cognición , Humanos
5.
Redox Biol ; 44: 101996, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090844

RESUMEN

The term "nutritional cognitive neuroscience" was recently established to define a research field focusing on the impact of nutrition on cognition and brain health across the life span. In this overview, we summarize the robust evidence on the role of carotenoids as micronutrients with different biological properties in persons with cognitive (pre)frailty. As neurodegenerative processes during aging occur in a continuum from brain aging to dementia, we propose the name "nutritional cognitive neuroscience of aging" to define research on the role of nutrition and micronutrients in cognitive frailty. Further studies are warranted which integrate carotenoid interventions in multidomain, personalized lifestyle strategies.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencia Cognitiva , Fragilidad , Envejecimiento , Carotenoides , Cognición , Humanos
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3344, 2021 06 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099678

RESUMEN

Whether maximizing rewards and minimizing punishments rely on distinct brain systems remains debated, given inconsistent results coming from human neuroimaging and animal electrophysiology studies. Bridging the gap across techniques, we recorded intracerebral activity from twenty participants while they performed an instrumental learning task. We found that both reward and punishment prediction errors (PE), estimated from computational modeling of choice behavior, correlate positively with broadband gamma activity (BGA) in several brain regions. In all cases, BGA scaled positively with the outcome (reward or punishment versus nothing) and negatively with the expectation (predictability of reward or punishment). However, reward PE were better signaled in some regions (such as the ventromedial prefrontal and lateral orbitofrontal cortex), and punishment PE in other regions (such as the anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). These regions might therefore belong to brain systems that differentially contribute to the repetition of rewarded choices and the avoidance of punished choices.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Cerebral/anatomía & histología , Corteza Cerebral/patología , Castigo , Recompensa , Adulto , Animales , Encéfalo/anatomía & histología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Mapeo Encefálico , Neurociencia Cognitiva , Condicionamiento Operante , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neuroimagen , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiología
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067790

RESUMEN

The aim of the article is to identify the usefulness of cognitive neuroscience methods in assessing the effectiveness of social advertising and constructing messages referring to the generally understood health promotion, which is to contribute to the development of health awareness, and hence to health literacy. The presented research has also proven useful in the field of managing the processes that improve the communication between the organization and its environment. The researchers experimentally applied cognitive neuroscience methods, mainly EEG measurements, including a metric which is one of the most frequently used to measure the reception of advertising messages, i.e., frontal asymmetry. The purpose of the study was to test cognitive responses as expressed by neural indices (memorization, interest) to the reception of an advertisement for the construction of a hospice for adults. For comparative purposes, a questionnaire survey was also conducted. The research findings have confirmed that there are significant differences in remembering the advertisement in question by different groups of recipients (women/men). They also indicate a different level of interest in the advertisement, which may result from different preferences of the recipients concerning the nature of ads. The obtained results contribute to a better understanding of how to design advertising messages concerning health, so that they increase the awareness of the recipients' responsibility for their own health and induce specific behavior patterns aimed at supporting health-related initiatives, e.g., donating funds for building hospices or performing preventive tests. In this respect, the study findings help improve the organizations' communication with their environment, thus enhancing their performance. The study has also confirmed the potential and innovativeness of cognitive neuroscience methods as well as their considerable possibilities for application in this field.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencia Cognitiva , Alfabetización en Salud , Adulto , Publicidad , Comunicación , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(2): 376-383, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961516

RESUMEN

The Corona Virus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has imposed serious restrictions for academic institutions to maintain their research and teaching practical subjects. Universities have implemented adaptive measures to maintain educational activities and achieve the learning objectives for undergraduate and postgraduate students by shifting to online teaching and learning. Although such approaches have enabled delivering the theoretical content of courses during the pandemic, universities have faced serious difficulties in running practicals with actual research experiments and teaching hand-on skills because such activities potentially override the required safety guidelines. Here, we report an adaptive measure, implemented at Monash University, to run home-based studies in cognitive neuroscience and achieve learning objectives, which are normally delivered in face-to-face practicals. We introduce two specifically designed short-term research projects and describe how different aspects of these projects, such as tutorials, experiments, and assessments, were modified to meet the required social distancing. The results of cognitive tests were closely comparable between the laboratory-based and home-based experiments indicating that students followed the guidelines and the required procedures for a reliable data collection. Our assessments of students' performance and feedback indicate that the majority of our educational goals were achieved, while all safety guidelines and distancing requirements were also met.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/organización & administración , COVID-19 , Neurociencia Cognitiva/educación , Educación a Distancia/normas , Pandemias , Humanos , Estudiantes de Medicina
10.
Trends Neurosci Educ ; 23: 100155, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006362

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic and proliferation of misinformation regarding science highlights the importance of improving general science literacy. The continued preponderance of neuromyths among educators is of concern, especially in lower- and middle-income countries. METHOD: Using an adapted questionnaire, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among teachers in a small island developing state in the Caribbean. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the sample were unable to recognise at least 50% of the myths. Regression analysis demonstrated that higher scores in brain knowledge and exposure to prior teacher-training increased belief in neuromyths. On the other hand, specific in-service training pertaining to educational neuroscience improved scores. CONCLUSION: Neuromyths are prevalent among teachers and appear to inform their teaching practice. Further research needs to be conducted to explore not just the prevalence of these myths but in what ways they may be impacting teaching and learning outcomes in the classroom.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencia Cognitiva , Competencia Profesional , Maestros , COVID-19 , Comunicación , Estudios Transversales , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Humanos , Capacitación en Servicio , Masculino , Mitología , Neurociencias , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Formación del Profesorado , Trinidad y Tobago
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 636089, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842419

RESUMEN

The clinical effects of the Covid-19 pandemic are now the subject of numerous studies worldwide. But what are the effects of the quarantine imposed by the states that implemented the measures of lockdown? The present research aims to explore, in a preliminary way, the major stress-related symptoms during the lockdown, due to Covid-19, in the Italian population. Subjects were asked to fill out a survey, that traced a line identifying the most relevant psychophysiological symptoms that took into account factors such as perceived stress, body perception, perceived pain, quality of sleep, perceptive variations (i.e., olfactory, gustatory, visual, acoustic, and haptic perception). A network approach formulating a hypothesis-generating exploratory analysis was adopted. Main results of the network analysis showed that the beliefs of having had the Covid-19 was related to individual variables (i.e., gender, working in presence, sleep quality, anxiety symptoms), while the familiarity of Covid-19 disease was related to contextual factors (e.g., number of recorded cases in the Region, working in presence). The self-perception of olfactory and perceptive alterations highlighted a great sensorial cross-modality, additionally, the olfactory impairment was related to the belief of having had the Covid-19. Compared to general network data, BAI, perceived stress, anxiety and chronic pain were in relation to daily sleep disturbance. Main study's results show how the management of the Covid-19 stressful representation, in its cognitive aspects, can modulate the psychophysiological responses.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Ansiedad , COVID-19/prevención & control , Dolor Crónico , Neurociencia Cognitiva , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Pandemias , Psicofisiología , Sueño
12.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 68: 152-158, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915497

RESUMEN

Understanding animal decision-making involves simultaneously dissecting and reconstructing processes across levels of biological organization, such as behavior, physiology, and brain function, as well as considering the environment in which decisions are made. Over the past few decades, foundational breakthroughs originating from a variety of model systems and disciplines have painted an increasingly comprehensive picture of how individuals sense information, process it, and subsequently modify behavior or states. Still, our understanding of decision-making in social contexts is far from complete and requires integrating novel approaches and perspectives. The fields of social neuroscience and cognitive ecology have approached social decision-making from orthogonal perspectives. The integration of these perspectives (and fields) is critical in developing comprehensive and testable theories of the brain.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencia Cognitiva , Animales , Encéfalo , Cognición , Toma de Decisiones , Conducta Social
13.
J Neurosci Methods ; 355: 109109, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705854

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In vivo calcium imaging using a microendoscope is a state-of-the-art technique to study the cellular activity inside the brain of freely moving animals such as mice or rats. A problem that can arise in social behaviour tests in rats, or similar size rodents, is that one animal interferes with or may even damage the miniature endoscopic camera attached to the second animal. NEW METHOD: We outline an inexpensive, lightweight, 3D-printed protector (iHELMET) that surrounds but is not in physical contact with the camera, together with details of its design and construction. RESULTS: Using a simple design, we demonstrate successful protection of the endoscope and recording in a social situation such as the social dominance tube test. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: The helmet's 3D-printed dimensions can be readily adjusted to work with various micro-endoscopes, which may be more difficult for the only other system of which we are aware. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to camera protection, features of the design aid camera stability, helping to secure more optimal imaging of calcium transients in specific regions of interest during long recording sessions.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencia Cognitiva , Animales , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Calcio , Ratones , Impresión Tridimensional , Ratas
14.
Trends Neurosci ; 44(6): 478-491, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637286

RESUMEN

The mirror neuron system has dominated understanding of observational learning from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Our review highlights the value of observational learning frameworks that integrate a more diverse and distributed set of cognitive and brain systems, including those implicated in sensorimotor transformations, as well as in more general processes such as executive control, reward, and social cognition. We argue that understanding how observational learning occurs in the real world will require neuroscientific frameworks that consider how visuomotor processes interface with more general aspects of cognition, as well as how learning context and action complexity shape mechanisms supporting learning from watching others.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencia Cognitiva , Neuronas Espejo , Encéfalo , Cognición , Humanos , Recompensa
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1149, 2021 02 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608533

RESUMEN

An outstanding challenge for consciousness research is to characterize the neural signature of conscious access independently of any decisional processes. Here we present a model-based approach that uses inter-trial variability to identify the brain dynamics associated with stimulus processing. We demonstrate that, even in the absence of any task or behavior, the electroencephalographic response to auditory stimuli shows bifurcation dynamics around 250-300 milliseconds post-stimulus. Namely, the same stimulus gives rise to late sustained activity on some trials, and not on others. This late neural activity is predictive of task-related reports, and also of reports of conscious contents that are randomly sampled during task-free listening. Source localization further suggests that task-free conscious access recruits the same neural networks as those associated with explicit report, except for frontal executive components. Studying brain dynamics through variability could thus play a key role for identifying the core signatures of conscious access, independent of report.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Estado de Conciencia/fisiología , Estimulación Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Conducta , Neurociencia Cognitiva , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto Joven
16.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(6): 774-786, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462472

RESUMEN

We employ a reverse-engineering approach to illuminate the neurocomputational building blocks that combine to support controlled semantic cognition: the storage and context-appropriate use of conceptual knowledge. By systematically varying the structure of a computational model and assessing the functional consequences, we identified the architectural properties that best promote some core functions of the semantic system. Semantic cognition presents a challenging test case, as the brain must achieve two seemingly contradictory functions: abstracting context-invariant conceptual representations across time and modalities, while producing specific context-sensitive behaviours appropriate for the immediate task. These functions were best achieved in models possessing a single, deep multimodal hub with sparse connections from modality-specific regions, and control systems acting on peripheral rather than deep network layers. The reverse-engineered model provides a unifying account of core findings in the cognitive neuroscience of controlled semantic cognition, including evidence from anatomy, neuropsychology and functional brain imaging.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Cerebral/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Formación de Concepto/fisiología , Semántica , Neurociencia Cognitiva , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Redes Neurales de la Computación
17.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 25(3): 200-212, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33384213

RESUMEN

As robots advance from the pages and screens of science fiction into our homes, hospitals, and schools, they are poised to take on increasingly social roles. Consequently, the need to understand the mechanisms supporting human-machine interactions is becoming increasingly pressing. We introduce a framework for studying the cognitive and brain mechanisms that support human-machine interactions, leveraging advances made in cognitive neuroscience to link different levels of description with relevant theory and methods. We highlight unique features that make this endeavour particularly challenging (and rewarding) for brain and behavioural scientists. Overall, the framework offers a way to study the cognitive science of human-machine interactions that respects the diversity of social machines, individuals' expectations and experiences, and the structure and function of multiple cognitive and brain systems.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencia Cognitiva , Robótica , Encéfalo , Ciencia Cognitiva , Humanos
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097468

RESUMEN

Depression is a disorder of dysregulated affective and social functioning, with attenuated response to reward, heightened response to threat (perhaps especially social threat), excessive focus on negative aspects of the self, ineffective engagement with other people, and difficulty modulating all of these responses. Known risk factors provide a starting point for a model of developmental pathways to resilience, and we propose that the interplay of social threat experiences and neural social-affective systems is critical to those pathways. We describe a model of risk and resilience, review supporting evidence, and apply the model to sexual and gender minority adolescents, a population with high disparities in depression and unique social risk factors. This approach illustrates the fundamental role of a socially and developmentally informed clinical neuroscience model for understanding a population disproportionately affected by risk factors and psychopathology outcomes. We consider it a public health imperative to apply conceptual models to high-need populations to elucidate targets for effective interventions to promote healthy development and enhance resilience.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencia Cognitiva , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adolescente , Depresión , Humanos , Recompensa
19.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 47: 100902, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383554

RESUMEN

Many workflows and tools that aim to increase the reproducibility and replicability of research findings have been suggested. In this review, we discuss the opportunities that these efforts offer for the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, in particular developmental neuroimaging. We focus on issues broadly related to statistical power and to flexibility and transparency in data analyses. Critical considerations relating to statistical power include challenges in recruitment and testing of young populations, how to increase the value of studies with small samples, and the opportunities and challenges related to working with large-scale datasets. Developmental studies involve challenges such as choices about age groupings, lifespan modelling, analyses of longitudinal changes, and data that can be processed and analyzed in a multitude of ways. Flexibility in data acquisition, analyses and description may thereby greatly impact results. We discuss methods for improving transparency in developmental neuroimaging, and how preregistration can improve methodological rigor. While outlining challenges and issues that may arise before, during, and after data collection, solutions and resources are highlighted aiding to overcome some of these. Since the number of useful tools and techniques is ever-growing, we highlight the fact that many practices can be implemented stepwise.


Asunto(s)
Neuroimagen , Neurociencia Cognitiva , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
20.
Brain Cogn ; 146: 105634, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157490

RESUMEN

Visual narratives like comics and films often shift between showing full scenes and close, zoomed-in viewpoints. These zooms are similar to the "spotlight of attention" cast across a visual scene in perception. We here measured ERPs to visual narratives (comic strips) that used zoomed-in and full-scene panels either throughout the whole sequence context or at specific critical panels. Zoomed-in panels were automatically generated on the basis of fixations from prior participants' eye movements to the crucial content of panels (Foulsham & Cohn, 2020). We found that these fixation panels evoked a smaller N300 than full-scenes, indicative of reduced cost for object identification, but that they also evoked a slightly larger amplitude N400 response, suggesting a greater cost for accessing semantic memory with constrained content. Panels in sequences where fixation panels persisted across all positions of the sequence also evoked larger posterior P600s, implying that constrained views required more updating or revision processes throughout the sequence. Altogether, these findings suggest that constraining a visual scene to its crucial parts triggers various processes related not only to the density of its information but also to its integration into a sequential context.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencia Cognitiva , Electroencefalografía , Narración , Atención , Potenciales Evocados , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepción Visual
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