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1.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(3): 218-235, 2020 May.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394820

RESUMEN

Do Children and Adolescents with Different Reasons for Admission Equally Benefit from Institutional Care? Currently, almost 150.000 children and adolescents are placed in institutional care in Germany with the aim to improve their living conditions. Various studies showed positive effects concerning the development of those institutionalized children and adolescents. Within the present study, 500 children and adolescents in institutional care were examined regarding the improvement of quality of life and social competencies during their care placement depending on the respective reason for admission (group A: admission due to mental health and behavior problems; group S: problems in the context of the school; group O: no mental health problems, but other reasons). Furthermore, differences in the development of children and adolescents who initiated the placement by themselves and those who did not were examined. Results show that over a period of 18-24 months, all three groups developed effectively equally. Group A had a lower initial level regarding quality of life and social competencies compared to group S and group O and therefore reached lower outcomes within the investigation period. Development was irrespective of whether or not children and adolescents initiated the institutional placement by themselves. The results demonstrate that all three groups were able to benefit from institutional care, although children and adolescents with mental health problems had a notable potential for further development.


Asunto(s)
Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/rehabilitación , Problema de Conducta/psicología , Calidad de Vida , Habilidades Sociales , Adolescente , Niño , Alemania , Humanos , Salud Mental
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 641-649, 2020 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907309

RESUMEN

Early childhood deprivation is associated with higher rates of neurodevelopmental and mental disorders in adulthood. The impact of childhood deprivation on the adult brain and the extent to which structural changes underpin these effects are currently unknown. To investigate these questions, we utilized MRI data collected from young adults who were exposed to severe deprivation in early childhood in the Romanian orphanages of the Ceaușescu era and then, subsequently adopted by UK families; 67 Romanian adoptees (with between 3 and 41 mo of deprivation) were compared with 21 nondeprived UK adoptees. Romanian adoptees had substantially smaller total brain volumes (TBVs) than nondeprived adoptees (8.6% reduction), and TBV was strongly negatively associated with deprivation duration. This effect persisted after covarying for potential environmental and genetic confounds. In whole-brain analyses, deprived adoptees showed lower right inferior frontal surface area and volume but greater right inferior temporal lobe thickness, surface area, and volume than the nondeprived adoptees. Right medial prefrontal volume and surface area were positively associated with deprivation duration. No deprivation-related effects were observed in limbic regions. Global reductions in TBV statistically mediated the observed relationship between institutionalization and both lower intelligence quotient (IQ) and higher levels of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The deprivation-related increase in right inferior temporal volume seemed to be compensatory, as it was associated with lower levels of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. We provide compelling evidence that time-limited severe deprivation in the first years of life is related to alterations in adult brain structure, despite extended enrichment in adoptive homes in the intervening years.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/patología , Encéfalo/patología , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Carencia Psicosocial , Adopción , Adulto , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/etiología , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Inteligencia , Pruebas de Inteligencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos , Orfanatos , Estudios Prospectivos , Rumanía , Factores de Tiempo , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5771, 2019 12 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852902

RESUMEN

Childhood adversity may sensitize certain individuals to later stress which triggers or amplifies psychopathology. The current study uses data from a longitudinal randomized controlled trial to examine whether severe early neglect among children reared in institutions increases vulnerability to the effects of later stressful life events on externalizing problems in adolescence, and whether social enrichment in the form of high-quality foster care buffers this risk. Children abandoned to Romanian institutions were randomly assigned to a foster care intervention or care-as-usual during early childhood. A sample of never-institutionalized children served as a comparison group. Here we report that, among those with prolonged institutional rearing, more stressful life events in preadolescence predicted higher externalizing problems in adolescence. This effect was not observed for never-institutionalized children or those in foster care, thus providing experimental evidence that positive caregiving experiences protect against the stress-sensitizing effects of childhood neglect on externalizing problems in adolescence.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Adultos Sobrevivientes de Eventos Adversos Infantiles/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Cuidados en el Hogar de Adopción/métodos , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Adultos Sobrevivientes de Eventos Adversos Infantiles/psicología , Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Niño , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Rumanía/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto Joven
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 129, 2019 04 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039767

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are an important issue among institutionalized children. Although positive communication with parents is essential for children's well-being, it has not been sufficiently verified how interactions with parents affect mental health among institutionalized children, who have experienced childhood adversity and likely lack secure attachment formation with their parents. The objectives of this study were to investigate the association between parental visitation and depressive symptoms among institutionalized children in Japan, and to explore whether the established security of attachment interacts with that association. METHODS: A cross-sectional data from 399 institutionalized children aged 9 to 18 in Japan was used for the analysis. A mixed effects regression analysis was conducted to investigate the associations. RESULTS: Institutionalized children who had parental visitation showed higher depressive symptoms than those who did not. In particular, father's visitations were significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms. There was a significant interaction with score of secure attachment; children with low scores on secure attachment showed higher levels of depression with their father's visitation, whereas children with high scores on secure attachment did not. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggested that parental visitation and the frequency of visitation were not actually associated with better psychological status, but that instead, father's visitations were associated with higher depressive symptoms among institutionalized children. It should be noted that our cross-sectional results cannot infer any causal relationship and do not emphasize that parental visitation should be avoided. However, it may be important to conduct careful assessment before starting parental visitation, especially when children seem to have problems with attachment formation.


Asunto(s)
Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Visitas a Pacientes/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Salud Mental , Padres/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Neural Plast ; 2019: 1676285, 2019 01 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774652

RESUMEN

Experience plays an essential role in building brain architecture after birth. The question we address in this paper is what happens to brain and behavior when a young child is deprived of key experiences during critical periods of brain development. We focus in particular on the consequences of institutional rearing, with implication for the tens of millions of children around the world who from an early age experience profound psychosocial deprivation. Evidence is clear that deprivation can lead to a host of both short- and long-term consequences, including perturbations in brain structure and function, changes at cellular and molecular levels, and a plethora of psychological and behavioral impairments.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Carencia Psicosocial , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos
6.
Brain Behav Immun ; 77: 168-177, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639443

RESUMEN

The developing immune system is an adaptive system, primed by antigens, responsive to infectious pathogens, and can be affected by other aspects of the early rearing environment, including deviations from the normal provision of parental care. We investigated whether early rearing in an institutional setting, even when followed by years living in supportive and well-resourced families, would be associated with a persistent shift in T cell profiles. Immunophenotyping was used to enumerate CD4+ CD57+ and CD8+ CD57+ subsets, with gating strategies employed to differentiate naïve, central-memory, effector-memory, and terminally differentiated EM cells expressing CD45RA (TEMRA). Blood samples were collected from 96 adolescents, and PBMC isolated via Ficol gradient, followed by an optimized immunophenotypic characterization. CMV antibody titers were determined via ELISA. Adopted adolescents had lower CD4/CD8 ratios than did the control adolescents. Early rearing had a significant effect on the T cells, especially the CD8+ CD57+ CM, EM, and TEMRA cells and the CD4+ CD57+ EM cells. Adolescents who had spent their infancy in institutions before adoption were more likely to be seropositive for CMV, with higher antibody titers. CMV antibody titers were significantly correlated with the percentages of all CD8+ CD57+ cell subsets. In the statistical modeling, CMV antibody titer also completely mediated the relationship between institutional exposure and the ratio of CD4-to-CD8 cells, as well as the percentages of CD4+ CD57+ and CD8+ CD57+ subsets. These findings demonstrate that persistent immune differences are still evident even years after adoption by supportive American families. The shift in the T cells was associated with being a latent carrier of CMV and may reflect the role of specific T cell subsets in Herpes virus containment. In older adults, sustained CMV antigen persistence and immunoregulatory containment ultimately contributes to an accumulation of differentiated T cells with a decreased proliferative capacity and to immune senescence.


Asunto(s)
Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Memoria Inmunológica/inmunología , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Adolescente , Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/inmunología , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/inmunología , Niño Adoptado/psicología , Citomegalovirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Citomegalovirus/inmunología , Femenino , Humanos , Agencias Internacionales , Leucocitos Mononucleares/inmunología , Activación de Linfocitos , Masculino , Subgrupos de Linfocitos T/inmunología , Adulto Joven
7.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 50(3): 425-438, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368618

RESUMEN

Recent approaches have begun to identify common variance across co-occurring childhood adversities (CAs) and their associations with symptoms of psychopathology. However, few studies have investigated these questions in high-risk samples, and in different cultural contexts. This study examined common variance amongst 18 types of CAs and associated symptomatology in 457 children and adolescents living in 24 residential homes in Japan. Principal component analysis identified four significant components that explained 35.1% of the variance: parental abuse, parental psychosocial risks, parental absence, and parental neglect. Path analysis revealed general as well as differential associations with negative outcomes: parental abuse, parental neglect, and parental psychosocial risks significantly associated with conduct problems, whereas parental abuse uniquely associated with peer problems, and parental neglect with hyperactivity/inattention. As well as confirming prior knowledge, these findings also extended understanding of these associations to a new cultural context. Future studies should take into account the multidimensional nature when assessing CAs.


Asunto(s)
Adolescente Institucionalizado , Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia/estadística & datos numéricos , Hijo de Padres Discapacitados , Niño Institucionalizado , Trastornos Mentales , Adolescente , Adolescente Institucionalizado/psicología , Adolescente Institucionalizado/estadística & datos numéricos , Síntomas Conductuales/diagnóstico , Síntomas Conductuales/psicología , Niño , Hijo de Padres Discapacitados/psicología , Hijo de Padres Discapacitados/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Niño Institucionalizado/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Padres , Psicopatología
8.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(4): 1477-1487, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588896

RESUMEN

Early institutional rearing is associated with increased risk for subsequent peer relationship difficulties, but the underlying mechanisms have not been identified. Friendship characteristics, social behaviors with peers, normed assessments of social problems, and social cue use were assessed in 142 children (mean age = 10.06, SD = 2.02; range 7-13 years), of whom 67 were previously institutionalized (PI), and 75 were raised by their biological families. Anxiety and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, often elevated among PI children, were examined as potential mediators of PI status and baseline social functioning and longitudinal follow-ups (2 and 4 years later). Twenty-seven percent of PI children fell above the Child Behavior Checklist Social Problems cutoff. An examination of specific social behaviors with peers indicated that PI and comparison children did not differ in empathic concern or peer social approach, though parents were more likely to endorse aggression/overarousal as a reason that PI children might struggle with friendships. Comparison children outperformed PI children in computerized testing of social cue use learning. Finally, across these measures, social difficulties exhibited in the PI group were mediated by ADHD symptoms with predicted social problems assessed 4 years later. These findings show that, when PI children struggle with friendships, mechanisms involving attention and behavior regulation are likely contributors.


Asunto(s)
Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Amigos/psicología , Ajuste Social , Conducta Social , Adolescente , Agresión/psicología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Paritario
9.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 40: e20180412, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043033

RESUMEN

Abstract Objective: To know the caregiver's perception about the work/care with the institutionalized child. Methods: Qualitative research that used the Theory of Attachment and Symbolic Interactionism as theoretical references and the Grounded Theory as a methodological reference. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 15 caregivers of a child sheltering institution, in the year 2015. The analysis was performed from the open coding and categorization. Results: Care work aims to meet the needs of institutionalized children, focusing on food, hygiene and education. In addition, it is little recognized, which generates a feeling of devaluation in caregivers. Conclusions: Continued qualification and support to the caregivers is indispensable for elaborating more effective and integral work/care strategies.


Resumen Objetivo: Conocer la percepción del cuidador acerca del trabajo/cuidado con el niño institucionalizado. Métodos: Investigación cualitativa que utilizó la Teoría del Apego y el Interaccionismo Simbólico como referenciales teóricos y la Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos como referencial metodológico. Se recolectaron los datos a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas con 15 cuidadoras de una institución de acogida infantil en el año 2015. Se realizó el análisis a partir de la codificación y la categorización. Resultados: El trabajo del cuidado busca atender las necesidades de los niños institucionalizados, enfocándose en la alimentación, la higiene y la educación. Además, es poco reconocido, lo que genera un sentimiento de desvalorización en las cuidadoras. Conclusiones: La calificación continuada y el apoyo a las cuidadoras son indispensables para elaborar estrategias de trabajo/cuidado más efectivas e integrales.


Resumo Objetivo: Conhecer a percepção do cuidador acerca do trabalho/cuidado com a criança institucionalizada. Métodos: Pesquisa qualitativa que utilizou a Teoria do Apego e o Interacionismo Simbólico como referenciais teóricos e a Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados como referencial metodológico. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com 15 cuidadoras de uma instituição de acolhimento infantil, no ano de 2015. A análise foi realizada a partir da codificação e categorização. Resultados: O trabalho do cuidado visa atender às necessidades das crianças institucionalizadas, focando na alimentação, higiene e educação. Além disso, é pouco reconhecido o que gera um sentimento de desvalorização nas cuidadoras. Conclusões: a qualificação continuada e o suporte às cuidadoras são indispensáveis para a elaboração de estratégias de trabalho/cuidado mais efetivas e integrais.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Cuidadores/psicología , Percepción , Salarios y Beneficios , Cuidado del Niño/organización & administración , Desarrollo Infantil , Niño Institucionalizado/educación , Investigación Cualitativa , Teoría Fundamentada , Relaciones Interpersonales , Actividades Recreativas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Apego a Objetos
10.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 71(suppl 6): 2650-2658, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540040

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to understand the perspective of caregivers about the formation and disruption of bonds with institutionalized children. METHOD: a qualitative research that used as a theoretical framework the Attachment Theory and the Symbolic Interactionism, and the Grounded Theory as methodological framework. Participating in the study were 15 female caregivers of children aged zero to three years, from a child care institution in the south of Brazil, from April to July 2015. RESULTS: three categories were elaborated: "Experiencing the formation of bond and attachment"; "Disrupting with the established bonds and detaching"; "Learning how to work with formation and disruption of bond". FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: we need to think of ways to minimize the negative effects formation and disruption of bonds. In this sense, active listening and the offer of psychological support favor the sharing of experiences and the emotional strengthening of the female caregivers.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Brasil , Niño , Servicios de Salud del Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Teoría Fundamentada , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa
11.
Infant Ment Health J ; 39(6): 718-729, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339735

RESUMEN

The present study is focused on child socioemotional problems 6 months after institutionalization, by considering the putative predictive role of child maltreatment, of developmental functioning at admission and the following months, and of the quality of institutional relational care. Fifty institutionalized infants and toddlers participated in this study. Child developmental functioning (i.e., cognitive, language, and motor development) was assessed at admission to the institution (Wave 0), and 3 (Wave 1) and 6 months (Wave 2) thereafter. The quality of institutional relational care-operationalized in terms of caregivers' sensitivity and cooperation-was measured at Wave 2. Caregivers reported on the presence of disturbed socioemotional behaviors at Wave 2. Child gestational age, birth weight, age, and stunted growth at admission to the institution served as covariates. Results revealed significant associations between socioemotional difficulties and lower levels of motor development at Waves 0 and 1, child maltreatment, and less sensitive caregiving. A logistic regression showed that child maltreatment and caregiver insensitivity were the only significant predictors of disturbed socioemotional functioning by the end of 6 months of institutionalization.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/rehabilitación , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/etiología , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/prevención & control , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/psicología , Preescolar , Ajuste Emocional , Femenino , Trastornos del Crecimiento/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Crecimiento/etiología , Humanos , Lactante , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Autoimagen
12.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 67(6): 529-548, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182823

RESUMEN

Symptoms of Attachment Disorder, Behavioral Regulation and Physiological Stress in Institutionalized Children The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of attachment status (availability of a specific caregiver) and caregiving quality on behavioral and physiological adaptation and attachment disorder in institutionalized children. In a sample of children from a Georgian children's home, attachment disorder symptoms were assessed by interview and attachment and exploration behavior as well as self-regulatory behavior were assessed by observation in the natural group setting as well in structured dyadic situations. The child circadian cortisol level was determined to assess physiological adaption. Quality of caregiving was assessed in terms of sensitivity by observation. While attachment status affected the occurrence of attachment disorder symptoms and physiological stress, patterns of regulation in terms of attachment-exploration-balance and self-regulatory behavior were predicted by caregiver sensitivity.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/diagnóstico , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Trastorno de Vinculación Reactiva/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/complicaciones , Niño , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/fisiopatología , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/psicología , Preescolar , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiología , Conducta Exploratoria/fisiología , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Lactante , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Orfanatos , Determinación de la Personalidad , Trastorno de Vinculación Reactiva/fisiopatología , Trastorno de Vinculación Reactiva/psicología , Autocontrol/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/fisiopatología
13.
Psychiatr Pol ; 52(2): 345-353, 2018 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés, Polaco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975371

RESUMEN

Emergence of mental health problems in childhood can seriously affect further development of a man and thus hamper his adaptation to adult life. Children in residential institutions may be particularly vulnerable at risk of abnormal mental development, this includes so-called 'children's homes'. In the article we present an overview of the few studies carried out so far in the European residential institutions, including children's homes, over the years 1940-2011 in the UK, Germany, Romania, and Poland. Firstly, we briefly describe a classic research carried out in the world in the 1940s among children from children's homes. Secondly, we present a study conducted in the UK among children and youth from different age groups staying in residential institutions, including children's homes. Then we focus on studies carried out among children and adolescents form German residential institutions and on a group of preschool children from Romanian children's homes. At the end of the article we describe the first epidemiological study carried out in Poland on the population of children and young people staying in children's homes in Warsaw. The review of researches shows that children from day-care facilities are a population with a high prevalence of psychiatric disorder. Children and youth staying in residential institutions probably require specialized psychiatric, psychological and psychotherapeutic care.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/epidemiología , Niño Abandonado/psicología , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Cuidados en el Hogar de Adopción/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/psicología , Niño Abandonado/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño Institucionalizado/estadística & datos numéricos , Preescolar , Femenino , Cuidados en el Hogar de Adopción/estadística & datos numéricos , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Orfanatos , Polonia , Prevalencia , Roma , Reino Unido
14.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 16(1): 151, 2018 Jul 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055631

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A good quality of life (QOL) is important for the physical and mental well-being of all children. However, young people who live in an institutional setting may face different challenges than those who are raised in a traditional family. While a few quantitative studies of institutionalized children's QOL have been conducted, no research has investigated the QOL of young people living in Children's Homes (CHs) in Japan. This research compared the QOL of children and adolescents in Japan who live in CHs with that of children and adolescents living in traditional families. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2016 with 204 students (grades three through nine), 47 of whom lived in a CH, and 157 of whom lived in a traditional family. Ages ranged from 8 to 15 years (CH: 55.8% Female, 44.2% Male; Traditional: 54.1% Female, 45.9% Male). Participants answered the kid-Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (Translated from German: Children's quality of life questionnaire; KINDL®) Japanese Version, which covers six subscales of QOL; they filled in the questionnaires at home. Analysis of variance was used to compare QOL between the two samples. RESULTS: The total QOL score for all students (combined elementary school students and junior high school students) from CHs was statistically significantly lower than that for students from traditional families. Scores for the subscales, emotional well-being and family, were also significantly lower for CH young people than for those in traditional families. While elementary pupils in CHs reported lower QOL than those in traditional families, no significant differences in QOL were seen between junior high school students from CHs and their peers from traditional families. CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented support previous research showing that the QOL of elementary school students living in CHs is significantly lower than that of their peers in traditional families. However, this difference was not observed among junior high school students. This contrast suggests that QOL changes with age. Future research is needed to evaluate the determinants of QOL among all generations and family contexts.


Asunto(s)
Adolescente Institucionalizado/psicología , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Familia/psicología , Orfanatos , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Traducciones
15.
Infant Ment Health J ; 39(4): 432-448, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953627

RESUMEN

The current study addressed whether two institution-wide interventions in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, that increased caregiver sensitivity (Training Only: TO) or both caregiver sensitivity and consistency (Training plus Structural Changes: T+SC) promoted better socioemotional and cognitive development than did a No Intervention (NoI) institution during the first year of life for children who were placed soon after birth. It also assessed whether having spent less than 9 versus 9 to 36 months with a family prior to institutionalization was related to children's subsequent socioemotional and cognitive development within these three institutions. The Battelle Developmental Inventory (J. Newborg, J.R. Stock, L. Wnek, J. Guidubaldi, & J. Svinicki, 1988) was used to assess the socioemotional and cognitive functioning of children in NoI (n = 95), TO (n = 104), and T+SC (n = 86) at two to three time points during their first 6 to 12 months of residency. Results suggest that improving caregiver sensitivity can improve the cognitive development of infants in the first year of institutionalization whereas improving caregiver consistency in addition to sensitivity is more beneficial for socioemotional development than is sensitivity alone. Similarly, for children in T+SC, longer time with a family prior to institutionalization (consistent caregiver, unknown sensitivity) was associated with better socioemotional, but not cognitive, baseline scores and more rapid cognitive than socioemotional development during institutionalization. These results suggest caregiver sensitivity is more highly related to cognitive development whereas caregiver consistency is more related to socioemotional development in the first years of life.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Crianza del Niño/psicología , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Familia/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Federación de Rusia
16.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 96: 93-99, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29920425

RESUMEN

This study examined the association between early life adversity, in the form of early rearing in an institution (orphanage), and the slope of cortisol in the first thirty minutes after waking in 277 children, aged 7 through 15 years old, who had either been adopted between 6 and 60 months of age into well-resourced homes in the United States or born into similar homes. The adopted youth were divided at the median (age 16 months) into those adopted earlier (earlier-adopted, EA) and later (later-adopted, LA). The purpose of this study was to examine the post-waking slope in cortisol in post-institutionalized youth, predicting that it would be blunted, especially in later-adopted youth, when compared to the non-adopted (NA) youth. A secondary goal was to examine whether there would be some evidence of less blunting of the first 30 min of the cortisol awakening response among the children further along in pubertal development (i.e., Pubertal Recalibration Hypothesis). Pubertal stage was determined by nurse exam. Salivary cortisol was assessed at 0 and 30-min post-awakening on three days. The results showed that LA children had a blunted wake-30 min cortisol slope relative to NA and EA children. Neither the age by group nor pubertal stage by group analyses were significant. However, the majority of the sample were in early stages of puberty (56% in stages 1 & 2), thus the power was low for detecting such an interaction. This is the first year of a cohort-sequential longitudinal study examining early experiences and pubertal influences on the HPA axis, so it will be important to re-examine this question as the sample ages.


Asunto(s)
Niño Adoptado/psicología , Hidrocortisona/fisiología , Estrés Psicológico/metabolismo , Adolescente , Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Factores de Edad , Niño , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análisis , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisario/metabolismo , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Orfanatos , Sistema Hipófiso-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Vigilia/fisiología
17.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198123, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856806

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The psychological care of abused children in the child protection system is an urgent issue in Japan. Child abuse has a serious impact on children's emotion and behavior, but there is virtually no evidence about how child abuse affects sleep, which is closely related to behavioral and emotional control. In this study, we sought to identify sleep habits and suspected sleep disorders among abused children and adolescents admitted to residential care facilities in Japan and to investigate their association with emotional and behavioral problems. METHODS: The study targeted 273 abused children and adolescents (age range: 4 to 15 years) who had been admitted to a residential care facility in Japan. They were assessed by physicians and other personnel at facilities with expertise in childcare and abuse. Respondents completed a brief sleep questionnaire on the incidence of problematic sleep habits and suspected sleep disorders as well as a questionnaire on emotional and behavioral issues. RESULTS: Approximately 40% of the abused children and adolescents had some sleep-related symptoms at bedtime and waking, and 19% had suspected sleep disorder. Abused children with emotional and behavioral problems had a significantly higher incidence of suspected sleep disorders than abused children without such problems, and this incidence was particularly high among those with antisocial behavior and depressive behavior. Our predictive model also showed that antisocial behavior and depressive behavior were significant predictors of suspected sleep disorders. CONCLUSION: Careful assessment and appropriate therapeutic intervention for sleep disorders are required in abused children and adolescents with emotional and behavioral problems.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Síntomas Afectivos/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/psicología , Conducta Infantil , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Psicología del Adolescente , Psicología Infantil , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/psicología , Adolescente , Síntomas Afectivos/epidemiología , Síntomas Afectivos/etiología , Niño , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/etiología , Servicios de Protección Infantil , Preescolar , Trastorno Depresivo/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo/etiología , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Femenino , Hábitos , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Higiene del Sueño , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/etiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196685, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723234

RESUMEN

The impact of children's interactions with parents in the context of out-of-home placements is receiving much-needed cross-disciplinary attention. However, the paucity of instruments that can reliably represent young children's experiences of such interactions precludes a nuanced evaluation of their impact on wellbeing and development. In response to this empirical gap, the present study investigates children's relational withdrawal as a clinically salient, easily observable and conceptually valid measure of infants' and toddlers' responses to parents. Relational withdrawal, challenging behaviors and salivary cortisol were assessed before, during and after parental visits. Conceptually, the findings suggest that observations of relational withdrawal correlate meaningfully with measure of neurobiological reactivity. Clinically, three profiles of cross-variable responses in children appeared, distinguishing between groups that experience increased, decreased or unchanged levels of stress in response to parental visits. Taken together, the findings lend empirical support to systematic observations of relational withdrawal to bolster evaluations of young children's experience of parental visitation during out-of-home placements.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil , Niño Acogido/psicología , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Conducta del Lactante , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/etiología , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/psicología , Custodia del Niño , Servicios de Protección Infantil , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análisis , Lactante , Masculino , Saliva/química , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/metabolismo , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control
19.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 67(4): 333-350, 2018 May.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716468

RESUMEN

Observation of Attachment Disorder Symptoms in Middle Childhood Attachment in childhood is mainly assessed by observation. In contrast, assessment of attachment disorder symptoms (RAD) is mainly based on caregiver reports. The present study uses a newly developed observation tool (Coding of Attachment Disorder Behavior in Children; Iwanski u. Zimmermann, 2013) to assess attachment disorder symptoms in a group of school-aged children from a risk group for the development of attachment disorder symptoms and non-clinical controls. In addition, caregiver reports on RAD symptoms are also assessed (Relationship Problems Questionnaire; Minnis, Rabe-Hesketh, Wolkind, 2002; Disturbances of Attachment Interview; Smyke u. Zeanah, 1999). Moreover, associations with children's self-concept (Harter, 2012) were studied. Results reveal that children at risk showed more inhibited and disinhibited attachment disorder symptoms and a more negative self-concept compared to non-clinical controls. RAD symptoms are shown in interaction with both the caregiver and a stranger. The use of a reliable and valid observation tool for the diagnostic of attachment disorder symptoms besides ratings of caregivers is recommended for clinical practice and research.


Asunto(s)
Determinación de la Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastorno de Vinculación Reactiva/diagnóstico , Niño , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Femenino , Cuidados en el Hogar de Adopción/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Observación , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Psicometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastorno de Vinculación Reactiva/psicología , Valores de Referencia , Factores de Riesgo , Autoimagen
20.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 59(7): 811-821, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29389015

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Experiences in early life lay the foundation for later development and functioning. Severe psychosocial deprivation, as experienced by children in early institutional care, constitutes an adverse experience with long-term negative consequences. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project sought to examine the effects of foster care as an alternative to institutional care for abandoned infants in Romanian institutions. METHODS: At a mean age of 22 months, institutionalized children were randomized to foster care or care as usual. At age 12 years, we followed-up with 98 of these children (50 randomized to foster care), as well as assessed 49 never institutionalized comparison children. Adaptive functioning was assessed across seven domains-mental health, physical health, substance use, risk-taking behavior, family relations, peer relations, and academic performance. Children at or above the threshold for adaptive functioning in at least six of seven domains were classified as having overall adaptive functioning in early adolescence. RESULTS: Among all children who had experienced severe early deprivation, 40% exhibited adaptive functioning. Children randomized to foster care were significantly more likely to exhibit adaptive functioning at age 12 years than children in the care as usual condition (56% vs. 23%). In support of external validity, children who met the threshold for adaptive functioning at age 12 years had higher IQs and were more physiologically responsive to stress. Among children randomized to foster care, children placed prior to age 20 months were more likely to meet the threshold for adaptive functioning than those placed after this age (79% vs. 46%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides causal evidence that placing children into families following severe deprivation increases the likelihood of adaptive functioning in early adolescence.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Cuidados en el Hogar de Adopción/psicología , Inteligencia/fisiología , Carencia Psicosocial , Habilidades Sociales , Estrés Fisiológico/fisiología , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Rumanía
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