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1.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 28(3): 709-725, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495113

RESUMEN

Between 1935 and 1950 the neurology was presented and developed in Mexico. It happened by two ways: the arrival of Spanish neuroscience researchers in Mexico exiled due the Civil War; and the presence of Mexican doctors that had specialized in neurosurgery in the United States. The article discusses historiographic points of view that stress the importance of the Spanish exiled doctors, but neglect the important role of native doctors in the emergence of Mexican neurology. It states that there was an integration process by both parts, where Mexicans tried to satisfy care needs while the Spanish had to find or create working spaces to belong to.


Asunto(s)
Neurología/historia , Neurocirugia/historia , Médicos/historia , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , México , Neurólogos/historia , España
2.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 709-725, jul.-set. 2021.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339970

RESUMEN

Resumen Entre 1935 y 1950 aconteció la introducción y desarrollo de la neurología en México. Esto se dio por medio de dos vías: el arribo de los neurocientíficos españoles a México tras su exilio provocado por la Guerra Civil; y la presencia de médicos mexicanos que salieron a especializarse en neurocirugía a EEUU. Se discuten algunas posiciones historiográficas que hablan de la importancia de los españoles exiliados en este acontecer, pero que no han expuesto el relevante papel de los nativos en el surgimiento de la neurología mexicana. Se afirma la existencia de un proceso de integración de ambas partes, donde los nativos buscaron satisfacer necesidades asistenciales mientras que los exiliados tuvieron que encontrar y crear espacios dónde insertarse.


Abstract Between 1935 and 1950 the neurology was presented and developed in Mexico. It happened by two ways: the arrival of Spanish neuroscience researchers in Mexico exiled due the Civil War; and the presence of Mexican doctors that had specialized in neurosurgery in the United States. The article discusses historiographic points of view that stress the importance of the Spanish exiled doctors, but neglect the important role of native doctors in the emergence of Mexican neurology. It states that there was an integration process by both parts, where Mexicans tried to satisfy care needs while the Spanish had to find or create working spaces to belong to.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XX , Médicos/historia , Neurología/historia , Neurocirugia/historia , España , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/historia , Neurólogos/historia , México
3.
World Neurosurg ; 152: 71-79, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133992

RESUMEN

The link between ancient Greek medicine and the Arabic translation period in the 9th century cannot be understood without studying the contributions of Syriac scholars. With their mastery of Greek and the related Semitic languages of Syriac and Arabic, they initiated a scientific translation process with methods that prevail to this day. In this paper, we reviewed Hunayn Ibn Isshaq's Ten Treatises on the Eye to elucidate the original contributions of the Syriac physicians to the field of neurologic surgery. We analyzed the oldest known diagram of orbital anatomy along with Hunayn's genuine ideas on the optic nerve anatomy and pathology, optic chiasm, afferent pupillary reflex, and papilledema and venous congestion. We also reviewed the neurosurgical elements found in the Syriac Book of Medicines including the thought process in localizing neurologic deficits based on clinical experience and anatomic dissections and the earliest recorded description of brachial plexus pathology.


Asunto(s)
Neurocirugia/historia , Libros de Texto como Asunto/historia , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Medicina Arábiga/historia , Medio Oriente , Neuroanatomía/historia , Traducciones
4.
World Neurosurg ; 153: 84-90, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129974

RESUMEN

The aim of this study is to investigate the knowledge on head wounds contained in the Kitab al-'Umda fi Sina'a al-Jiraha, written by Ibn al-Quff in the thirteenth century. This study was based on a copy of the Kitab al-'Umda fi Sina'a al-Jiraha, printed in 2 volumes in Da'ira al-Ma'arif al-Uthmaniyya in Hyderabad in 1356/1937-38 and reprinted by the Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University. This printed copy was compared with the manuscript of Istanbul University Rare Works Library, Arabic Manuscripts, A 4749. Relevant chapters were translated from Arabic to English, after which they were thoroughly examined. Obtained knowledge is presented in the Results section and is compared in the Discussion section with other reports of this subject. The first chapter classified head wounds into 6 types: the first 3 types are conservatively treated and the remaining 3 types are surgically treated. This chapter also presents information on how to proceed when there is a head wound-related hemorrhage, which medications should be used, and which are the adequate treatment protocols. The second chapter discusses the symptoms and signs that follow head blow and fall injuries. The characteristics and noteworthy circumstances of skull fractures as well as the surgical treatment methods are included in the fifteenth chapter, which is concluded with surgery-related complications. The present study shows that Ibn al-Quff benefited from his predecessors' knowledge and made some considerable contributions to this subject.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos Craneocerebrales/historia , Medicina Arábiga/historia , Neurocirugia/historia , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Obras Médicas de Referencia
5.
World Neurosurg ; 152: 26-28, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052449

RESUMEN

In the early twentieth century, early neurosurgical pioneers marked their claims in the specialty during the combined threats of the Spanish influenza and World War I. Their stories, intimately connected, demonstrate personal and professional losses in the backdrop of overarching perseverance to achieve that which allowed neurosurgery to evolve into modernity. Today, as global order adapts to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-COVID-19) pandemic, their stories provide an opportunity for reflection as we carve our way forward as a specialty.


Asunto(s)
Gripe Humana/historia , Neurocirugia/historia , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/historia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , COVID-19 , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Primera Guerra Mundial
6.
World Neurosurg ; 151: 39-43, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892164

RESUMEN

Nearly 250 years ago, Antonio Scarpa became a professor of anatomy and surgery only 2 years after he graduated from the University of Padua. The young lecturer soon became one of the most renowned anatomists in Italy and a director of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Pavia. He worked in the fields of general surgery and ophthalmology. Several anatomic structures have been named after him, mainly Scarpa fascia and Scarpa triangle. His interest in neuroanatomy was ardent, despite being occasionally neglected. Scarpa's contributions to the fields of neurosciences have been significant. He was the first to describe the round window and the secondary tympanic membrane, and he eventually focused on the auditory and olfactory organs. Notably, the vestibular ganglion is now known as Scarpa ganglion. Scarpa's magnum opus was the book Tabulae Neurologicae, in which he described the path of several cranial nerves including the vagus nerve and innervation of the heart. Since his death in 1832, Scarpa's head has been preserved at the University History Museum of the University of Pavia. In this historical vignette, we aim to describe Antonio Scarpa's troubled life and brilliant career, focusing on his core contributions to neuroanatomy, neurosurgery, and otoneurosurgery.


Asunto(s)
Neuroanatomía/historia , Neurocirugia/historia , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Otológicos/historia , Nervio Vestibular/anatomía & histología , Nervio Vestibular/cirugía , Nervios Craneales/anatomía & histología , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Italia
7.
Arch Iran Med ; 24(3): 253-259, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878883

RESUMEN

Neurotrauma (NT) is one of the common causes of mortality and morbidity. Investigating the role of people who had an impact on the development of knowledge of NT is reasonable. Our aim is to investigate the role of Bizhan Aarabi, professor of Neurosurgery, on the knowledge development in NT. Accordingly, we searched the Scopus database for Bizhan Aarabi on August 8, 2020 and selected papers with at least 10 citations, investigating his impact on NT and details of his publications. He has published 168 papers including original articles, reviews, conference papers, letters, and editorials according to the Scopus databases. There are 112 papers with 10 or more citations. Thirty-eight out of 112 papers (33.9%) were in the first and the highest rank journal: 29 in Neurosurgery and 9 in the Journal of Neurotrauma. Twenty-four papers have the level of evidence (LOE) of "1". Bizhan Arabi developed knowledge in NT especially in the cervical spine/spinal cord trauma and brain injury and his publications are references for spine/neurosurgeons.


Asunto(s)
Bibliometría , Conocimiento , Neurología/historia , Neurocirugia/historia , Lesiones Encefálicas/cirugía , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Irán , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/cirugía
8.
World Neurosurg ; 150: 84-88, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757884

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Thanjavur Santhanakrishna Kanaka, M.B.B.S., M.S. (General Surgery), M.S. (Neurosurgery), Ph.D., and former Captain, Indian Army Medical Corps, was born on March 31, 1932. She became the first woman neurosurgeon in India and all of Asia. METHODS: This manuscript was compiled through a combination of interviews and references to other articles and some of the published manuscripts of Dr. Kanaka and her colleagues. RESULTS: Dr. Kanaka was a trailblazer for women in neurosurgery and a pioneer in functional and stereotactic neurosurgery. During her long and productive career, she authored dozens of articles reported in prestigious neurosurgical journals worldwide and helped inspire and train the next generations of neurosurgeons in India and abroad. Even after retirement, Dr. Kanaka continued to focus on serving the medical community through her Sri Santhanakrishna Padmavathi Health Care and Research Foundation in Chennai with the mission of serving underprivileged and senior citizens in the local community. In addition to her accomplishments as a practicing neurosurgeon, Dr. Kanaka's career was notable for her successful collaborations with biomedical engineers on medical device development using locally sourced materials and talent in India. CONCLUSIONS: Through her innovative thinking, compassion for her patients, and unwavering resilience, Dr. Kanaka has continued to serve as an inspiration to all pursuing a career in academic medicine and neurosurgery.


Asunto(s)
Neurocirugia/historia , Médicos Mujeres/legislación & jurisprudencia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , India , Médicos Mujeres/historia
9.
J Clin Neurosci ; 86: 337-346, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653667

RESUMEN

The Middle East is known for its complex history and rich environment and culture. The region is home to a wide variety of traditions, cultures and religions, which have made the area vulnerable to political conflicts. Despite these difficulties, science and medicine have always thrived in the region, with many medical practices and principles established by physicians and scholars living in the Middle East. The first academic neurosurgical activity in the region started in the 1950s. The first women neurosurgeons in the Middle East started training in the 1970s, and were from Iran, Palestine, followed by Saudi Arabia in the 1970s. These pioneers have encountered serious challenges, yet have become role models for the next generation. These women have paved the way and facilitated neurosurgical training and practice for more women surgeons. The gradual increase in the number of women neurosurgical residents in the region leads to the expectation that women will play a more prominent role in the future as leaders in neurosurgery in the Middle East. This collaborative study, which identifies the known women neurosurgeons in the Middle East for the first time, may serve to provide background and context for further contributions of women neurosurgeons for our profession and our patients.


Asunto(s)
Neurocirujanos/historia , Neurocirugia/historia , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/historia , Médicos Mujeres/historia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Medio Oriente , Neurocirujanos/educación , Neurocirujanos/tendencias , Neurocirugia/educación , Neurocirugia/tendencias , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/educación , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/tendencias , Médicos Mujeres/tendencias
10.
J Clin Neurosci ; 86: 347-356, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653668

RESUMEN

Nearly 75 years after the first woman neurosurgeon was trained in Latin America, the field of neurosurgery is changing and the prominence of women neurosurgeons within the specialty is increasing. By researching the histories of individual physicians and neurosurgeons, as well as neurosurgical departments and societies, we present, for the first time, the history of the women in neurosurgery in Latin America. Women neurosurgeons in the region have made notable progress, inspiring subsequent generations and actively participating in organized neurosurgery, medical leadership outside neurosurgery, academic neurosurgery, and leadership in contemporary society. The establishment of "Women in Neurosurgery" networks and organizations has been important to the success of many of these efforts. This collaborative study, which identifies the known women neurosurgeons in Latin America for the first time, may serve to provide background and context for further contributions of women neurosurgeons for our profession and our patients.


Asunto(s)
Neurocirujanos/historia , Neurocirugia/historia , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/historia , Médicos Mujeres/historia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , América Latina , Neurocirujanos/tendencias , Neurocirugia/tendencias , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/tendencias , Médicos Mujeres/tendencias
11.
World Neurosurg ; 150: 101-109, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771747

RESUMEN

The neurosurgical management of spinal neoplasms has undergone immense development in parallel with advancements made in general spine surgery. Laminectomies were performed as the first surgical procedures used to treat spinal neoplasms. Since then, neurosurgical spinal oncology has started to incorporate techniques that have developed from recent advances in minimally invasive spine surgery. Neurosurgery has also integrated radiotherapy into the treatment of spine tumors. In this historical vignette, we present a vast timeline spanning from the Byzantine period to the current day and recount the major advancements in the management of spinal neoplasms.


Asunto(s)
Neurocirugia/historia , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/historia , Neoplasias de la Columna Vertebral/historia , Neoplasias de la Columna Vertebral/cirugía , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Mínimamente Invasivos/historia , Neurocirugia/métodos , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/métodos
12.
J Clin Neurosci ; 86: 357-365, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618964

RESUMEN

At the end of the first 100 years of neurosurgery as a specialty, it is appropriate to look back and then imagine the future. As neurosurgery celebrates its first century, the increasing role of women neurosurgeons is a major theme. This article documents the early women pioneers in neurosurgery in Asia and Australasia. The contributions of these trailblazers to the origins, academics, and professional organizations of neurosurgery are highlighted. The first woman neurosurgeon of the region, Dr. T.S. Kanaka of India, completed her training in 1968, not long after the trailblazers in Europe and North America. She heralded the vibrant communities of neurosurgical women that have developed in the vast and diverse nations of the region, and the many formal and informal groups of women in neurosurgery that have introduced and promoted talented women in the profession. Contributions of women neurosurgeons to academic medicine and society as a whole are briefly highlighted, as are their challenges in this male-dominated specialty. The region is home to many deeply conservative societies; in fact, some nations in the region have not yet trained their first woman neurosurgeon. The fortitude of these individuals to achieve at the highest levels of neurosurgery indicates great potential for future growth of women in the profession, but also demonstrates the need for initiatives and advocacy to reach the full potential of gender equity.


Asunto(s)
Ilustración Médica/historia , Neurocirujanos/historia , Neurocirugia/historia , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/historia , Médicos Mujeres/historia , Asia , Australasia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Neurocirujanos/educación , Neurocirujanos/tendencias , Neurocirugia/educación , Neurocirugia/tendencias , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/educación , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/tendencias , Médicos Mujeres/tendencias
13.
J Clin Neurosci ; 86: 316-323, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551325

RESUMEN

Neurosurgery as a distinct speciality has been around for 100 years. Some of the earliest women neurosurgeons were European, emerging from the 1920's onwards. Here we detail the rise of women in neurosurgery across Europe with a decade by decade account of big events and firsts across the continent. The emerging themes are seen in stories of pioneers with enormous resilience, camaraderie, trailblazing and triumphing in a system with great obstacles and challenges. Our journey through this chronology brings us to the modern day, where most European countries have or have had a woman neurosurgeon and the future for women in neurosurgery in the continent is very bright.


Asunto(s)
Neurocirujanos/historia , Neurocirugia/historia , Médicos Mujeres/historia , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Neurocirujanos/tendencias , Neurocirugia/tendencias , Médicos Mujeres/tendencias
14.
J Clin Neurosci ; 86: 332-336, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558183

RESUMEN

In the early 20th century, a tumultuous era was yielding geopolitical and social change. Europe at large was undergoing redefinition of borders, political structures, and economies, while rebuilding societies after World War I. At the same time, neurosurgery was emerging as a new specialty, and women were allowed to study medicine for the first time in many European countries. These factors created a synergy, setting the stage for Europe's four first female neurosurgeons to emerge. In 1924, Germany's Alice Rosenstein began her neurosurgical career and contributed to the refinement of pneumoencephalography. Due to her Jewish background, she was forced to flee Europe, emigrating to the United States, where she did not continue to practice neurosurgery. In 1929, Russia's Serafima Bryusova began her neurosurgical training. She studied intracranial pressure in trephined patients and wrote the first Russian monograph on cerebral angiography before she was immobilized by severe arthritis. England's Diana Beck began her neurosurgical career in 1939. She contributed to the surgical treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage and researched idiopathic intracranial hypertension, even though many believed she could not be a successful surgeon due to her myasthenia gravis. In 1943, Romania's Sofia Ionescu started a prolific academic neurosurgical career. She developed a minimally-invasive technique to treat intracerebral hematomas and worked tirelessly to bring neurosurgery to all corners of her country. Europe's first women in neurosurgery were marked by war and adversity. Their stories carry within them a spirit of resilience, fortitude, and tenacity that continues to characterize women in neurosurgery today.


Asunto(s)
Neurocirujanos/historia , Neurocirugia/historia , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/historia , Médicos Mujeres/historia , Emigración e Inmigración/historia , Emigración e Inmigración/tendencias , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Neurocirujanos/tendencias , Neurocirugia/tendencias , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/tendencias , Médicos Mujeres/tendencias
15.
J Clin Neurosci ; 86: 324-331, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558184

RESUMEN

A collaborative global working group of women neurosurgeons in multiple countries at different stages of their neurosurgical careers undertook the task of researching the history of European women in neurosurgery. While doing so, we happened upon many remarkable female neurosurgeons who overcame great adversity, made tremendous contributions to society and institutional neurosurgery, and displayed numerous talents beyond the operating room. In the first part of this paper, we recounted a chronology of female neurosurgeons in Europe, highlighting the most remarkable achievements of women in every decade, from the 1920's to 2020. In this paper, we honor fascinating women in European neurosurgery, both historical characters and living legends. These women have overcome great adversity and have also excelled in a huge variety of pursuits. While some were themselves refugees, we also have uncovered noteworthy examples of women who immersed themselves in humanitarian missions and who tried to better the world through political action. There are stories of women beating the odds, taking on biased institutions and proving their worth, in spite of the prevailing system. Most inspirational, we have discovered through our comprehensive research on the history of women in European neurosurgery that the future is increasingly female.


Asunto(s)
Liderazgo , Neurocirujanos/historia , Neurocirugia/historia , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/historia , Médicos Mujeres/historia , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Predicción , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Neurocirujanos/tendencias , Neurocirugia/tendencias , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/tendencias , Médicos Mujeres/tendencias
16.
J Neurooncol ; 151(3): 451-459, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611711

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was born in an attempt to treat complex intracranial pathologies in a fashion whereby open surgery would create unnecessary or excessive risk. To create this innovation, it was necessary to harness advances in other fields such as engineering, physics, radiology, and computer science. METHODS: We review the history of SRS to provide context to today's current state, as well as guide future advancement in the field. RESULTS: Since time of Lars Leksell, the young Swedish neurosurgeon who pioneered the development of the SRS, the collegial and essential partnership between neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists and physicists has given rise to radiosurgery as a prominent and successful tool in neurosurgical practice. CONCLUSION: We examine how neurosurgeons have helped foster the SRS evolution and how this evolution has impacted neurosurgical practice as well as that of radiation oncology and neuro-oncology.


Asunto(s)
Neurocirujanos , Neurocirugia/tendencias , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/tendencias , Radiocirugia/tendencias , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Neurocirugia/historia , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/historia , Radiocirugia/historia , Suecia
17.
World Neurosurg ; 148: 136-140, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444823

RESUMEN

Jacques Forestier (1890-1978) was a well-known rheumatologist and radiologist whose innovations have revolutionized spinal neurosurgery and rheumatology. He was well known as "Doctor Lipiodol" for his accidental discovery of spinal myelography, which he later extrapolated for use in many body cavities and their pathologies. He was the first to describe "senile ankylosing hyperostosis of the spine," which was later renamed "diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis." Furthermore, he is credited with the first use of gold salts as a disease-modifying therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. We have presented a historical vignette to chronicle the life of Jacques Forestier and his contributions to the field of spinal neurosurgery.


Asunto(s)
Neurocirugia/historia , Reumatología/historia , Columna Vertebral/cirugía , Artritis Reumatoide/tratamiento farmacológico , Francia , Compuestos de Oro/uso terapéutico , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Mielografía/historia , Columna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagen
18.
World Neurosurg ; 148: 129-135, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515798

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Medicine has made progress toward gender equality and has achieved almost equal distribution between men and women among graduates. However, more still needs to be done because most surgical subspecialties are still lacking adequate female representation and this persisting gender gap is particularly evident in both practical neurosurgery and the academic world. Gradual advancements have enabled a few women to pursue a successful career in neurologic surgery, pairing clinical practice with mentoring and involvement in academic research. These efforts show that more needs to be done to bridge the historic and current gap, which has recently aroused increasing interest among the neurosurgical community through internationally relevant studies. In neurosurgical societies worldwide, the existence of gender-related issues and women-reserved sections has started to attract attention and recognition on how to properly address this issue among present and future neurosurgeons. METHODS: In this study, we discuss the timeline of women's road to gaining their place in neurosurgery, inspired by Hippocrates' motto "Declare the past, diagnose the present, foretell the future." Although neurosurgery had been traditionally considered too difficult a subject in which to engage, the first female neurosurgeons challenged themselves in this field, previously reserved only for men, at a time when society was not yet ready to embrace women's presence. Their successes paved the way for future generations of women, progressively shedding light on complex themes such as peer considerations, difficulty in reaching academic positions, and work-life balance. RESULTS: Our aim is to analyze the historic reasons for inequality among men and women, which might be found in the themes of personal choice and willingness, aside from cultural bias or stereotypically based thinking. CONCLUSIONS: Accordingly, if the difference in numbers were considered a reality related to personal inclination, perhaps, nobody would pay attention to this topic and the presence of even a few women in neurosurgery would be considered less strange. By thinking along those lines on a daily basis, we could all simply write about the history of valuable neurosurgeons in the past, present, and future without any distinction between men and women.


Asunto(s)
Neurocirujanos/historia , Neurocirugia/historia , Médicos Mujeres/historia , Selección de Profesión , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Neurocirujanos/tendencias , Neurocirugia/tendencias , Médicos Mujeres/tendencias , Sexismo , Equilibrio entre Vida Personal y Laboral
19.
World Neurosurg ; 149: 32-37, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388461

RESUMEN

Modern neurosurgery has been developing worldwide for more than a century, whereas in China, as stated in previous literature, only 7 decades have passed since the development of neurosurgery during the early 1950s after World War II and China's War of Liberation. However, as increasing evidence before the wars from medical records, annual hospital reports, and journal archives emerge, the history of neurosurgery in China, especially the initial stage, needs to be reassessed. The establishment of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) in 1921, funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, marked the start of Western medicine in China. Meanwhile, modern neurosurgery started to take root in the nation. Chinese neurosurgeons at PUMCH, Song-Tao Guan, M.D. and Yi-Cheng Zhao, M.D., both of whom graduated from PUMC and received further training abroad, made great contributions to the initial growth of Chinese neurosurgery. Although neurosurgery experienced slow and even stagnant development in China during the wars that took place from 1941-1949, the prewar period from 1921-1940 witnessed substantial improvement in operative skills, bedside education, resident training, and scientific research in neurosurgery at PUMCH, providing indispensable contributions that have allowed Chinese neurosurgery to flourish during the past 7 decades.


Asunto(s)
Centros Médicos Académicos/historia , Neurocirugia/historia , Facultades de Medicina/historia , China , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
20.
World Neurosurg ; 145: 89-97, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916360

RESUMEN

Language localization has been an evolving concept over the past 150 years, with the emergence of several important yet conflicting ideologies. The classical theory, starting from the phrenologic work of Gall to the identification of specific regions of language function by Broca, Wernicke, and others, proposed that discrete subcomponents of language were organized into separate anatomic structural regions. The holism theory was postulated in an attempt to disclose that language function was instead attributed to a larger region of the cortex, in which cerebral regions may have the capability of assuming the function of damaged areas. However, this theory was largely abandoned in favor of discrete structural localizationist viewpoints. The subsequent cortical stimulatory work of Penfield led to the development of maps of localization, assigning an eloquent designation to specific regions. The expanding knowledge of cortical and subcortical anatomy allowed for the development of anatomically and functionally integrative language models. In particular, the dual stream model revisited the concept of regional interconnectivity and expanded the concept of eloquence. Advancements in cortical-subcortical stimulation, neurophysiologic monitoring, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging/functional magnetic resonance imaging, awake neurosurgical technique, and knowledge gained by white matter tract anatomy and the Human Connectome Project, shed new light on the dynamic interconnectivity of the cerebrum. New studies are progressively opening doors to this paradigm, showing the dynamic and interdependent nature of language function. In this review, the evolution of language toward the evolving paradigm of dynamic language function and interconnectivity and its impact on shaping the neurosurgical paradigm are outlined.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Lenguaje/historia , Encéfalo/anatomía & histología , Mapeo Encefálico , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Neurocirugia/historia , Neurocirugia/tendencias
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