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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 94, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466196

RESUMEN

Introduction: different studies have shown a relationship between depression and nutrition, but there seems to be no consistent consensus on this. This study therefore investigated the relationship of nutrition status and depression among workers in tertiary educational institutions in Southwestern Nigeria. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study conducted among 399 members of staff of three tertiary educational institutions in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), while nutritional status was assessed using the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist hip ratio (WHR). The respondents were selected using multi-stage sampling technique, and data were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaires. Analysis was done using IBM SPSS. Results: the mean age of the respondents was 45.8 ± 10.4 years. The prevalence of depression was 23.8%. Concerning the nutritional status of respondents, 2.3% were underweight and 69.7% were overweight/obese. There were statistically significant associations between depression and the nutritional status of the respondents using BMI (p = 0.001), WHR (p = 0.015) and waist circumference (p = 0.036). After controlling for other factors, only the BMI was still significantly associated with depression, such that those underweight were more likely to be depressed (Odds ratio: 7.9; p-value: 0.009). Conclusion: the prevalence of depression among the respondents was relatively high, and this was significantly associated with the BMI, even after controlling for co-founders.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Delgadez/complicaciones , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Delgadez/epidemiología , Relación Cintura-Cadera
2.
Acta Biomed ; 92(4): e2021316, 2021 09 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487100

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a substantial psychological burden among students. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of the COVID-19 on the mental health of university students and determining the prevalence of anxiety and depression. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study utilized an online questionnaire sent to students in the Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University after ethical approval. The Generalized Anxiety and Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences and expressed using descriptive statistics and percentages. An independent t-test was used to determine the gender differences in the GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores while Pearson's correlation was used to establish a relationship between these scores with age. RESULTS: The 259 respondents comprised 118, 45.6% males and 141, 54.4% females with an average age of 21.50±2.04 years. The majority (149, 57.5%) were aged 21-25 years. The scores did not show significant differences in age and gender. Moderate to severe anxiety and depression was established in 22.4% and 28.2% of the respondents respectively. CONCLUSION: This study has shown that the prevalence of anxiety and depression due to the pandemic bears no relationship with age and gender. This is however different from previous reports due to the differences in the sample size, resource setting, timing of the study, and the courses the students studied.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Mental , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudiantes , Universidades , Adulto Joven
3.
West Afr J Med ; 38(8): 719-725, 2021 Sep 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499829

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Glutathione is a powerful naturally occurring anti-oxidant in the human body and is important in immunological response to infection. Glutathione depletion may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of HIV disease. This study was done to compare plasma glutathione levels between HIV infected and uninfected children, correlate their glutathione levels with their WHO immunologic and clinical stages and determine prevalence of glutathione deficiency in HIV infected and uninfected children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 258 HIV infected children and their age and sex-matched controls in the two major hospitals providing paediatric HIV care in Benin City, Nigeria. Information was obtained using questionnaire. Plasma glutathione levels were determined in both groups using the spectrophotometric method involving the Dithio-bis -2-nitrobenzoic acid/Glutathione reductase enzyme (DTNB/GR) technique. Data was analyzed using paired t-test and spearman rank correlation. RESULTS: The mean plasma glutathione level was 8.82 ± 2.39 µmol/l, and 13.11 ± 3.20 µmol/l in HIV infected and uninfected children respectively, p < 0.0001. There was no significant correlation between plasma glutathione and both WHO immunologic staging (r= 0.011, p= 0.869) and clinical staging of HIV (r=0.053, p=0.379). Glutathione deficiency was present in 10.10% of HIV infected children and 0.70% of HIV uninfected children, p = 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Glutathione depletion occurs in children with HIV/AIDS and it has no relationship with clinical and immunologic staging of HIV in this study. Further studies are needed to ascertain the benefit of glutathione supplementation in HIV infected children.


Asunto(s)
Glutatión , Infecciones por VIH , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia
4.
West Afr J Med ; 38(8): 732-737, 2021 08 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499831

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The first reported case of the novel coronavirus (COVID 19) in Nigeria was on the 27th of February 2020. Since then, the country has witnessed a steady increase in the number of patients confirmed with the disease. As of April 27th 2021, a total of 164,756 confirmed COVID-19 cases were notified making it the fifth-highest number of cases in the African region. This study aims to determine the spatial distribution of COVID-19 in Nigeria, identify clusters and determine factors associated with COVID-19. METHODS: The study used secondary data of COVID-19 cases notified in each of the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory between 27th February and 9th June, 2020. The Global and Local Moran'sItest were used to identify significant spatial clusters. The negative binomial regression model was used to identify factors associated with COVID-19 and p d" 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. RESULTS: The Local Moran I identified Lagos State as the significant cluster for COVID-19 in Nigeria at p<0.05. Higher GDP per capita and lower literacy rates were significantly associated with COVID-19 cases reported by the states while population density, BCG coverage and average temperature were not significantly associated. CONCLUSION: The study identified Lagos State as the hotspot for the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. The states with lower literacy rate and higher GDP per capita reported a higher number of COVID-19 cases. Proactive measures are needed to control of the infection in Lagos state while improving the literacy about the disease transmission and control measures.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2
5.
West Afr J Med ; 38(8): 762-769, 2021 08 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503325

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a major public health problem globally. The public service workers, who are facilitators of national development, are particularly vulnerable because the nature of their job predisposes them to unhealthy lifestyles. However, there is paucity of reference data on the profile of cardiovascular risks among public servants in Nigeria. Therefore, this study determined the pattern and predictors of cardiovascular risk among public servants in Southwest, Nigeria. METHODS: A total of 1,778 public servants were recruited from 47 Ministries, Departments and Agencies in Ondo State through multi-stage random sampling technique. The World Health Organization Stepwise instrument and Framingham Heart Study non-laboratory cardiovascular risk assessment tool were used to collect data. STATA version 14.2 was used for analysis and p-value of< 0.05 was taken as significant. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 44.2±9.1 years. They were predominantly females (64.8%). The proportions of participants with moderate and high 10-year absolute cardiovascular risks were 18.3% and 5.6%, respectively. Significant factors associated with increased cardiovascular risk were age (p=<0.001), sex (p =<0.001), education (p =<0.001), income (p =<0.001), staff category (p =<0.001) and employment grade level (p=<0.001). The significant predictors of increased cardiovascular risk on multivariate analysis were age > 50years (AOR:1.25;CI:1.19-1.32;p=<0.001) and male sex (AOR:6.62; CI:3.76-11.65;p=<0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of increased 10-year absolute cardiovascular risk among public servants in Ondo State was high. The significant predictors were age >50 years and male sex. Cardiovascular risk reduction strategies should be encouraged among public servants especially the older males.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedad Cardiaca , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
6.
West Afr J Med ; 38(8): 775-784, 2021 08 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504383

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is common in developing countries like Nigeria with significant morbidity and risk of mortality. With rising antimicrobial resistance, risk factors of infection should be explored to develop prevention strategies and improve the health of developing communities. OBJECTIVE: To identify determinants and clinical correlates of H. pylori among study participants. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study between May and July 2017 of 280 dyspeptic adults in Garki Hospital Abuja. They were tested using serum H. pylori Immunoglobulin G antibody test kits. Data on patient characteristics were collected using pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaires. The data were analysed using SPSS version 25. Logistic regression and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were computed to identify risk factors and clinical features associated with H. pylori infection. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 53.6%. H. pylori was positively associated with age and monthly income. Family history of dyspepsia (OR = 0.32: 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.78), regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR = 0.11: 95% CI = 0.046 - 0.281) and regular handwashing with soap and water (OR = 0.02: 95% CI = 0.006 -0.040) were found to be protective against H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: There is a high H. pylori prevalence amongst patients with dyspepsia in Garki Hospital Abuja. Interventions to reduce the incidence of H. pylori infection should emphasise regular handwashing with soap and water and regular fruit and vegetable consumption.


Asunto(s)
Dispepsia , Infecciones por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Dispepsia/epidemiología , Infecciones por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Helicobacter/epidemiología , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia
7.
West Afr J Med ; 38(8): 785-790, 2021 08 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505184

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies of adult female acne vulgaris are few despite its increasing presentation in dermatology clinics. Adult female acne is classified as either late onset, persistent acne or return acne with a mixed pattern of inflammation in most females. The aim of this study was to document the socio-demographic characteristics (late onset, persistent acne, age, pre-menstrual flare) and clinical profile (severity, pattern, type of lesions, scarring and type of scars) of adult female acne patients. METHODOLOGY: Cross sectional descriptive study of 56 adult female acne patients aged 25 years and above. Patients were clinically examined and severity of acne graded with the Comprehensive Acne Severity Scale. Socio-demographic data and clinical profile was documented using a questionnaire designed for the study. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS version 22. Level of significance of all tests was set at 5%. RESULTS: Age range was 25-67 years with a mean age of 33.4 years. Prevalence of adult female acne was 19.3% amongst female patients seen in the clinic. Acne was persistent in 55.4%, late onset in 44.6%, only inflammatory in 5.4%, only non-inflammatory in 42.9%, and a mixed pattern of inflammation in 51.8%. Location of acne was facial only in 80.4% with extra facial involvement in 19.6%. Acne was severe, moderate and mild in 35.7%, 44.6%, and 19.6% respectively. Acne scar was present in 87.5%, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in 65.3%. CONCLUSION: Adult female acne is increasing in prevalence. Acne in adult females is mostly persistent in nature with mixed inflammatory pattern. It affects the whole face and it is associated with scarring.


Asunto(s)
Acné Vulgar , Acné Vulgar/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Cicatriz/epidemiología , Cicatriz/etiología , Cicatriz/patología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Resultado del Tratamiento
8.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 28(2): 117-125, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494598

RESUMEN

Background: Waterpipe smoking (WPS) has been reported to have a wide range of damaging health effects on pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Studies suggest that waterpipe tobacco smoking is associated with reduced harm perceptions, mental health problems and the use of psychoactive substances. We investigate the patterns of use and the association of WPS with anxiety, poly-tobacco and alcohol use in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to assess the data from 818 adolescents and adults in Lagos State, Nigeria. An online questionnaire obtained demographic information, waterpipe, e-cigarette, alcohol and other tobacco product use from respondents. Anxiety was assessed using the validated Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-point scale. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with waterpipe ever-use. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean (standard deviation) age of respondents was 23.43 (±3.96), over half were female (55.2%) and a majority had a college diploma or more (88.59%). Among study participants, 18.58% reported waterpipe ever-use. Among ever waterpipe users, 17.33% reported current use (past 30-days), with a majority having smoked waterpipe in a bar or pub. Alcohol use (P < 0.001), e-cigarette ever-use (P: 0.010) and poly-tobacco ever-use (P: 0.030) were significantly associated with higher odds of waterpipe use in the multivariate regression model. Further, there was a lower likelihood of waterpipe ever-use in the bivariate regression model among respondents with mild and moderate to severe anxiety levels than those with normal anxiety levels (P: 0.030); however, this association was no longer significant in the adjusted model. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a relatively high prevalence of WPS in Lagos, Nigeria. Concurrent alcohol consumption, e-cigarette and poly-tobacco use are associated with WPS, and most waterpipe smokers have normal anxiety levels. The Nigerian Government should consider surveillance measures for WPS and a more comprehensive smoke-free policy.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Fumar en Pipa de Agua , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco , Fumar en Pipa de Agua/efectos adversos , Fumar en Pipa de Agua/epidemiología
9.
Hematology ; 26(1): 684-690, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493173

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell anaemia affects about 4 million people across the globe, making it an inherited disorder of public health importance. Red cell lysis consequent upon haemoglobin crystallization and repeated sickling leads to anaemia and a baseline strain on haemopoiesis. Vaso-occlusion and haemolysis underlies majority of the chronic complications of sickle cell. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory features observed across the various clinical phenotypes in adult sickle cell disease patients. METHODS: Steady state data collected prospectively in a cohort of adult sickle cell disease patients as out-patients between July 2010 and July 2020. The information included epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data. RESULTS: About 270 patients were captured in this study (165 males and 105 females). Their ages ranged from 16 to 55 years, with a median age of 25 years. Sixty-eight had leg ulcers, 43 of the males had priapism (erectile dysfunction in 8), 42 had AVN, 31 had nephropathy, 23 had osteomyelitis, 15 had osteoarthritis, 12 had cholelithiasis, 10 had stroke or other neurological impairment, 5 had pulmonary hypertension, while 23 had other complications. Frequency of crisis ranged from 0 to >10/year median of 2. Of the 219 recorded, 148 of the patients had been transfused in the past, while 71 had not. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SLU, AVN, priapism, nephropathy and the other complications of SCD show some variations from other studies. This variation in the clinical parameters across different clinical phenotypes indicates an interplay between age, genetic and environmental factors.


Asunto(s)
Anemia de Células Falciformes , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia de Células Falciformes/complicaciones , Anemia de Células Falciformes/epidemiología , Anemia de Células Falciformes/metabolismo , Anemia de Células Falciformes/patología , Colelitiasis/etiología , Colelitiasis/metabolismo , Colelitiasis/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Hipertensión Pulmonar/etiología , Hipertensión Pulmonar/metabolismo , Hipertensión Pulmonar/patología , Enfermedades Renales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Renales/etiología , Enfermedades Renales/metabolismo , Enfermedades Renales/patología , Úlcera de la Pierna/epidemiología , Úlcera de la Pierna/etiología , Úlcera de la Pierna/metabolismo , Úlcera de la Pierna/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Osteoartritis/epidemiología , Osteoartritis/etiología , Osteoartritis/metabolismo , Osteomielitis/epidemiología , Osteomielitis/etiología , Osteomielitis/metabolismo , Osteomielitis/patología , Priapismo/epidemiología , Priapismo/etiología , Priapismo/metabolismo , Priapismo/patología , Estudios Prospectivos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/metabolismo , Accidente Cerebrovascular/patología
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 425, 2021 Aug 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338946

RESUMEN

Sheep and goats raised extensively are frequently infested by Ixodid ticks that may act as vectors or reservoirs of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae (SFGR). A study to determine the seroprevalence of SFGR infection in 300 sheep and goats in Plateau State, Nigeria was conducted from September to November, 2018 using the Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT). Overall, 85 out of 300 animals (28.3%) were seropositive to SFGR. Relatively higher seroprevalence was recorded in sheep than goats (28.8% vs 28.0%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Furthermore, seropositivity was not affected by age, sex or location of the animals screened in this study. This is the first serological study to report the prevalence of SFGR in sheep and goats using IFAT in this study area. The presence of SFGR antibodies in domestic ruminants is of public health concern considering the close association between farmers and their animals occasioned by the management system practiced in the study area. This finding calls for further studies to evaluate the level of human exposure to this group of pathogen.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Cabras , Rickettsia , Enfermedades de las Ovejas , Rickettsiosis Exantemáticas , África Occidental , Animales , Enfermedades de las Cabras/epidemiología , Cabras , Nigeria/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología , Rickettsiosis Exantemáticas/veterinaria
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1493, 2021 08 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340670

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Existing knowledge has established the connection between maternal education and child survival, but little is known about how educational assortative mating (EAM), relates to childhood mortality. We attempt to examine this association in the context of Nigeria. METHODS: Data was obtained from the 2008, 2013, and 2018 waves of the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, which is a cross-sectional study. The sample includes the analysis of 72,527 newborns within the 5 years preceding each survey. The dependent variables include the risk of a newborn dying before 12 months of age (infant mortality), or between the age of 12-59 months (child mortality). From the perspective of the mother, the independent variable, EAM, includes four categories (high-education homogamy, low-education homogamy, hypergamy, and hypogamy). The Cox proportional hazard regression was employed for multivariate analyses, while the estimation of mortality rates across the spectrum of EAM was obtained through the synthetic cohort technique. RESULTS: The risk of childhood mortality varied across the spectrum of EAM and was particularly lowest among those with high-education homogamy. Compared to children of mothers in low-education homogamy, children of mothers in high-education homogamy had 25, 31 to 19% significantly less likelihood of infant mortality, and 34, 41, and 57% significantly less likelihood of child mortality in 2008, 2013 and 2018 survey data, respectively. Also, compared to children of mothers in hypergamy, children of mothers in hypogamous unions had 20, 12, and 11% less likelihood of infant mortality, and 27, 36, and 1% less likelihood of child mortality across 2008, 2013 and 2018 surveys, respectively, although not significant at p < 0.05. Both infant and child mortality rates were highest in low-education homogamy, as expected, lowest in high-education homogamy, and lower in hypogamy than in hypergamy. Furthermore, the trends in the rate declined between 2008 and 2018, and were higher in 2018 than in 2013. CONCLUSION: This indicates that, beyond the absolute level of education, the similarities or dissimilarities in partners' education may have consequences for child survival, alluding to the family system theory. Future studies could investigate how this association varies when marital status is put into consideration.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad del Niño , Mortalidad Infantil , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Nigeria/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos
12.
Afr J Paediatr Surg ; 18(4): 205-209, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341304

RESUMEN

Background: A neck mass is any abnormal lesion in the neck that can be seen, palpated, or identified on imaging. It is one of the most common reasons for presentation to the surgical clinics. Aim: the aim is to analyse the clinical presentation and treatment outcome in children who were diagnosed and managed for neck masses in a tertiary centre in Northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The records of patients managed for neck masses over 7 years between January 2013 and December 2019 were reviewed. Demographic and clinical data were retrieved and analysed using Statistical Product and Service Solution version 23.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). Results: A total of 99 cases were reviewed and there were 52 (52.5%) males and 47 (47.5%) females with male-to-female ratio of 1.1:1, and mean age ± standard deviation of 4.4 ± 3.9 years, the primary complaints of all the patients were neck swellings. The anterior triangle was the most common region involved in 86 (86.9%) patients. The majority of the neck masses were congenital, accounting for 71 (71.8%) patients. Ultrasound scanning was the most commonly requested radiological investigation done in 87 (87.8%) patients. .: Thyroglossal duct cyst was the most common paediatric neck mass seen in 41 (41.4%) patients. The majority of the patients 68 (68.7%) had an excisional biopsy of the lesion. Surgical site infection was the most common complication noted in 7.1% of the study population. Conclusion: Most of the neck masses were congenital and were managed surgically. Prompt diagnosis with appropriate treatment may result in a good outcome.


Asunto(s)
Quiste Tirogloso , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Cuello , Nigeria/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Quiste Tirogloso/diagnóstico , Quiste Tirogloso/epidemiología , Quiste Tirogloso/cirugía , Resultado del Tratamiento
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 414, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381558

RESUMEN

Introduction: trauma is the leading cause of mortality in individuals less than 45 years. The principles of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) which is used around the world in resuscitation of trauma patients have been considered to be safe. However, the outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected the processes and characteristics of acute trauma patients seen around the world. This study is intended to determine the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the acute trauma patients seen in a Nigerian trauma centre. Methods: this is a cross-sectional observational study of trauma patients seen in the resuscitation room of the National Hospital trauma centre in Abuja, Nigeria, from 24th February,2020 to 3rd May, 2020. The participants were consecutive acute trauma patients who were grouped into two: five weeks preceding total lockdown and five weeks of total lockdown. Statistical analysis was done using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 while results were presented in tables and a figure. Results: a total of 229 patients were recruited into the study with age range 1 to 62 years, mean age of 28 ± 13 and male to female ratio of 3.87. The patient volume reduced by 41.31% during the lockdown. Though motor vehicular crash (MVC) was the predominant mechanism of injury in both groups making up 37.65% and 23.88% respectively, penetrating assault was more during the lockdown period (17.91% versus 6.17%). The lockdown was further associated with more delayed presentation (52.24% versus 48.15%), more referrals (53.73% versus 32.72%), less severe injury score (29.6% versus 56.7%) and no death in the resuscitation room (0% versus 1.85%). Conclusion: despite the reduction in the volume of trauma presentations by 41.31%, patients got the required care with less mortality. Efforts should be directed at sustaining access to acute trauma care in all circumstances to reduce preventable trauma deaths.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Heridas y Lesiones/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Derivación y Consulta/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo , Centros Traumatológicos , Índices de Gravedad del Trauma , Heridas y Lesiones/mortalidad , Heridas y Lesiones/terapia , Adulto Joven
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 19, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394810

RESUMEN

Introduction: the spread and diffusion of COVID-19 undoubtedly shows strong spatial connotations and alignment with the physical indices of civilization and globalization. Several spatial risk factors have possible influence on its dispersal trajectory. Understanding their influence is critical for mobilization, sensitization and managing non-pharmaceutical interventions at the appropriate spatial-administrative units. Methods: on 01 April 2020, we constructed a rapid spatial diagnostics and generated vulnerability map for COVID-19 infection spread at state level using 12 core spatial drivers. The risk factors used include established COVID-19 cases (as at 01 April 2020), population, proximity to the airports, inter-state road traffic, intra-state road traffic, intra city traffic, international road traffic, possible influx of elites from abroad, preponderance of high risk political elite, likelihood of religious gathering, likelihood of other social gatherings, and proximity to existing COVID-19 test centers. These were also tested as predictors of COVID-19 spread using multiple regression analysis. Results: the results show that 6 States - Lagos, Kano, Katsina, Kaduna, Oyo and Rivers - and the Federal Capital Territory have very high vulnerability, 17 states have high vulnerability and 13 states have medium vulnerability to COVID-19 transmission. Several drivers show a strong association with COVID-19 with the coefficient of correlation ranging from 0.983 - 0.995. The regression analysis indicates that between 96.6 and 99.0 percent of the total variation in the COVID-19 infections across Nigeria can be explained by the predictors. Conclusion: the spatial pattern of infection across the states are substantially consistent with the predicted pattern of vulnerability.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Análisis Espacial , Poblaciones Vulnerables , COVID-19/transmisión , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
15.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(8): 1117-1125, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397018

RESUMEN

Background: : Visual morbidities increase the burden of care and negatively impact the quality of life of older people. Few empirical reports exist on the visual status of older Nigerians. Aim: This study describes the visual morbidities and determinants of visual impairment among persons aged 60 years and above who presented at a geriatric center in southwestern Nigeria and discusses the merits of focused geriatric care at a single location. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from electronic health records and case files of 628 older patients (≥60 years) who attended the facility between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2018. Data extracted included, age, sex, married status, occupational status, visual acuity, eye diagnoses, eye medications, previous surgeries, and anthropometric measurements. Results: Mean age of patients was 70.1 ± 7.4 years and 378 (60.2%) were females. Two out of every three patients had more than one visual diagnosis. Significantly, glaucoma (P < 0.001) and cataract (P = 0.01) were common among men, whereas dry eye syndrome (P < 0.001) and allergic conjunctivitis (P = 0.01) were common in women. Antiglaucoma medications (55.8%) were the commonest medications used and 21.0% had previous eye surgery. Assessment of presenting visual acuity demonstrated that 28.7% of patients had moderate-severe visual impairment (MSVI) in both eyes at presentation while 10.3% were bilaterally blind. Increasing age (P < 0.001) and male sex (P = 0.01) were the factors significantly associated with blindness. Conclusion: MSVI and blindness were common in our setting with glaucoma and cataract being the most prevalent associated diagnosis. Information obtained should stimulate advocacy for the prompt management of preventable causes of poor vision in older Nigerians.


Asunto(s)
Catarata , Baja Visión , Anciano , Ceguera , Atención a la Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Morbilidad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Calidad de Vida
16.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(8): 1164-1169, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397025

RESUMEN

Background: Hepatitis B infection is endemic in Nigeria where greater than six percent of the general population are chronic carriers. Transmission predominantly occurs in infants and children when compared with adults. Viral hepatitis deaths are mostly due to chronic liver disease. Routine immunization against hepatitis B virus infection in Nigeria is still low. Aims: We planned to describe the burden and trend of hepatitis B viral infection at Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe. Methodology: This study was a retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study. The results of all hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) tests using rapid chromatographic immunoassay performed at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe (FTHG), Nigeria from January 2000 to December 2014 were retrieved and analyzed. Results: Between 2000 and 2014, 23,611 individuals ranging from 2 months to 98 years of age were tested for HBsAg. A total of 13,136 (55.6%) were males and 10,475 (44.4%) were females. Among individuals tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, 18.9% (4,456) were positive. A total of 70.6% (3,147) were males and 29.4% (11,239) were females. Male sex was significantly associated with HBsAg positivity (P < 0.001). The mean HBsAg prevalence over the 15-year periods among males and females were 22% and 12%, respectively (P < 0.001). The mean yearly HBV prevalence was 17.5%, 17.2%, 19.6%, 15.5%, and 4.4% among age-groups 0-18 years, 19-25 years, 26-45 years, 56-65 years, and >65 years, respectively (P = 0.132). The proportion of HBsAg-positive individuals was highest in the year 2012 (28.7%) and lowest in 2014 (1.8%). Conclusion: There was an increasing trend in HBV testing and diagnosis in children and adults in our facility over the last 15 years. Health facility capacity for HBV treatment and care requires strengthening.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Instituciones de Salud , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos
17.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(8): 1188-1193, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397029

RESUMEN

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative ubiquitous bacterium affecting over half of the world's population. Most infections are acquired in early childhood with highest prevalence in Africa and Asia. Infected individuals develop antibodies against H. pylori which persist up to 6 months after eradication. Low socioeconomic status, poor sanitation, poor personal hygiene, and absence of potable household water supply are prevalent in our environment and also linked with increased frequency of the disease with attendant health consequences. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection and potential sociodemographic factors among children in Owerri. Methods: One hundred and twenty children aged 6 months to 15 years were studied from March to June 2016. Sociodemographic data was documented in a pretested structured questionnaire while rapid test kit that detects antibody to H. pylori by chromatographic flow was used to identify subjects with infection. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 with level of statistical significance at P < 0.05. Results: H. pylori infection prevalence was 20.0%, increased with age and highest in the 10-15 years age group (P = 0.001). Increasing age and low socioeconomic class (SEC) were found to be significant risk factors of H. pylori seropositivity among study subjects. Conclusion: Prevalence of H. pylori infection was high, increased with age and lower SEC as well as highest among children aged 10 years and older. Efforts should be made to exclude H. pylori infection in children with suspected symptoms considering the high burden of the disease in our setting.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Helicobacter/epidemiología , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Factores Socioeconómicos
18.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(8): 1206-1210, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397032

RESUMEN

Objective: To determine the pattern and risk factors of pterygium in adults at the Guinness Eye Centre Onitsha, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Consecutive adults aged ≥30 years with pterygium were studied. Each patient had comprehensive ocular examination including visual acuity, anterior segment, and adnexal assessment and fundoscopy. The pterygium was graded in terms of severity and type. Results: A total of 156 patients with pterygium participated; 92 (59%) females versus 64 (41%) males (F:M =3:2). The age range was 30-65 years; mean: 43.9 ± 8.4 years. The majority of the study population (36.5%) was of the age group 40-49 years. The subjects were predominately traders 78 (50%) and 93 (59.6%) of the pterygium patients were outdoor workers. Bivariate analysis indicated that those involved in outdoor work were six times at greater risk of developing pterygium than indoor workers (P = 0.001; OR = 6.2). Out of the 156 pterygium patients seen, 107 (68.6%) of them complained of associated symptoms. Redness of the eye was the commonest symptom reported by 79 (50.9%) cases while 8 (5.1%) cases complained of burning sensation. There was a preponderance of nasal pterygia with temporal pterygia being the least. Blinding pterygium was seen in three eyes (1.3%). Conclusion: Pterygium is a common disorder presenting at eye clinics. Outdoor workers are at a greater risk of developing pterygium. Thus, health education is of great importance.


Asunto(s)
Pterigion , Adulto , Anciano , Conjuntiva , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Pterigion/epidemiología , Pterigion/etiología , Factores de Riesgo , Agudeza Visual
19.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(8): 1247-1251, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397038

RESUMEN

Background: Chest injury remains a major source of morbidity and mortality in trauma as approximately two-thirds of all severe traumas involve the chest. Objective: To determine the changes in the profile management and outcome of severe chest injury in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is an analysis of the Trauma Registry of Jos University Teaching Hospital-a prospectively gathered database. Patients' entries with severe chest injuries for 7 years, from January 2012 to December 2018, were entered into a database and analyzed using the Epi Info Statistical Software, using simple statistics. Results: In all, 162 patients presented with severe chest injury over a 7-year period, of whom 78 (48.1%) had polytrauma, while 84 (51.9%) had isolated chest injury. There were 139 males and 23 females, giving male: female ratio of 6:1. Over 95 (58.6%) of them were between 20 and 39 years. Blunt injury was predominant, constituting 66.7%. Motor vehicular crash was the most common mechanism of injury constituting 87 (53.7%), while gunshot injuries were responsible for 34 (21%). In managing these severe chest injuries, 146 (90%) of the patients had closed-chest tube thoracostomy as the definitive treatment, while 16 (9.9%) had thoracotomy. The mean and median duration of hospital stay was 13.3 and 10 days, respectively. The commonest complication was wound infection in 8 (4.9%) patients and a mortality of 5.9%. Conclusion: Blunt chest injury remains the commonest mechanism of chest injury but with an increasing proportion of penetrating injuries affecting predominantly young males. Most severe chest injury patients survive with simple interventions of resuscitation, and closed-chest tube thoracostomy for definitive treatment.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos Torácicos , Heridas no Penetrantes , Femenino , Hospitales de Enseñanza , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Sistema de Registros , Estudios Retrospectivos , Traumatismos Torácicos/epidemiología , Traumatismos Torácicos/terapia , Universidades
20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1546, 2021 08 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384401

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of and factors associated with PTSD among adult females in Nigeria, particularly those who live in slums. PTSD is a mental health condition that develops among some individuals who experience or witness a traumatic event. Several other factors could place individuals at heightened risk of PTSD including stress and comorbid mental disorders. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the prevalence and factors associated with PTSD among female urban slum dwellers in Ibadan, Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional survey using multistage sampling of 550 women aged 18 and above from selected slums. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to elicit information on experience of childhood trauma, recent stressors, intimate partner violence, other mental disorders, sociodemographic characteristics and PTSD. PTSD was measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) which is based on DSM IV. A multivariable linear regression model was built to test associations between PTSD and independent variables. RESULTS: The prevalence for PTSD was found to be 4.18% and the mean PTSD score was 5.80 ± 7.11. Sexual abuse in childhood, past year intimate partner violence and anxiety were significantly associated with higher PTSD scores. PTSD was not significantly associated with a history of recent stressors. Education, employment and marital status were not associated with PTSD however, age and wealth index showed marginal association with PTSD. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PTSD among women living in Ibadan slums was relatively low. Both child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence can be prevented. We also recommend longitudinal studies to better understand risk and protective factors.


Asunto(s)
Áreas de Pobreza , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Adulto , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología
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