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Brain Nerve ; 73(10): 1117-1137, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615749


State-of-the-art tissue-clearing methods provide cellular resolution information of intact tissues in individual mammalian organs and the entire body. Combining these tissue-clearing methods with high-speed imaging and automated image analysis using light-sheet microscopy can reduce the cost and speed up tissue examination by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, the chemical nature of these methods enable antibody labeling of entire organs, which can be applied to thick human tissues. By combining powerful tissue clearing, labeling, imaging, and data analysis, scientists are able to extract structural and functional cellular information from complex mammalian bodies and large human specimens. Furthermore, the rapid generation of terabytes of imaging data calls for efficient computational approaches to address the challenges of large data set analysis and management. In this review, we described how tissue-clearing methods can provide an unbiased overview of mammalian bodies and human specimens at the system level, and discussed the current challenges and future possibilities in applying tissue-clearing methods to human neuroscience.

Neurociencias , Humanos , Coloración y Etiquetado
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00352820, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495102


In the last 25 years of the 20th century, psychopathology coded a diverse range of social phenomena under the heading of trauma, featuring the study of psychological trauma as an autonomous area progressively informed by cultural and neurobiological research. In this scenario, we witnessed the emergence of the biocultural paradigm, an epistemological perspective that seeks to elucidate the interactive trajectories by which culture and biology consolidate each other´s effects. This article will address the intersections between the field of psychological trauma and neurosciences, based on the analytical dimensions of expansion of the category of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the epistemological premises of neurobehavioral studies of stress and fear, and the limitations of the bidirectionality hypothesis advanced by contemporary cultural neurosciences. The elaboration of definitively integrative approaches can assist the development of comprehensive models capable of conceiving knowledges and practices at the level of human experience, avoiding reductionist interpretations that submit complex cultural and subjective experiences alternatingly to the imperatives of the brain and to semiologic codes of pathogenic reasoning.

Neurociencias , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Biología , Brasil , Humanos
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(4): 797-802, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529541


The field of neuroscience has made notable strides that have contributed to progress and change in a number of academic pursuits. However, the lack of understanding of basic neuroscience concepts among the general public is likely to hinder, and in some instances possibly even prevent, the appropriate application of scientific advancements to issues facing society today. Greater neuroscience literacy among the general public is necessary for the benefits of neuroscientific discovery to be fully realized. By actively enhancing neuroscience literacy, scientists can dispel falsehoods established by early research that harmed underrepresented communities, ensure that public conversations concerning neuroscience (e.g., legalization of psychotropic substances) revolve around facts, and empower individuals to make better health decisions. The widespread implementation of communication technologies and various forms of media indicate there are numerous means to engage classroom learners across disciplines and age cohorts and the public to increase neuroscience knowledge. Thus, it is not only necessary but timely that neuroscientists seek meaningful ways to bridge the widening knowledge gap with the public.

Alfabetización , Neurociencias , Comunicación , Humanos , Conocimiento
Cogn Sci ; 45(9): e13034, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490927


People commonly think of the mind and the brain as distinct entities that interact, a view known as dualism. At the same time, the public widely acknowledges that science attributes all mental phenomena to the workings of a material brain, a view at odds with dualism. How do people reconcile these conflicting perspectives? We propose that people distort claims about the brain from the wider culture to fit their dualist belief that minds and brains are distinct, interacting entities: Exposure to cultural discourse about the brain as the physical basis for the mind prompts people to posit that mind-brain interactions are asymmetric, such that the brain is able to affect the mind more than vice versa. We term this hybrid intuitive theory neurodualism. Five studies involving both thought experiments and naturalistic scenarios provided evidence of neurodualism among laypeople and, to some extent, even practicing psychotherapists. For example, lay participants reported that "a change in a person's brain" is accompanied by "a change in the person's mind" more often than vice versa. Similarly, when asked to imagine that "future scientists were able to alter exactly 25% of a person's brain," participants reported larger corresponding changes in the person's mind than in the opposite direction. Participants also showed a similarly asymmetric pattern favoring the brain over the mind in naturalistic scenarios. By uncovering people's intuitive theories of the mind-brain relation, the results provide insights into societal phenomena such as the allure of neuroscience and common misperceptions of mental health treatments.

Encéfalo , Neurociencias , Humanos , Solución de Problemas
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577294


The sample size is a crucial concern in scientific research and even more in behavioural neurosciences, where besides the best practice it is not always possible to reach large experimental samples. In this study we investigated how the outcomes of research change in response to sample size reduction. Three indices computed during a task involving the observations of four videos were considered in the analysis, two related to the brain electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and one to autonomic physiological measures, i.e., heart rate and skin conductance. The modifications of these indices were investigated considering five subgroups of sample size (32, 28, 24, 20, 16), each subgroup consisting of 630 different combinations made by bootstrapping n (n = sample size) out of 36 subjects, with respect to the total population (i.e., 36 subjects). The correlation analysis, the mean squared error (MSE), and the standard deviation (STD) of the indexes were studied at the participant reduction and three factors of influence were considered in the analysis: the type of index, the task, and its duration (time length). The findings showed a significant decrease of the correlation associated to the participant reduction as well as a significant increase of MSE and STD (p < 0.05). A threshold of subjects for which the outcomes remained significant and comparable was pointed out. The effects were to some extents sensitive to all the investigated variables, but the main effect was due to the task length. Therefore, the minimum threshold of subjects for which the outcomes were comparable increased at the reduction of the spot duration.

Electroencefalografía , Neurociencias , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Tamaño de la Muestra
Neuroscientist ; 27(5): 450, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519548

Neurociencias , Humanos
Neuroscientist ; 27(5): 453, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519550
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 20(4): ar57, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546098


Following professional development (PD), implementation of contemporary topics into high school biology requires teachers to make critical decisions regarding integration of novel content into existing course scope and sequence. Often exciting topics, such as neuroscience, do not perfectly align with standards. Despite commitment to enacting what was learned in the PD, teachers must adapt novel content to their perceptions of good teaching, local context, prior knowledge of their students, and state and district expectations. How teachers decide to integrate curricula encountered from PD programs may affect student outcomes. This mixed-methods study examined the relationship between curricular application strategies following an inquiry-based neuroscience PD and student learning. Post-PD curricular implementation was measured qualitatively through analysis of teacher action plans and classroom observations and quantitatively using hierarchical linear modeling to determine the impact of implementation on student performance. Participation in neuroscience PD predicted improved student learning compared with control teachers. Of the two distinct curricular implementation strategies, enacting a full unit produced significantly greater student learning than integrating neuroscience activities into existing biology units. Insights from this analysis should inform teacher implementation of new curricula after PD on other contemporary biology topics.

Neurociencias , Estudiantes , Curriculum , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Neurociencias/educación , Instituciones Académicas
Nat Neurosci ; 24(10): 1339, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588699
Nat Neurosci ; 24(10): 1348-1355, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556868


Causal reductionism is the widespread assumption that there is no room for additional causes once we have accounted for all elementary mechanisms within a system. Due to its intuitive appeal, causal reductionism is prevalent in neuroscience: once all neurons have been caused to fire or not to fire, it seems that causally there is nothing left to be accounted for. Here, we argue that these reductionist intuitions are based on an implicit, unexamined notion of causation that conflates causation with prediction. By means of a simple model organism, we demonstrate that causal reductionism cannot provide a complete and coherent account of 'what caused what'. To that end, we outline an explicit, operational approach to analyzing causal structures.

Causalidad , Neurociencias/tendencias , Filosofía , Animales , Anuros/fisiología , Predicción , Neuronas/fisiología , Especificidad de la Especie
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 69: iii-v, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429214

Brain Nerve ; 73(9): 1029-1036, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462375


All laws are built on the premise that individuals have a will and act according to their will. Now that the notion of the will is in the range of neuroscience, the introduction of neuroscience to the field of law is progressing rapidly. Hence, the academic field of "neurolaw" is born, and the court of criminal trials is a scene of natural experimentation for its application. However, there are many differences between medicine and law because they are different worlds, and a close dialogue between medicine and law is strongly required.

Neurociencias , Humanos
J Neurosci Methods ; 362: 109313, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384798


BACKGROUND: With the growing size and richness of neuroscience datasets in terms of dimension, volume, and resolution, identifying spatiotemporal patterns in those datasets is increasingly important. Multivariate dimension-reduction methods are particularly adept at addressing these challenges. NEW METHOD: In this paper, we propose a novel method, which we refer to as Principal Louvain Clustering (PLC), to identify clusters in a low-dimensional data subspace, based on time-varying trajectories of spectral dynamics across multisite local field potential (LFP) recordings in awake behaving mice. Data were recorded from prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and parietal cortex in eleven mice while they explored novel and familiar environments. RESULTS: PLC-identified subspaces and clusters showed high consistency across animals, and were modulated by the animals' ongoing behavior. CONCLUSIONS: PLC adds to an important growing literature on methods for characterizing dynamics in high-dimensional datasets, using a smaller number of parameters. The method is also applicable to other kinds of datasets, such as EEG or MEG.

Neurociencias , Corteza Prefrontal , Animales , Conducta Animal , Análisis por Conglomerados , Hipocampo , Ratones
Nat Neurosci ; 24(10): 1356-1366, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400843


Optogenetics ushered in a revolution in how neuroscientists interrogate brain function. Because of technical limitations, the majority of optogenetic studies have used low spatial resolution activation schemes that limit the types of perturbations that can be made. However, neural activity manipulations at finer spatial scales are likely to be important to more fully understand neural computation. Spatially precise multiphoton holographic optogenetics promises to address this challenge and opens up many new classes of experiments that were not previously possible. More specifically, by offering the ability to recreate extremely specific neural activity patterns in both space and time in functionally defined ensembles of neurons, multiphoton holographic optogenetics could allow neuroscientists to reveal fundamental aspects of the neural codes for sensation, cognition and behavior that have been beyond reach. This Review summarizes recent advances in multiphoton holographic optogenetics that substantially expand its capabilities, highlights outstanding technical challenges and provides an overview of the classes of experiments it can execute to test and validate key theoretical models of brain function. Multiphoton holographic optogenetics could substantially accelerate the pace of neuroscience discovery by helping to close the loop between experimental and theoretical neuroscience, leading to fundamental new insights into nervous system function and disorder.

Holografía/instrumentación , Holografía/métodos , Neurociencias/métodos , Optogenética/instrumentación , Optogenética/métodos , Animales , Encéfalo/fisiología , Humanos , Red Nerviosa/fisiología , Opsinas , Estimulación Luminosa , Fotones
Neuroscientist ; 27(4): 319, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229515

Neurociencias , Humanos