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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 159, 2021.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539956

RESUMEN

COVID-19 pandemic has posed huge challenges for the health system in Africa; however they haven´t been well quantified. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on curative and preventive activities in health care facilities at 17 integrated health centers in Niamey by comparing the first half of 2020 and the first half of 2019. The differences were more pronounced in the second quarter of 2020, with a 34% reduction (95% CI: -47% to -21%) for curative care, 61% (95% CI: -74% to -48%) for pentavalent vaccines 1 and 3 and 36% (95% CI: -49% to -23%) for VAR 1. A nearly zero gain of 1% (95% IC: -2% to 4%) was reported for prenatal care attendance, thus reversing the gains of the first quarter. The COVID-19 pandemic has had negative effects on service deliveries to the most vulnerable groups, such as women and children. New strategies, such as community engagement, are essential.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Atención a la Salud/organización & administración , Niño , Atención a la Salud/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Niger , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Poblaciones Vulnerables
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 171: 112714, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333305

RESUMEN

Thirty cores to maximum depth of 3.7 m were taken in 2018 to investigate sedimentary characteristics and hydrocarbon penetration within mangrove sediments in Bodo (southeastern Niger Delta), an area contaminated by numerous ongoing oil spills but most significantly in 2008. Sediments were dominated by organically rich (Chikoko) mud underlain by clay with sandier sediments at deeper core depths and adjacent to shorelines. Analysis of 202 samples showed high median hydrocarbon concentrations at the surface (39,000 mg/kg) and shallow subsurface (10-25 cm, 25,000 mg/kg), decreasing with depth: 430 mg/kg at 40-70 cm; 157 mg/kg at 75-120 cm, and <30 mg/kg at depths ≥150 cm. Most (85%) EPA-16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and all monoaromatics were below detection limit. Shallow subsurface oil penetration was aided by crab burrows and presence of mangrove remnants and was inhibited from deeper depths by groundwater at ~25 cm and increased sediment compaction.


Asunto(s)
Petróleo , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Niger , Nigeria , Petróleo/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
3.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372565

RESUMEN

More than a year after the first identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as the causative agent of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China, the emergence and spread of genomic variants of this virus through travel raise concerns regarding the introduction of lineages in previously unaffected regions, requiring adequate containment strategies. Concomitantly, such introductions fuel worries about a possible increase in transmissibility and disease severity, as well as a possible decrease in vaccine efficacy. Military personnel are frequently deployed on missions around the world. As part of a COVID-19 risk mitigation strategy, Belgian Armed Forces that engaged in missions and operations abroad were screened (7683 RT-qPCR tests), pre- and post-mission, for the presence of SARS-CoV-2, including the identification of viral lineages. Nine distinct viral genotypes were identified in soldiers returning from operations in Niger, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Afghanistan, and Mali. The SARS-CoV-2 variants belonged to major clades 19B, 20A, and 20B (Nextstrain nomenclature), and included "variant of interest" B.1.525, "variant under monitoring" A.27, as well as lineages B.1.214, B.1, B.1.1.254, and A (pangolin nomenclature), some of which are internationally monitored due to the specific mutations they harbor. Through contact tracing and phylogenetic analysis, we show that isolation and testing policies implemented by the Belgian military command appear to have been successful in containing the influx and transmission of these distinct SARS-CoV-2 variants into military and civilian populations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/virología , Personal Militar , SARS-CoV-2/clasificación , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Afganistán/epidemiología , Bélgica , COVID-19/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Genoma Viral , Genómica , Humanos , Malí/epidemiología , Epidemiología Molecular , Mutación , Niger/epidemiología , Filogenia , Viaje , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
4.
Gene ; 803: 145899, 2021 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400278

RESUMEN

Small-sized and trypanotolerant West African taurine (Bos taurus) cattle are a unique case of human-mediated process of adaptation to a challenging environment. Extensive gene flow with Sahelian zebu (B. indicus), bigger and with some resistance to tick attack, occurred for centuries and allowed the apparition of stable crossbred populations (sanga) having intermediate characteristics. Up to 237 individuals belonging to 10 different taurine, zebu and sanga cattle populations sampled in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger were typed using the BovineHD BeadChip of Illumina to identify signatures of selection, assessed using three different Extended-Haplotype-Homozygosity-based statistics, overlapping with ancient, originated 1024 or 2048 generations ago, Homozygosity-By-Descent segments in the cattle genome. Candidate genomic regions were defined ensuring their importance within cattle type and using zebu as reference. Functional annotation analysis identified four statistically significant Annotation Clusters in taurine cattle (from ACt1 to ACt4), one (ACs1) in sanga, and another (ACz1) in zebu cattle, fitting well with expectations. ACt1 included genes primarily associated with innate immunity; ACt2 involved bitter taste receptor genes of importance to adaptation to changing environments; ACt3 included 68 genes coding ATP-binding proteins, some of them located on trypanotolerance-related QTL regions, that can partially underlie immune response and the additive mechanism of trypanotolerance; ACt4 was associated with growth and small size (NPPC gene); ACs1 included genes involved in immune response; and ACz1 is related with ectoparasite resistance. Our results provide a new set of genomic areas and candidate genes giving new insights on the genomic impact of adaptation in West African cattle.


Asunto(s)
Inmunidad Adaptativa , Bovinos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo , Adaptación Fisiológica , Animales , Benin , Burkina Faso , Resistencia a la Enfermedad , Flujo Génico , Niger , Fitomejoramiento , Selección Genética
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1490, 2021 08 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340668

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In early March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic hit West Africa. In response, countries in the region quickly set up crisis management committees and implemented drastic measures to stem the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The objective of this article is to analyse the epidemiological evolution of COVID-19 in seven Francophone West African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal) as well as the public health measures decided upon during the first 7 months of the pandemic. METHODS: Our method is based on quantitative and qualitative data from the pooling of information from a COVID-19 data platform and collected by a network of interdisciplinary collaborators present in the seven countries. Descriptive and spatial analyses of quantitative epidemiological data, as well as content analyses of qualitative data on public measures and management committees were performed. RESULTS: Attack rates (October 2020) for COVID-19 have ranged from 20 per 100,000 inhabitants (Benin) to more than 94 per 100,000 inhabitants (Senegal). All these countries reacted quickly to the crisis, in some cases before the first reported infection, and implemented public measures in a relatively homogeneous manner. None of the countries implemented country-wide lockdowns, but some implemented partial or local containment measures. At the end of June 2020, countries began to lift certain restrictive measures, sometimes under pressure from the general population or from certain economic sectors. CONCLUSION: Much research on COVID-19 remains to be conducted in West Africa to better understand the dynamics of the pandemic, and to further examine the state responses to ensure their appropriateness and adaptation to the national contexts.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , África Occidental/epidemiología , Benin , Burkina Faso , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Costa de Marfil , Guinea , Humanos , Malí/epidemiología , Niger , SARS-CoV-2 , Senegal/epidemiología
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 579, 2021 Aug 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398331

RESUMEN

The concentrations of 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in soils collected at three depths from thirteen different sites along the floodplain of the lower reaches of the River Niger (LRRN) in Nigeria. The aim of the study was to provide data on the levels of contamination, sources of the contaminants, and risks to the ecosystem and humans. Soil samples were Soxhlet extracted with a solvent mixture of dichloromethane (DCM)/n-hexane and cleaned up on a column packed with Florisil and silica gel. The PCBs in the samples were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Æ©28 PCB concentrations in the floodplain soils varied between not detected (nd) and 11,151 ng g-1 for different sampling sites and depths. The PCB concentrations and homologue distribution patterns in soil profiles of the floodplain of the LRRN showed remarkable differences with respect to sites and depths. The results obtained were used to evaluate the ecological and human health risks, which indicated that there is a potential risk to organisms and humans from exposure to PCBs in these soil profiles. The source evaluation as determined by principal component analysis suggested that PCBs in these soil profiles came from burnt circuit boards, cable wires, use of paints, discharges from transformers, long-range migration, and deposition.


Asunto(s)
Bifenilos Policlorados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Niger , Nigeria , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Ríos , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
7.
Brain Behav ; 11(8): e2301, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291611

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate epilepsy management at the regional hospital center (RHC) of Tahoua (Niger) to determine the intrahospital deficiencies to optimize to improve the management of people with epilepsy. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective study was carried out at the Psychiatric Unit of the RHC of Tahoua between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2019. We collected from the registers of consultation all patients followed by nurse technicians in mental health for epilepsy whose diagnosis was made by nonspecialist physicians or internists. The study included patients with epilepsy who had a medical follow-up at least 6 months. RESULTS: Of the 2022 patients seen during the period of the study, 246 patients were consulted for epilepsy with a hospital frequency of 12.2%. The mean age was 22.38 years, with a slight predominance of men (57.7%). Only generalized tonic-clonic seizures (95.1%) and focal-aware seizures (4.9%) were reported. The main etiologies were cerebral malaria (18.7%), bacterial meningitis (8.1%), and head trauma (4.9%). In 60.2% of cases, the etiology was undetermined, but the etiological diagnosis investigation was incomplete (CT scan not done). Only the first-generation antiepileptic drugs were used. Only 2.8% of the patients had drug-resistant epilepsy, and 97.2% of the patients had controlled seizures. CONCLUSION: The study shows a predominance of infectious causes, particularly cerebral malaria. We found a high proportion of epilepsies with unknown etiologies with incomplete workup. The RHC of Tahoua should facilitate access to the CT scan for people with epilepsy to improve etiological diagnosis investigation.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapéutico , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Epilepsia/etiología , Hospitales , Humanos , Masculino , Niger , Estudios Retrospectivos , Convulsiones/tratamiento farmacológico , Convulsiones/epidemiología , Convulsiones/etiología , Adulto Joven
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(7): 1022-1027, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290178

RESUMEN

Background: Infertility is a public health challenge and it is a distressing personal tragedy for couples, more so for the female partners. Risk factors and causes of infertility vary from region to region. Reactive species is of current interest in the pathogenesis and management of infertility, especially in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria where environmental hazards of oil exploration exists. Aim: The overall goal of this study was to determine and compare the serum reactive species levels (nitric oxide) in fertile and infertile women attending the infertility clinic at the Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara, and Central Hospital, Warri. Methods: This was a prospective case-control study in which 70 women evaluated for infertility were recruited into the study. A fertile patient matched for age and body mass index (BMI) attending family planning clinic was selected as control. Serum nitric oxide estimation was done using the BioVision Nitric Oxide Colorimetric Assay Kit. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Student's t-test was applied to compare the serum levels of nitric acid and the differences were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results: Infertile women had significantly higher mean serum nitric oxide levels than fertile women: 34.33 (SD 5.93) µmol/L versus 18.27 (SD 2.63) µmol/L (P < 0.001). Women with secondary infertility had significantly higher mean levels of nitric oxide than those with primary infertility: 38.13 (SD 3.39) µmol/L versus 22.72 (SD 4.36) µmol/L (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The study showed that serum nitric oxide level was significantly elevated in women with infertility compared to women of proven fertility. Hence, oxidative stress from reactive species may be a contributory factor to infertility in women in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria.


Asunto(s)
Infertilidad Femenina , Óxido Nítrico , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Infertilidad Femenina/epidemiología , Niger , Nigeria , Estudios Prospectivos
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 528, 2021 Jul 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322744

RESUMEN

Canalization carried out during petroleum exploration is contributing to environmental changes in the Niger Delta. We carried out a study on five decades of canalization in Olero Creek, Benin River, from 1980 to 2020. The study site covered an area of 36.40 km2. Satellite imageries of five epochs (1980, 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020) and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) of 2000, which provided digital elevation models (DEMs) of the study area were collected and analyzed using ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 and ArcGIS 10.6 software. We found that the total length of dredged canal increased from 14.14 km in 1980 to 61.07 km in 2020, spoil banks doubled from 2.05 km2 in 1980 to 4.13 km2 in 2020, and direct wetland loss doubled from 3.76 km2 in 1980 to 7.57 km2 in 2020, with the largest increase occurring between 1990 and 2000. The land use/land cover, topography, and hydrology of the area also changed. Water bodies that originally accounted for 1.17% of the study area in 1980, increased to 22% in 2020, Rhizophora racemosa fringing the waterbodies increased from 11% in 1980 to 47% in 2020, and Rhizophora mangle decreased from over 55% in 1980 to about 23% in 2020. The results of digital elevation model show that the surface area is undulating with the relative topography of the study site ranging from - 5 to 40 m. We conclude that canalization during petroleum exploration was contributing to land use, topographic, and hydrologic changes in the study area.


Asunto(s)
Hidrología , Petróleo , Benin , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Niger , Ríos , Humedales
10.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(6)2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099482

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the contribution of community health posts and community health workers (CHWs) to geographical accessibility of primary healthcare (PHC) services at community level and strategies for optimising geographical accessibility to these services. METHODS: Using a complete georeferenced census of community health posts and CHWs in Niger and other high-resolution spatial datasets, we modelled travel times to community health posts and CHWs between 2000 and 2013, accounting for training, commodities and maximum population capacity. We estimated additional CHWs needed to optimise geographical accessibility of the population beyond the reach of the existing community health post network. We assessed the efficiency of geographical targeting of the existing community health post network compared with networks designed to optimise geographical targeting of the estimated population, under-5 deaths and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. RESULTS: The per cent of the population within 60-minute walking to the nearest community health post with a CHW increased from 0.0% to 17.5% between 2000 and 2013. An estimated 10.4 million people (58.5%) remained beyond a 60-minute catchment of community health posts. Optimal deployment of 7741 additional CHWs could increase geographical coverage from 41.5% to 82.9%. Geographical targeting of the existing community health post network was inefficient but optimised networks could improve efficiency by 32.3%-47.1%, depending on targeting metric. INTERPRETATIONS: We provide the first estimates of geographical accessibility to community health posts and CHWs at national scale in Niger, highlighting improvements between 2000 and 2013, geographies where gaps remained and approaches for optimising geographical accessibility to PHC services at community level.


Asunto(s)
Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Salud Pública , Humanos , Niger/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud
11.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 261, 2021 06 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187435

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The effective use of contraception among adolescents and young women can reduce the risk of unintended pregnancies. However, the prevalence of contraceptive use remains low in this age group. The objective of this study was to estimate the rate of contraceptive method discontinuation among adolescents and young women and to identify its associated factors in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger. METHOD: This was a secondary analysis of data from Demographic and Health Surveys of Burkina Faso (2010), Mali (2012-2013), and Niger (2012). The dependent variable was the time to discontinuation of contraceptive methods. Independent variables were represented by sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics. Mixed-effects survival analysis with proportional hazards was used to identify the predictors. RESULTS: A total of 2,264 adolescents and young women aged 15 to 24 years were included in this analysis, comprising 1,100 in Burkina Faso, 491 in Mali, and 673 in Niger. Over the last five years, the overall contraceptive discontinuation rate was 68.7% (50.1% in Burkina Faso, 59.6% in Mali, and 96.8% in Niger). At the individual level, in Burkina Faso, occupation (aHR = 0.33), number of living children (aHR = 2.17), marital status (aHR = 2.93), and region (aHR = 0.54) were associated with contraceptive discontinuation. Except for education and marital status, we found the same factors in Mali. In Niger, a women's education level (aHR = 1.47) and her partner (aHR = 0.52) were associated with discontinuation. At the community level, the region of origin was associated with discontinuation of contraceptive methods. CONCLUSION: Most adolescents and young women experienced at least one episode of discontinuation. Discontinuation of contraceptive methods is associated with the level of education, occupation, number of children, marital status, and desire for children with the spouse. Promotion of contraceptive interventions should target adolescents, young women, and their partners, as well as those with a low education level or in a union.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Anticonceptiva , Anticoncepción , Adolescente , Burkina Faso , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Malí , Niger/epidemiología , Embarazo
12.
Environ Res ; 198: 111273, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989622

RESUMEN

This study was aimed at determining mainly the concentrations of As and other metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, V and Zn) in samples of feed, soil, plants and foods (fish, chicken, goat and cow meat) grown and consumed in six areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria (Choba, Khana, Trans Amadi, Eleme, Uyo and Yenagoa). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) models were used for identifying groups of variables (i.e., elements) based on the loadings and groups of samples (i.e., plants, soil, fish, meet, feed) according to the scores that contributed most to the environmental pollution in each Nigerian area. In Choba and Khana sites, the results showed a cluster of elements like As, Pb, V and Zn, mostly associated with samples of goat and cow meat, as well as soils, and separated from another cluster of metals composed by Cu and Hg with different origin. In Trans Amadi area, a clustering of As, Cd and V was found associated to different types of meat (chicken, goat, and cow) located in the opposite side of Cu and Hg, which correlated to plants and soil. In Eleme, the strongest loadings were obtained for V and Zn associated with soil and meat (goat and cow) samples and separated from As and Cd. Finally, in Uyo and Yenagoa, dominant elements were As, Cu, Pb and Zn, with proximity to cow and goat liver samples, while Cd and V corresponded to a different pollution pattern. Lead intake trough meat and fish consumption for adults and children were much higher than the tolerable limits set by international organizations. The results of this study should allow a better understanding of the complex phenomenon of metal pollution in the feed-to-food chain and human health in Nigeria, which should help to manage a pollution reduction strategy and give priorities of research and monitoring.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental , Carne/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis , Niger , Nigeria , Medición de Riesgo , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 643079, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996720

RESUMEN

Every year, cholera affects 1.3-4.0 million people worldwide with a particularly high presence in Africa. Based on recent studies, effective targeting interventions in hotspots could eliminate up to 50% of cases in Sub-Saharan Africa. Those interventions include Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) programs whose influence on cholera control, up to the present, has been poorly quantified. Among the few studies available, D'Mello-Guyett et al. underline how the distribution of hygiene kits is a promising form of intervention for cholera control and that the integration of a WASH intervention at the point of admission of suspected cases is new in cholera control efforts, particularly in outbreaks and complex emergencies. Considering the limited number of studies on Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and water coverages related to cholera control, the aim of our work is to determine whether these interventions in cholera hotspots (geographic areas vulnerable to disease transmission) have significant impact on cholera transmission. In this study, we consider data collected on 125 villages of the Madarounfa district (Niger) during the 2018 cholera outbreak. Using a hurdle model, our findings show that full access to improved sanitation significantly decreases the likelihood of cholera by 91% (P < 0.0001) compared to villages with no access to sanitation at all. Considering only the villages affected by cholera in the studied area, cholera cases decrease by a factor of 4.3 in those villages where there is partial access to at least quality water sources, while full access to improved water sources decreases the cholera cases by a factor of 6.3 when compared to villages without access to water (P < 0.001). In addition, villages without access to safe water and sanitation are 6.7 times (P < 0.0001) more likely to get cholera. Alternatively, villages with full sanitation and water coverage are 9.1 (P < 0.0001) less likely to get cholera. The findings of our study suggest that significant access to improved water and sanitation at the village level offer a strong barrier against cholera transmission. However, it requires full CLTS coverage of the village to observe a strong impact on cholera, as partial access only has a limited impact.


Asunto(s)
Cólera , Saneamiento , África , Cólera/epidemiología , Humanos , Niger/epidemiología , Agua
14.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 8(4): 803-808, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031818

RESUMEN

Recently, there has been an increasing amount of scientific interest towards the broad theme of racial inequalities and their impact on human health, specifically exploring how ethnic discrimination affects the wellness of black people and the COVID-19 pandemic. Some of these conditions of inequity also affect black children. Discrimination and racism should be routinely considered as causative agents or triggers of disease and routinely included in clinical examination, during history collection and evaluation of vital signs. This will benefit child and family health, worldwide. We shared our recent experience by reporting a case of a 13-year-old black girl who came to Italy from Niger about 3 years earlier through the traumatizing migratory journey. She was evaluated in the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) for sleepiness that had progressively worsened during the last days. We describe the case and how it was handled differently by pediatricians and pediatric trainees with equally different personal and professional backgrounds.We also report the preliminary results of a national survey aimed to assess discrimination and inequalities in Italian Paediatric Residency Schools. Medical ability has been allowing us to respond rapidly to a novel virus in order to save lives. The expertise of doctors and researchers must be used to evaluate this hidden crisis as well, to address racism and injustice and to protect vulnerable people from harm. Our case showed us how it is essential including racial and gender discrimination in a diagnostic process.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Racismo , Datos de Salud Recolectados Rutinariamente , Sexismo , Adolescente , COVID-19/etnología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Niger/etnología , Pediatría , Somnolencia
15.
J Environ Manage ; 293: 112872, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044235

RESUMEN

The issue of environmental pollution has been recognized as a typical example of an anthropogenic activity that constitutes a global challenge coupled with the influence of climate change. This has constituted several hazards which include bioaccumulation of toxic substances, pollution of the aquatic environment, and high rate of dilapidation of soil structure and texture, health hazards, high level of imbalance in the ecosystem and a high level of toxicity in humans and the environment. Despite the intervention of governments, industries, researchers and relevant stakeholders, these problems remain paramount in most regions. Therefore, given the aforementioned, it is essential to identify sustainable remediation techniques, innovative knowledge on remediation strategies and clean up techniques that could help in the mitigation of all these highlighted challenges. Moreover, several studies have revealed the deleterious influence of petroleum or oil spillages resulting in irreparable environmental dilapidation and other potential hazards to human health, agriculture, climate system, and the ecosystem in general. From the systematic analysis of the evidence-based, meta-data-based review and other reviewed literature, it is noticeable that there is scant holistic review study that will incorporate all these aforementioned environmental implications resulting from the activities of petroleum resources in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria (NDRN) in just a single study. In the interim, it is alleged that there is hardly a permanent and tangible solution to these petroleum spillage issues and their impacts on the region; albeit, awareness will be fundamental for its mitigation. Hence, this review study will attempt to fill this gap by holistically reviewing the selected environmental implications of petroleum spillages in the NDRN drawn from 219 evidence and meta-data-based reviews and other articles. Furthermore, the relevant legal frameworks that could guild in protecting against environmental issues and petroleum spillages, are discussed in this study. In conclusion, the study cautiously provides a way forward by submitting that effective research and development measures ranging from public health assessments of petroleum contamination to an all-embracing application of bioremediation technology should frequently be carried out as a matter of urgency with resilient adaptation, mollification and management of these menaces.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación por Petróleo , Petróleo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Ecosistema , Humanos , Niger , Nigeria
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 119, 2021.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912289

RESUMEN

Long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LLIMNs) are needed for malaria vector control. However, their distribution is not yet optimal in sub-Saharan regions. According to projections, COVID-19 pandemic will further delay the distribution of LLIMNs. In Niger, a distribution campaign of LLIMNs with a multi-sectoral approach (state-partner-civil society) was organized in compliance with barrier measures for preventing transmission of COVID-19. A door-to-door strategy was chosen to implement this campaign, in order to avoid entry into confined spaces and to engage community. A total of 13,994,681 people received LLIMNs (reflecting a success rate of 101%) in six targeted regions. A collective effort is needed to sustain the fight against malaria in the COVID-19 era.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Mosquiteros Tratados con Insecticida/provisión & distribución , Malaria/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Control de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vectores , Niger
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 822, 2021 04 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926403

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Biannual distribution of azithromycin to children 1-59 months old reduced mortality by 14% in a cluster-randomized trial. The World Health Organization has proposed targeting this intervention to the subgroup of children 1-11 months old to reduce selection for antimicrobial resistance. Here, we describe a trial designed to determine the impact of age-based targeting of biannual azithromycin on mortality and antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: AVENIR is a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, response-adaptive large simple trial in Niger. During the 2.5-year study period, 3350 communities are targeted for enrollment. In the first year, communities in the Dosso region will be randomized 1:1:1 to 1) azithromycin 1-11: biannual azithromycin to children 1-11 months old with placebo to children 12-59 months old, 2) azithromycin 1-59: biannual azithromycin to children 1-59 months old, or 3) placebo: biannual placebo to children 1-59 months old. Regions enrolled after the first year will be randomized with an updated allocation based on the probability of mortality in children 1-59 months in each arm during the preceding study period. A biannual door-to-door census will be conducted to enumerate the population, distribute azithromycin and placebo, and monitor vital status. Primary mortality outcomes are defined as all-cause mortality rate (deaths per 1000 person-years) after 2.5 years from the first enrollment in 1) children 1-59 months old comparing the azithromycin 1-59 and placebo arms, 2) children 1-11 months old comparing the azithromycin 1-11 and placebo arm, and 3) children 12-59 months in the azithromycin 1-11 and azithromycin 1-59 arms. In the Dosso region, 50 communities from each arm will be followed to monitor antimicrobial resistance. Primary resistance outcomes will be assessed after 2 years of distributions and include 1) prevalence of genetic determinants of macrolide resistance in nasopharyngeal samples from children 1-59 months old, and 2) load of genetic determinants of macrolide resistance in rectal samples from children 1-59 months old. DISCUSSION: As high-mortality settings consider this intervention, the results of this trial will provide evidence to support programmatic and policy decision-making on age-based strategies for azithromycin distribution to promote child survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered on January 13, 2020 (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04224987 ).


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Azitromicina , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Azitromicina/uso terapéutico , Niño , Preescolar , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Humanos , Lactante , Macrólidos , Administración Masiva de Medicamentos , Niger/epidemiología , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 167: 112365, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882333

RESUMEN

Macrocystis pyrifera reaches distant areas after detachment, accumulate heavy metals, and serve as trophic subsidy. In this context, effects on both adults and larvae of Tetrapygus niger fed with polluted kelps were determined by assessing growth, fertility, and early larval development. Results revealed that sea urchins fed with polluted kelps from highly impacted zone (HIZ) showed a lower growth (3.6% gained weight) and gamete release (358 cells mL-1) than those fed with non-impacted kelps (NIZ) (19.3% and 945 cells mL-1). The HIZ treatment showed a developmental delay in comparison to NIZ, accounted mainly by the abundance of malformed 2-arm pluteus larvae (10-15%) during most of the culture. Malformed 4-arm pluteus larvae showed a constant increase, reaching 37% at the end of the culture. Thus, the pollutants ingested by sea urchins can be transferred to their offspring and cause negative effects in their early development, categorizing M. pyrifera as a pollutant carrier.


Asunto(s)
Herbivoria , Erizos de Mar , Animales , Ingestión de Alimentos , Fertilidad , Niger
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 167: 112351, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895593

RESUMEN

This study assessed the concentrations, sources, and risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from the Rivers Niger, Ase and Forcados in the western Niger Delta. The concentrations of PAHs (in µg kg-1 dry weight), as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, in sediments from these rivers varied from 2400 to 19,000, 2930 to 16,100, and from 1620 to 19,800 for the Niger, Ase and Forcados Rivers respectively. High molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were the most prevalent compounds present in these sediments. An assessment of the possible ecological and human health risks suggested high risks for both organisms and humans. The PAH source analysis suggested that sediments from these river systems were contaminated with PAHs arising from burning of biomass, gasoline/diesel emissions, burning of natural gas, and oil spillages.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Niger , Nigeria , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
20.
Environ Pollut ; 281: 117076, 2021 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872890

RESUMEN

Urbanisation of riverine landscape is an increasing threat to the functionality of river ecosystems. In this study, we identify and classify macroinvertebrates indicator signature traits and ecological preferences.We hypothesised that urban pollution would differentially influence the distribution of macroinvertebrate traits and ecological preferences along a gradient of water quality deterioration. Hence, we identified and classified potential biological indicators traits and ecological preferences that were deemed tolerant of or sensitive to urban pollution gradient in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Physico-chemical variables (water temperature, depth, flow velocity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate, phosphate), and macroinvertebrates were collected from 2008 to 2012 seasonally during the wet and dry seasons once in a month in 11 stations in eight river systems. The results based on RLQ, fourth-corner and Kruskal-Wallis analyses indicate that traits/ecological preferences such as tegumental/cutaneous respiration, cased/tubed body armouring, a preference for silty water, bivoltinism, burrowing and a high tolerance for oxygen depletion, were statistically significantly associated with the heavily impacted stations. These traits were positively correlated with physico-chemical variables such as EC, nitrate and phosphate indicative of urban pollution. On the other hand, traits/ecological preferences such as permanent attachment, crawling, swimming, univoltinism and a moderate sensitivity to oxygen depletion were associated with the least impacted stations and were negatively correlated with physico-chemical variables indicative of urban pollution. Overall, the observed differential responses of traits and ecological preferences to urban pollution along a gradient of water quality impairment suggest that traits and ecological preferences can serve as useful biological indicators and thus supports the growing evidence of the utility of the trait-based approach.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Invertebrados , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Niger , Nigeria , Ríos
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