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1.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 14, 2023 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609559

RESUMEN

Neuroprosthetics is a multidisciplinary field at the interface between neurosciences and biomedical engineering, which aims at replacing or modulating parts of the nervous system that get disrupted in neurological disorders or after injury. Although neuroprostheses have steadily evolved over the past 60 years in the field of sensory and motor disorders, their application to higher-order cognitive functions is still at a relatively preliminary stage. Nevertheless, a recent series of proof-of-concept studies suggest that electrical neuromodulation strategies might also be useful in alleviating some cognitive and memory deficits, in particular in the context of dementia. Here, we review the evolution of neuroprosthetics from sensorimotor to cognitive disorders, highlighting important common principles such as the need for neuroprosthetic systems that enable multisite bidirectional interactions with the nervous system.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Neurociencias , Humanos , Bioingeniería
4.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2023: 2793211, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36643889

RESUMEN

This umbrella review is motivated to understand the shift in research themes on brain-computer interfacing (BCI) and it determined that a shift away from themes that focus on medical advancement and system development to applications that included education, marketing, gaming, safety, and security has occurred. The background of this review examined aspects of BCI categorisation, neuroimaging methods, brain control signal classification, applications, and ethics. The specific area of BCI software and hardware development was not examined. A search using One Search was undertaken and 92 BCI reviews were selected for inclusion. Publication demographics indicate the average number of authors on review papers considered was 4.2 ± 1.8. The results also indicate a rapid increase in the number of BCI reviews from 2003, with only three reviews before that period, two in 1972, and one in 1996. While BCI authors were predominantly Euro-American in early reviews, this shifted to a more global authorship, which China dominated by 2020-2022. The review revealed six disciplines associated with BCI systems: life sciences and biomedicine (n = 42), neurosciences and neurology (n = 35), and rehabilitation (n = 20); (2) the second domain centred on the theme of functionality: computer science (n = 20), engineering (n = 28) and technology (n = 38). There was a thematic shift from understanding brain function and modes of interfacing BCI systems to more applied research novel areas of research-identified surround artificial intelligence, including machine learning, pre-processing, and deep learning. As BCI systems become more invasive in the lives of "normal" individuals, it is expected that there will be a refocus and thematic shift towards increased research into ethical issues and the need for legal oversight in BCI application.


Asunto(s)
Interfaces Cerebro-Computador , Neurociencias , Humanos , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Inteligencia Artificial , Programas Informáticos , Interfaz Usuario-Computador
5.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 59: 101196, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630774

RESUMEN

Population-based neuroimaging studies that feature complex sampling designs enable researchers to generalize their results more widely. However, several theoretical and analytical questions pose challenges to researchers interested in these data. The following is a resource for researchers interested in using population-based neuroimaging data. We provide an overview of sampling designs and describe the differences between traditional model-based analyses and survey-oriented design-based analyses. To elucidate key concepts, we leverage data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development℠ Study (ABCD Study®), a population-based sample of 11,878 9-10-year-olds in the United States. Analyses revealed modest sociodemographic discrepancies between the target population of 9-10-year-olds in the U.S. and both the recruited ABCD sample and the analytic sample with usable structural and functional imaging data. In evaluating the associations between socioeconomic resources (i.e., constructs that are tightly linked to recruitment biases) and several metrics of brain development, we show that model-based approaches over-estimated the associations of household income and under-estimated the associations of caregiver education with total cortical volume and surface area. Comparable results were found in models predicting neural function during two fMRI task paradigms. We conclude with recommendations for ABCD Study® users and users of population-based neuroimaging cohorts more broadly.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Neurociencias , Adolescente , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Neuroimagen
6.
Eur J Neurosci ; 57(2): 351-359, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36504242

RESUMEN

Studies across a broad range of disciplines-from psychiatry to cognitive science to behavioural neuroscience-have reported on whether the magnitude of contrast sensitivity alterations in one group or condition varies with spatial frequency. Significant interactions have often gone unexplained or have been used to argue for impairments in specific processing streams. Here, we show that interactions with spatial frequency may need to be re-evaluated if the inherent skew/heteroscedasticity was not taken into account or if visual acuity could plausibly differ across groups or conditions. By re-analysing a publicly available data set, we show that-when using raw contrast sensitivity data-schizophrenia patients exhibit an apparent contrast sensitivity impairment that lessens with spatial frequency, but that when using log-transformed data or when using generalized estimating equations, this interaction reversed. The reversed interaction, but not the overall contrast sensitivity deficit, disappeared when groups were matched on visual acuity. An analysis of the contrast threshold data yielded similar results. A caveat is that matching groups on acuity is probably only defensible if acuity differences arise from non-neural factors such as optical blur. Taken together, these analyses reconcile seemingly discrepant findings in the literature and demonstrate that reporting contrast sensitivity interactions with spatial frequency requires properly accounting for visual acuity and skew/heteroscedasticity.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencias , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Sensibilidad de Contraste , Agudeza Visual , Trastornos de la Visión
8.
Neurosci Res ; 186: 1-2, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586728

Asunto(s)
Neurociencias
9.
Eur J Neurosci ; 57(2): 258-284, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36485015

RESUMEN

The quality of the relationship between caregiver and child has long-term effects on the cognitive and socio-emotional development of children. A process involved in human parenting is the bio-behavioural synchrony that occurs between the partners in the relationship during interaction. Through interaction, bio-behavioural synchronicity allows the adaptation of the physiological systems of the parent to those of the child and promotes the positive development and modelling of the child's social brain. The role of bio-behavioural synchrony in building social bonds could be investigated using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In this paper we have (a) highlighted the importance of the quality of the caregiver-child relationship for the child's cognitive and socio-emotional development, as well as the relevance of infantile stimuli in the activation of parenting behaviour; (b) discussed the tools used in the study of the neurophysiological substrates of the parental response; (c) proposed fNIRS as a particularly suitable tool for the study of parental responses; and (d) underlined the need for a multi-systemic psychobiological approach to understand the mechanisms that regulate caregiver-child interactions and their bio-behavioural synchrony. We propose to adopt a multi-system psychobiological approach to the study of parental behaviour and social interaction.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencias , Responsabilidad Parental , Humanos , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta , Emociones , Encéfalo
10.
Nat Neurosci ; 26(1): 4-11, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36564545

RESUMEN

Across the brain sciences, institutions and individuals have begun to actively acknowledge and address the presence of racism, bias, and associated barriers to inclusivity within our community. However, even with these recent calls to action, limited attention has been directed to inequities in the research methods and analytic approaches we use. The very process of science, including how we recruit, the methodologies we utilize and the analyses we conduct, can have marked downstream effects on the equity and generalizability of scientific discoveries across the global population. Despite our best intentions, the use of field-standard approaches can inadvertently exclude participants from engaging in research and yield biased brain-behavior relationships. To address these pressing issues, we discuss actionable ways and important questions to move the fields of neuroscience and psychology forward in designing better studies to address the history of exclusionary practices in human brain mapping.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencias , Humanos , Proyectos de Investigación , Neuroimagen
11.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 78: 102656, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36529081

Asunto(s)
Neurociencias
12.
Conscious Cogn ; 107: 103450, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566673

RESUMEN

Recent developments in neuroscience and artificial intelligence have allowed machines to decode mental processes with growing accuracy. Neuroethicists have speculated that perfecting these technologies may result in reactions ranging from an invasion of privacy to an increase in self-understanding. Yet, evaluating these predictions is difficult given that people are poor at forecasting their reactions. To address this, we developed a paradigm using elements of performance magic to emulate future neurotechnologies. We led 59 participants to believe that a (sham) neurotechnological machine could infer their preferences, detect their errors, and reveal their deep-seated attitudes. The machine gave participants randomly assigned positive or negative feedback about their brain's supposed attitudes towards charity. Around 80% of participants in both groups provided rationalisations for this feedback, which shifted their attitudes in the manipulated direction but did not influence donation behaviour. Our paradigm reveals how people may respond to prospective neurotechnologies, which may inform neuroethical frameworks.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Neurociencias , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Solución de Problemas , Predicción
14.
Behav Res Methods ; 54(3): 1346-1357, 2022 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582000

RESUMEN

Inspired by recent technological advances in the gaming industry, we used capture cards to create and LIVE-stream high quality 3D-images. With this novel technique, we developed a real-life stereoscopic 3D full-body illusion paradigm (3D projection). Unlike previous versions of the full-body illusion that rely upon unwieldy head-mounted displays, this paradigm enables the unobstructed investigation of such illusions with neuroscience methods (e.g., transcranial direct current stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, electroencephalography, and near-infrared spectroscopy) and examination of their neural underpinnings. This paper has three aims: (i) to provide a step-by-step guide on how to implement 3D LIVE-streaming, (ii) to explain how this can be used to create a full-body illusion paradigm; and (iii) to present evidence that documents the effectiveness of our methods (de Boer et al., 2020), including suggestions for potential applications. Particularly significant is the fact that 3D LIVE-streaming is not GPU-intensive and can easily be applied to any device or screen that can display 3D images (e.g., TV, tablet, mobile phone). Therefore, these methods also have potential future clinical and commercial benefits. 3D LIVE-streaming could be used to enhance future clinical observations or educational tools, or potentially guide medical interventions with real-time high-quality 3D images. Alternatively, our methods can be used in future rehabilitation programs to aid recovery from nervous system injury (e.g., spinal cord injury, brain damage, limb loss) or in therapies aimed at alleviating psychosis symptoms. Finally, 3D LIVE-streaming could set a new standard for immersive online gaming as well as augmenting online and mobile experiences (e.g., video chat, social sharing/events).


Asunto(s)
Ilusiones , Neurociencias , Estimulación Transcraneal de Corriente Directa , Electroencefalografía , Humanos , Ilusiones/fisiología
15.
Annu Rev Psychol ; 73: 103-129, 2022 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546803

RESUMEN

Navigating by path integration requires continuously estimating one's self-motion. This estimate may be derived from visual velocity and/or vestibular acceleration signals. Importantly, these senses in isolation are ill-equipped to provide accurate estimates, and thus visuo-vestibular integration is an imperative. After a summary of the visual and vestibular pathways involved, the crux of this review focuses on the human and theoretical approaches that have outlined a normative account of cue combination in behavior and neurons, as well as on the systems neuroscience efforts that are searching for its neural implementation. We then highlight a contemporary frontier in our state of knowledge: understanding how velocity cues with time-varying reliabilities are integrated into an evolving position estimate over prolonged time periods. Further, we discuss how the brain builds internal models inferring when cues ought to be integrated versus segregated-a process of causal inference. Lastly, we suggest that the study of spatial navigation has not yet addressed its initial condition: self-location.


Asunto(s)
Percepción de Movimiento , Neurociencias , Encéfalo/fisiología , Cognición , Señales (Psicología) , Humanos , Percepción de Movimiento/fisiología
16.
Psychoanal Rev ; 109(4): 415-437, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454148

RESUMEN

Psychoanalysis is an explanatory science, and if our aim is to develop accurate theories of the mind, psychoanalysis would benefit from integrating explanations developed by psychology and neuroscience. The main part of the essay shows how psychoanalysis can be integrated with neuroscience and psychology. The concept of integration is defined in terms of six criteria, and the author argues that no matter how tight the integration is, it does not entail that neuropsychological explanations can replace psychoanalytic theory.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencias , Psicoanálisis , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Teoría Psicoanalítica
17.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0273994, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508452

RESUMEN

Peer review is an important part of science, aimed at providing expert and objective assessment of a manuscript. Because of many factors, including time constraints, unique expertise needs, and deference, many journals ask authors to suggest peer reviewers for their own manuscript. Previous researchers have found differing effects about this practice that might be inconclusive due to sample sizes. In this article, we analyze the association between author-suggested reviewers and review invitation, review scores, acceptance rates, and subjective review quality using a large dataset of close to 8K manuscripts from 46K authors and 21K reviewers from the journal PLOS ONE's Neuroscience section. We found that all-author-suggested review panels increase the chances of acceptance by 20 percent points vs all-editor-suggested panels while agreeing to review less often. While PLOS ONE has since ended the practice of asking for suggested reviewers, many others still use them and perhaps should consider the results presented here.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencias , Revisión por Pares , Estudios Transversales , Revisión de la Investigación por Pares
18.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0273473, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580464

RESUMEN

Neuroscience research is producing big brain data which informs both advancements in neuroscience research and drives the development of advanced datasets to provide advanced medical solutions. These brain data are produced under different jurisdictions in different formats and are governed under different regulations. The governance of data has become essential and critical resulting in the development of various governance structures to ensure that the quality, availability, findability, accessibility, usability, and utility of data is maintained. Furthermore, data governance is influenced by various ethical and legal principles. However, it is still not clear what ethical and legal principles should be used as a standard or baseline when managing brain data due to varying practices and evolving concepts. Therefore, this study asks what ethical and legal principles shape the current brain data governance landscape? A systematic scoping review and thematic analysis of articles focused on biomedical, neuro and brain data governance was carried out to identify the ethical and legal principles which shape the current brain data governance landscape. The results revealed that there is currently a large variation of how the principles are presented and discussions around the terms are very multidimensional. Some of the principles are still at their infancy and are barely visible. A range of principles emerged during the thematic analysis providing a potential list of principles which can provide a more comprehensive framework for brain data governance and a conceptual expansion of neuroethics.


Asunto(s)
Neurología , Neurociencias , Macrodatos , Encéfalo
19.
J Anthropol Sci ; 100: 173-192, 2022 12 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36511800

RESUMEN

The relationship between anthropology and neuroscience has always been friendly but controversial, because they embrace inclusive common topics (human beings and their brains) although following distinct approaches, often more holistic and speculative in the former field, more reductionist and quantitative in the latter. In recent decades, novel disciplines have been proposed to bridge the gap between anthropology and neuroscience, mostly taking into account their common interest in human evolution. Paleoneurology deals with the study of brain anatomy in extinct species. Neuroarchaeology concerns the study of brain functions associated with behaviours that are of interest according to the archaeological record. Cognitive archaeology investigates the evolution of those behaviours following methods and theories in psychology. These new fields can provide quantitative and experimental support to topics that, to date, have been largely discussed only on a theoretical basis. Nonetheless, working with extinct species necessarily involves many limitations. Consistent theories on the evolution of our cognitive abilities must rely on the integration of different sources of information, on parallel and independent evidence from different fields, and on a proper attitude: openness and caution.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Neurociencias , Humanos , Antropología , Encéfalo/anatomía & histología , Neurociencias/métodos , Cognición , Arqueología
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