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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7786, 2020 05 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385316

RESUMEN

Patients with ß-thalassemia have an increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease which is associated with osteoporosis and periodontitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular and femoral bone change in heterozygous ß-globin knockout (BKO) mice following 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). Female and male BKO mouse blood smears demonstrated microcytic hypochromic anemia. Serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, calcium, and phosphorus levels were not changed in BKO mice. Nx increased the serum levels of urea nitrogen in both wild type (WT) and BKO mice and the level was much higher in BKO males. Serum level of creatinine was increased in Nx WT but not BKO mice. However, serum calcium and phosphorus levels were not altered. Nx induced comparable renal fibrosis in BKO mice and WT controls. Bone loss was observed in mandibular cancellous bone but not cortical bone of both male and female BKO mice. Nx decreased cancellous bone volume and cortical thickness in WT. Interestingly, BKO mice were resistant to Nx-induced cancellous bone loss. However, cortical thickness and cortical bone mineral density were reduced in Nx male BKO mice. Nx increased mRNA levels of type I collagen, Osx and Trap in WT but not BKO mice. Similarly, Nx reduced cancellous bone volume in femurs and increased osteoblast number and osteoclast number in WT not BKO mice. Serum FGF23 and erythropoietin levels were markedly increased in BKO mice. Nx decreased serum erythropoietin but not FGF23 levels. Since WT treated with erythropoietin exhibited a significant reduction in cancellous bone volume, it was possible that lower level of erythropoietin in Nx BKO mice prevented the Nx-induced cancellous bone loss.


Asunto(s)
Hueso Esponjoso/patología , Nefrectomía/efectos adversos , Osteoporosis/etiología , Osteoporosis/patología , Talasemia/complicaciones , Animales , Biomarcadores , Densidad Ósea , Hueso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagen , Hueso Esponjoso/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Eritrocitos/metabolismo , Eritrocitos/patología , Fémur , Fibrosis , Enfermedades Renales/etiología , Enfermedades Renales/metabolismo , Enfermedades Renales/patología , Ratones , Ratones Noqueados , Nitrógeno/orina , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoporosis/metabolismo , Microtomografía por Rayos X , Talasemia beta/sangre , Talasemia beta/complicaciones , Talasemia beta/diagnóstico , Talasemia beta/genética
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e002220, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428186

RESUMEN

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection on the hemato-biochemical parameters, feed digestibility, and nitrogen balance in Santa Inês lambs. Eighteen three-month-old Santa Ines castrated male lambs (16.9 ± 1.43 kg of body weight) were randomly distributed in two experimental treatments: infected with T. colubriformis (I, n = 9) and uninfected (U, n = 9). The I group received a total of 45,000 L3 larvae of T. colubriformis (5,000 infective larvae, three times per week, for three weeks). During the experimental period, blood, feed digestibility, and nitrogen balance were evaluated. The I lambs showed a reduction in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and total proteins, as well as an increase in platelets and eosinophils compared to those in the U group (p < 0.05). With the exception of total protein content, these values were within the normal range for the species. Furthermore, lower dry matter and organic matter digestibility were observed in the I lambs (p = 0.08). The present findings highlight that T. colubriformis infection has the potential to impair some hemato-biochemical parameters as well as feed digestibility in lambs, which could affect their productivity.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Sanguíneas/análisis , Sistema Digestivo/parasitología , Nitrógeno/análisis , Ovinos/parasitología , Tricostrongiliasis/parasitología , Trichostrongylus/parasitología , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangre , Animales , Recuento de Células Sanguíneas/veterinaria , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Índices de Eritrocitos/veterinaria , Heces/química , Heces/parasitología , Hemoglobinas/análisis , Masculino , Nitrógeno/orina , Albúmina Sérica Bovina/análisis , Seroglobulinas/análisis , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología , Tricostrongiliasis/sangre , Tricostrongiliasis/orina , Tricostrongiliasis/veterinaria
3.
J Nutr ; 150(5): 1330-1336, 2020 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030414

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multiple methods of correcting nutrient intake for misreported energy intake have been proposed but have not been extensively compared. The availability of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) data set, which includes several objective recovery biomarkers, offers an opportunity to compare these corrections with respect to protein intake. OBJECTIVE: We compared 5 energy-correction methods for self-reported dietary protein against urinary nitrogen-derived protein intake. METHODS: As part of the WHI Nutritional Biomarkers Study (NBS) 544 participants (50- to 80-y-old women) completed a FFQ and biomarker assessments using doubly labeled water (DLW) for total energy expenditure (TEE) and 24-h urinary nitrogen. Correction methods evaluated were as follows: 1) DLW-TEE; 2) the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) estimated energy requirement (EER) TEE prediction equation based on sex, height, weight, and age; 3) published NBS total energy TEE prediction (WHI-NBS-TEE) using age, BMI, race, and income; 4) reported protein versus reported energy linear regression-based residual method; and 5) a Goldberg cutoff to exclude subjects reporting energy intakes <1.35 times their basal metabolic rate. Efficacy was evaluated using correlations obtained by regressing corrected protein against biomarker protein (6.25 × urinary nitrogen/0.81). RESULTS: Unadjusted self-reported protein intake from the FFQ (mean = 66.7 g) correlated weakly (r = 0.31) with biomarker protein (mean = 74.9 g). DLW-TEE-corrected self-reported protein intake (mean = 90.7 g) had the strongest correlation with biomarker protein (r = 0.47). Other energy corrections yielded lower, but still significant correlations: EER, r = 0.44 (mean = 92.1 g); WHI-NBS-TEE, r = 0.37 (mean = 90.4 g); Goldberg cutoff, r = 0.36 (mean = 88.4 g); and residual method, r = 0.35 (mean = 66.7 g). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that proportional correction of reported protein intake using a measure of energy requirement from DLW-TEE or IOM-EER performed modestly better than other methods in this cohort. These energy adjustments, however, yielded corrected protein exceeding the biomarker protein, indicating that energy adjustment alone does not eliminate all self-reported protein reporting bias.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/orina , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Ingestión de Alimentos , Ingestión de Energía , Nitrógeno/orina , Autoinforme , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Deuterio , Metabolismo Energético , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estado Nutricional , Isótopos de Oxígeno , Salud de la Mujer
4.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(1): 22-31, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596014

RESUMEN

Twelve Hu sheep × thin-tail Han crossbred dry ewes with an average body weight of 32.6 ± 0.68 kg and an age of 3 years were arranged in a 3 × 3 Latin square design, with each experimental period of 24 d to evaluate the effect of substituting alfalfa hay in a portion of concentrate on nutrient intake, digestibility, N utilisation efficiency and methane emissions. The ratios of corn straw to alfalfa to concentrate for 3 diet treatments were 60:0:40, 60:15:25 and 60:30:10, respectively. Intake and digestibility were measured for each of the ewes, which were housed in individual metabolism crates for 6 d after an adaptation period of 14 d, and the feed was offered at 1.2 MEm to ensure approximately 10% orts. Methane emissions were determined in a respiration chamber for 2 consecutive d. An increase in the levels of alfalfa as a substitute for concentrate significantly increased the roughage, NSC and ADF intake and faecal N output as a proportion of N intake and manure N output. Furthermore, this increase in alfalfa input levels decreased DE, ME and N intake; nutrient digestibility; DE/GE, ME/GE and CH4 emissions per day; CH4 output expressed as a portion of the DM, OM and GE intake; and urinary N and ammonia N output, especially between extreme treatments. Alfalfa input levels had no effect on the BW, DM and GE intake; the EB or EB/GE intake; and the retained N. This study indicated that increasing alfalfa input as a substitute for concentrate could significantly decrease the digestibility, CH4 emissions and urinary N and NH4 + -N outputs; and shift the N excretion from urine to faeces; and could sustain a similar DM intake.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Dieta/veterinaria , Fibras de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Medicago sativa , Metano/biosíntesis , Ovinos/metabolismo , Amoníaco/metabolismo , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Femenino , Nitrógeno/orina
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1797-1805, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849061

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Two consecutive trials were carried out to study the effects of dietary supplementation of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) metabolism (Trial 1), and consequently the nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from urine in beef cattle (Trial 2). Eight 24-month-old castrated Simmental bulls with liveweights of 494 ± 28 kg, and four levels of dietary supplementation of RPM at 0, 10, 20, and 30 g head-1 d-1 , were allocated in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square for Trial 1 and the N2 O emissions from the urine samples collected in Trial 1 were measured using a static incubation technique in Trial 2. RESULTS: Supplementation of RPM at 0, 10, 20, and 30 g head-1 d-1 to a basal ration deficient in methionine (Met) did not affect the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, or acid detergent fiber (P > 0.05), but decreased the urinary excretions of total N (P < 0.05) and urea (P < 0.001), increased the ratio of N retention / digested N (P < 0.05) in beef cattle, and decreased the estimated cattle urine N2 O-N emissions by 19.5%, 23.4%, and 32.6%, respectively (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Supplementation of RPM to Met-deficient rations was effective in improving the utilization rate of dietary N and decreasing the N2 O emissions from urine in beef cattle. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Nitrógeno/orina , Óxido Nitroso/orina , Rumen/metabolismo , Urea/orina , Orina/química , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos/orina , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis
6.
Animal ; 14(4): 753-762, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658932

RESUMEN

This study investigated the effect of forage type (grass or red clover) and harvesting time (primary growth or regrowth) of silage on energy and N utilisation by sheep fed at maintenance level. Specifically, the assumption of constant loss of energy of digestible organic matter from energy losses in urine and CH4 applied in evaluation of silage metabolisable energy (ME) was investigated. Urinary excretion of high-energy phenolic compounds related to solubilisation of lignin was assumed to affect urinary energy (UE) losses from sheep fed highly digestible grass silage (GS). A total of 25 primary growth and regrowth silages of timothy (Phleum pratense) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) grass mixtures and red clover (Trifolium pratense) samples collected in digestibility trials with sheep, including faecal and urine samples, were used for energy and N determinations. Urinary concentration of monophenolic compounds and CH4 emissions in vitro were also analysed. Daily faecal N output, CH4 yield (MJ/kg DM intake), proportion of CH4 energy in digestible energy (DE) and proportion of UE in DE were greater (P ≤ 0.03) in sheep fed red clover silage (RCS) than GS. Furthermore, less (P = 0.01) energy was lost as UE of DE in sheep fed primary growth GS compared with the other treatments. The relationship between UE and silage N intake or urinary N output for both silage types (i.e. grass v. red clover) was strong, but the fit of the regressions was better for GS than RCS. The CH4/DE ratio decreased (P < 0.05) and the UE/DE ratio increased (P < 0.05) with increasing organic matter digestibility in RCS. These relationships were not significant (P < 0.05) for the GS diets. The regression coefficient was higher (P < 0.05) for GS than RCS when regressing ME concentration on digestible organic matter. The results of this study imply that ME/DE ratio is not constant across first-cut GS of different maturities. The ME production response may be smaller from highly digestible first-cut GS but could not be clearly related to urinary excretion of monophenols derived from solubilisation of lignin. Furthermore, energy lost in urine was not clearly defined for RCS and was much more predictable for GS from silage N concentration.


Asunto(s)
Metabolismo Energético , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Poaceae , Ovinos/fisiología , Ensilaje/análisis , Trifolium , Animales , Pared Celular/química , Dieta/veterinaria , Digestión , Heces/química , Femenino , Festuca , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/orina , Lignina/metabolismo , Metano/análisis , Metano/metabolismo , Leche/metabolismo , Nitrógeno/orina , Phleum
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(2): 583-589, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456139

RESUMEN

Intake, digestion and nitrogen retention were measured in fifteen 1-year-old Black Belly rams that had an average weight of 35.3 (± 1.59) kg and that consumed mixed diets. Diets consisted of old Dichanthium spp. hay distributed ad libitum, combined with 500 g (dry matter basis) of green or pelleted cassava foliage. Alfalfa pellets were used as a control for foliage supplement. The experiment was run in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Total dry matter intake was lower (P < 0.05) with the green foliage cassava diet compared with the alfalfa pellet diet. Differences were not significant (P < 0.12) with the green cassava foliage diet compared with the cassava foliage pellet diet. Total tract digestion of organic matter, crude protein and cell wall components in cassava green foliage and cassava foliage pellet diets were significantly lower than in the alfalfa diet. Crude protein total tract digestion was similar for cassava green foliage and cassava foliage pellet diets, while fibre digestion was lower with cassava green foliage diets. Retained nitrogen was significantly higher with the alfalfa diet compared with cassava diets-between which there were no differences. Urinary nitrogen excretion was similar between all diets. In conclusion, pelleting does not decrease the feed value of cassava foliage, but this value is nevertheless lower than the feed value of alfalfa.


Asunto(s)
Digestión/fisiología , Manihot , Poaceae , Ovinos/fisiología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinaria , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Manipulación de Alimentos , Masculino , Medicago sativa , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Nitrógeno/orina , Rumen/metabolismo
8.
Ups J Med Sci ; 124(4): 254-259, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847792

RESUMEN

Background: Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage often have impaired consciousness and cannot regulate nutritional intakes themselves. Previous studies have demonstrated elevated energy expenditure in the acute phase, but it is not known whether the energy demand is constant during the first week after onset of the disease. In this study, we performed daily measurements of energy expenditure with indirect calorimetry during the first 7 days after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in mechanically ventilated patients.Methods: Metabolic measurements were performed daily with indirect calorimetry in 26 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. All patients were intubated and mechanically ventilated. The measured value was compared to the predicted values from the Harris-Benedict equation and the Penn State University 1998 equation. Urinary nitrogen excretion was measured daily.Results: There was a significant increase in energy expenditure during days 2-3 compared to days 5-6. The Harris-Benedict equation underestimated metabolic demand. The Penn State 1998 equation was closer to the measured values, but still underestimated caloric need. Urinary nitrogen excretion increased throughout the first week from initially low values.Conclusions: There is a dynamic course in energy expenditure in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, with increasing metabolic demand during the first week of the disease. Indirect calorimetry could be used more often to help provide an adequate amount of energy.


Asunto(s)
Metabolismo Energético , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea/fisiopatología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Calorimetría Indirecta , Femenino , Humanos , Intubación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nitrógeno/orina , Respiración Artificial , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea/terapia
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8559-8570, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301843

RESUMEN

Because of its high yield and the ability of cows to graze it in situ, fodder beet (FB) has become a popular crop in grazing systems, particularly for nonlactating cows. Due to its high sugar content, however, the transition to FB must be managed carefully to avoid rumen acidosis and associated metabolic dysfunction. The initial consumption of FB reduces ruminal pH; however, it is unclear whether this affects liver metabolism and results in systemic inflammation, as has been reported during subacute ruminal acidosis from high-grain diets. We used a quantitative case study approach to undertake additional measurements on a project demonstrating the effects of FB on urinary nitrogen excretion. The objective of our component, therefore, was to determine whether the inclusion of high rates of FB in the diet of nonlactating cows changed indicators of hepatic metabolism relative to a standard diet for nonlactating grazing cows. During the nonlactating period, multiparous, pregnant Holstein-Friesian cows were randomly assigned (n = 15 per treatment) to either pasture (8 kg of DM/cow per day) with corn silage (4 kg of DM/cow per day; PA) or transitioning onto an FB diet (8 kg of DM/cow per day) with pasture silage (4 kg of DM/cow per day; BT) over 14 d. Blood was sampled and the liver was biopsied during the adaptation period and after 7 d of full diet allocation. The hepatic expression of genes involved in peroxisomal oxidation was increased in cows adapting to FB, whereas the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial oxidation was increased when cows were on their full allocation of FB. These results indicate changes to fatty acid metabolism with FB consumption. Expression of 2 genes involved in the unfolded protein response was greater during the adaptation period in cows consuming FB, potentially reflecting negative effects of transitioning onto the FB diet on hepatic metabolism. Interestingly, expression of genes involved in the methionine cycle was increased in the BT cows. We hypothesize that this is a result of FB betaine absorption, although it is unclear to what extent betaine escapes ruminal degradation. While on the full diet allocation, there were lower serum concentrations of markers of hepatic stress in BT cows and no difference in expression of genes involved in oxidative stress compared with pasture-fed cows. However, there was an increase in plasma haptoglobin concentrations, indicative of an acute inflammatory response in BT cows. From this case study, we conclude that the results indicate no negative effects of the FB diet on liver metabolism and, possibly, positive effects on hepatic function. It appears, therefore, that the transition of nonlactating cows onto an FB diet can be managed to minimize the negative effects of the high sugar intake. Further research on the amount of betaine that escapes ruminal degradation in cows consuming FB would be of value to better understand whether betaine reduces liver damage in dairy cows consuming FB.


Asunto(s)
Beta vulgaris , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Hígado/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal/efectos adversos , Animales , Antioxidantes/análisis , Beta vulgaris/efectos adversos , Beta vulgaris/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Femenino , Expresión Génica , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Lactancia/fisiología , Leche/química , Nitrógeno/orina , Embarazo , Rumen/química , Zea mays
10.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3472-3486, 2019 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251796

RESUMEN

The objectives of the study were 1) to quantify dietary N utilized for milk N and N loss in urine and feces, in sows fed increasing dietary CP with a constant amount of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp to meet their standardized ileal digestible (SID) requirement and 2) to determine the optimal dietary CP concentration based on dietary N utilization for milk production. Seventy-two sows were fed 1 of 6 dietary treatments, formulated to increase the SID CP as followed: 11.8, 12.8, 13.4, 14.0, 14.7, and 15.6% and formulated to be isocaloric (9.8 MJ NE/kg). Diets were fed from day 2 after parturition until weaning at day 28 (± 3 d). Litters were equalized to 14 piglets and weighed within 48 h following parturition. Sows were weighed and back fat scanned, at day 18 (± 3 d) and day 28 (weaning; ± 3 d). Litter weight was recorded at day 11, 18 (± 3 d), and 28 (± 3 d). Nitrogen balances were conducted on approximately day 4, 11, and 18 (± 3 d). Daily milk yield was estimated from recorded litter gain and litter size. To calculate sows mobilization of fat and protein, body pools of fat and protein were estimated by D2O (deuterated water) enrichment on day 4 and 18 (± 3 d). No linear, quadratic, or cubic effects of increasing dietary CP was observed for sows total feed intake, sow BW, body pools of protein and fat, protein and fat mobilization, total milk yield, and piglet performance. The protein content in milk increased linearly with increasing dietary CP in week 1 (P < 0.05), week 2 (P < 0.05), and week 3 (P < 0.001). Urine production did not differ among treatments and N output in urine increased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration in week 1 (P = 0.05), week 2 (P < 0.001), and week 3 (P < 0.001). Urine N excretion relative to N intake increased linearly with increasing dietary CP (P < 0.001). Milk N utilization relative to N intake decreased linearly from 77.8% to 63.1% from treatment 1 through 6 (P < 0.001). Corrected milk N utilization decreased from 68.6% to 64.2% from treatment 1 through 6 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, a low dietary CP concentration for lactating sows with supplemented crystalline AA improved the efficiency of dietary N utilization and reduced the N output in urine without affecting lactation performance.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/farmacología , Proteínas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Leche/metabolismo , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Porcinos/fisiología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Dieta/veterinaria , Ingestión de Alimentos , Heces/química , Femenino , Íleon/metabolismo , Lactancia , Tamaño de la Camada/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Leche/química , Nitrógeno/orina , Embarazo , Distribución Aleatoria , Destete
11.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 370(2): 288-298, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152006

RESUMEN

In mouse pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, current standard methods often require large numbers of animals to support collection of blood samples serially over a defined time range. We have developed and validated a noninvasive fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) heart imaging approach for blood PK quantification that uses small numbers of mice and has the advantage of repeated, longitudinal live imaging. This method was validated using a variety of near infrared (NIR) fluorescent-labeled molecules, ranging in size from 1.3 to 150 kDa, that were assessed by microplate blood assays as well as by noninvasive FMT 4000 imaging. Excellent agreement in kinetic profiles and calculated PK metrics was seen for the two methods, establishing the robustness of this noninvasive optical imaging approach. FMT heart imaging was further assessed in the challenging application of inulin-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement. After a single bolus injection of an NIR fluorescent-labeled inulin probe in small cohorts of mice (n = 5 per group), 2-minute heart scans (at 2, 6, 15, 30, and 45 minutes) were performed by FMT imaging. GFR was calculated using two-compartment PK modeling, determining an average rate of 240 ± 21 µl/min in normal mice, in agreement with published mouse GFR ranges. Validation of GFR assessment in unilaterally nephrectomized mice and cyclosporin A-treated mice both measured ∼50% decreases in GFR. Imaging results correlated well with ex vivo plasma microplate assays for inulin blood kinetics, and the decreases in GFR were accompanied by increases in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen.


Asunto(s)
Sangre/metabolismo , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular/efectos de los fármacos , Corazón/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen Óptica , Tomografía , Animales , Sangre/efectos de los fármacos , Creatinina/sangre , Femenino , Ratones , Nitrógeno/orina , Distribución Tisular
12.
J Nutr ; 149(7): 1122-1132, 2019 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162587

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The minimum to which dietary crude protein (CP) level for broiler chickens can be reduced without decreasing growth and the glycine equivalent (Glyequi) concentration required are not known. The plasma metabolome might reflect dietary influences on physiological processes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 low CP levels with 4 Glyequi concentrations on growth and characteristics of nitrogen excretion, and to identify plasma metabolome variations. METHODS: Male Ross308 broiler chickens were provided 1 of 12 dietary treatments in 84 metabolism cages (10/cage) from days 7 to 21. Three diets with 163 (CP163), 147 (CP147), and 132 (CP132) g CP/kg were formulated, each containing 12, 15, 18, and 21 g Glyequi/kg. Essential amino acid concentrations were the same in all diets. Animals and feed were weighed on days 7 and 21 to determine average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed ratio (G:F). Excreta were collected from days 18 to 21 to analyze nitrogenous components, and blood was obtained on day 21 to conduct a metabolome analysis. RESULTS: Two-factor ANOVA showed significant interaction effects for ADG, G:F, and nitrogen efficiency (P < 0.001). Reduction of CP decreased ADG and G:F, and increased nitrogen efficiency. Glyequi supplementation increased ADG (by 7.9 g/d) and G:F (by 0.07 g/g) at CP132. The ADG (by 2.4 g/d) at CP147 and G:F (by 0.02 g/g) at CP147 and CP163 increased up to 15 g Glyequi/kg. Multivariate statistical analysis showed an influence of Glyequi on plasma acylcarnitine and lysophosphatidylcholine concentrations, and a decrease of plasma phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin concentrations with reduced CP. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a nutrient other than Glyequi limited growth when CP was reduced from CP163 to CP147, and that the response of broiler chickens to Glyequi is dependent on the dietary CP level. Plasma metabolites indicate dietary influences on the physiological state of the animals.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pollos/metabolismo , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Glicina/análisis , Metaboloma , Nitrógeno/orina , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Pollos/sangre , Masculino
13.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(3): 714-717, 2019 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144979

RESUMEN

Introduction: Background: protein restriction is the mainstay of dietary management of chronic kidney disease. Aim: to assess the usefulness of urine urea nitrogen measurement as a marker of protein restriction. Methods: healthy young participants were randomly divided in two groups. During 14 days, one group received a diet containing 30 kcal/kg body weight and 1 g protein/kg body weight and the other group received a diet with the same amount of calories and 0.6 g/kg of proteins. At baseline, seven days and 14 days, 24 h dietary recalls were answered by the participants. They collected 24 hour urine and provided spot urine samples at baseline and at the end of the intervention, to measure creatinine and urea nitrogen. Results: forty-one participants aged 29 ± 5 years completed the follow-up. According to 24h dietary recalls, the group receiving 0.6 g/kg protein reduced significantly the protein intake during the intervention from 0.88 ± 0.06 to 0.59 ± 0.05 g/kg/day. A significant reduction in 24 h urea nitrogen excretion was also observed in this group. In the group receiving 1 g/kg of protein, no significant changes in 24 h urea nitrogen excretion were observed. Among all participants, the odds ratio of observing a reduction in protein intake in the dietary survey was 5.75 (95% confidence intervals 1.29-25.55, p = 0.02), when a reduction in 24 h urea nitrogen excretion corrected by creatinine was observed. No changes were observed in urea nitrogen excretion in spot urine samples. Conclusions: repeated urea nitrogen excretion measured in 24 h urine samples can be a reliable indicator of dietary protein restriction.


Asunto(s)
Dieta con Restricción de Proteínas , Cooperación del Paciente , Urea/orina , Adolescente , Adulto , Creatinina/orina , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nitrógeno/orina , Oportunidad Relativa , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/dietoterapia , Adulto Joven
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 258, 2019 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072387

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Eggshell membranes, the thin film lining the insides of eggshells, are constituted mostly from protein (eggshell membrane protein, ESM-P). The digestibility and dietary net protein utility of ESM-P are not known. ESM-P functions as a barrier to prevent foreign matter from reaching the egg white and yolk, so it would be expected not to decompose easily by digestion when ingested. We therefore prepared a hydrolysate of the membrane (ESM-H). In this study, we assessed the digestibility and net protein utility of ESM-P and ESM-H in rats. RESULTS: The digestibility of ESM-P and ESM-H were 87.0% and 94.8%, respectively, significantly lower than that of casein (98.5%). The net protein utility values were 84.7% and 84.6%, respectively, significantly higher than that of casein (75.1%). Digestibility was significantly higher for ESM-H than for ESM-P, but there was no significant difference in net protein utility between ESM-P and ESM-H. These results demonstrated that more than 80% of ESM-P or ESM-H is absorbed and utilised in the bodies of rats.


Asunto(s)
Absorción Fisiológica , Cáscara de Huevo/metabolismo , Proteínas de la Membrana/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análisis , Animales , Digestión , Heces/química , Masculino , Nitrógeno/orina , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(6): 5212-5218, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981480

RESUMEN

Nitrogen concentrations in feeds, feces, milk, and urine samples were measured using 2 analytical methods following different drying procedures. Ten samples of corn silage, alfalfa silage, and concentrates collected from 2017 to 2018 at Krauss Dairy Research Center, The Ohio State University (Wooster), were used. A 4-d total collection digestion trial provided fecal samples from 10 cows (1 sample/cow), and another 10 cows were used to collect milk samples (1 sample/cow) and spot urine samples (1 sample/cow). Spot urine samples were acidified immediately to pH <3.0 when collected. Feed samples were oven dried (55°C) or lyophilized and analyzed using the Kjeldahl (KJ; copper sulfate as a catalyst) method and a combustion method (elemental analyzer; EA). Feces, urine, and milk samples were analyzed for N using the following methods: (1) fresh samples by KJ (referred to as wet KJ), (2) lyophilization (urine and milk for 8 h; feces for 120 h) followed by EA (LYO-EA), and (3) oven drying (milk and urine for 1 h; feces for 72 h at 55°C) followed by EA (OD-EA). Additionally, changes in N content of acidified urine at -20° over 180 d of storage were examined. Nitrogen concentrations in corn silage, alfalfa silage, and concentrates were greater for EA by 6.1, 4.8, and 8.3%, respectively, compared with KJ. Analysis of dried samples via EA compared with wet KJ resulted in lower fecal N content (27.8 vs. 29.3 g/kg of DM). Nitrogen concentration in fecal samples via KJ after lyophilization was lower by 5% compared with wet KJ but did not differ from LYO-EA, suggesting that N losses occurred during drying. Nitrogen determination with EA after drying of samples resulted in greater milk N (5.70 vs. 5.50 g/kg) and urinary N (9.16 vs. 9.06 g/kg) content compared with wet KJ. However, drying method (i.e., lyophilization vs. oven drying) did not affect N content of milk, urine, or feces. The use of EA resulted in lower percentage deviation of N content from duplicate sample assays for most samples (no difference was found for concentrate and fecal N), suggesting that EA was more precise than KJ. In conclusion, drying of feces caused N losses regardless of drying methods. For urine and milk samples, if drying is necessary (i.e., EA), oven drying at 55°C can be used rather than lyophilization. The N content was greater in feeds, milk, and urine when determined with EA versus KJ. In addition, N content in acidified and undiluted urine at -20° changed and should be analyzed within 90 d of storage. The results in the current study, however, did not account for laboratory-to-laboratory variation.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Bovinos , Leche/química , Nitrógeno/análisis , Animales , Desecación , Dieta/veterinaria , Heces/química , Femenino , Lactancia , Medicago sativa/química , Nitrógeno/orina , Ensilaje/análisis , Zea mays/química
16.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717308

RESUMEN

Our aim was to assess the validity of the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ15y) to estimate the protein intake in 248 Japanese secondary school students (mean age = 14.2 years), using urinary biomarkers as references. Participants provided three samples of overnight urine for measurement of urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, underwent anthropometric measurements, and answered the questionnaires. Additionally, 58 students provided 24-h urine specimens. A significant correlation was observed between excretion of urea nitrogen in overnight and 24-h urine specimens (ρ = 0.527; p < 0.001), with biases ≤5.8%. The mean daily protein intake estimated from urinary biomarkers was 76.4 ± 20.4 g/d in males and 65.4 ± 16.9 g/d in females, and the mean protein intake estimated from the BDHQ15y (PRTbdhq) was 89.3 ± 33.7 g/d in males and 79.6 ± 24.6 g/d in females. Crude and energy-adjusted coefficients of correlation between PRTbdhq and protein intake estimated from urinary biomarkers were 0.205 (p = 0.001; 0.247 for males and 0.124 for females), and 0.204 (p = 0.001; 0.302 for males and 0.109 for females), respectively. The BDHQ15y is a low-cost tool to assess protein intake of a large population, instead of a weakness of overestimation.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Proteínas en la Dieta/análisis , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Nitrógeno/orina , Urea/orina , Adolescente , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estadísticos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 34(5): 751-759, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729565

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Published guidelines recommend providing at least 2 g/kg/d of protein for critically ill surgical patients. It may be difficult to achieve this level of intake using standard enteral formulas, thus necessitating protein or amino acid supplementation. Herein, we report our approach to enteral protein supplementation and its relationship with urinary nitrogen excretion and serum transthyretin concentrations. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study in which we reviewed critically ill trauma and surgical patients treated with supplemental enteral protein according to a protocol aiming to deliver a total of 2 g/kg/d of protein. We collected detailed nutrition data over a 2-week period after admission and obtained additional data through discharge to determine caloric and protein intake as well as complications. We also compared urine nitrogen excretion and transthyretin concentrations between these patients and a control group who did not receive supplemental protein. RESULTS: Fifty-three subjects received early protein supplementation. Formula and protein supplement each provided ≈1.2 g/kg/d of protein by intensive care unit day 4. This resulted in a median total protein intake of 2.2 g/kg/d through day 14. One patient developed acute kidney injury, and 1 patient had 3 episodes of vomiting. By the third week, serum transthyretin concentrations increased to a median of 21 mg/dL compared with 13 mg/dL in subjects not receiving early supplementation. CONCLUSION: It is safe to deliver supplemental protein enterally to critically ill surgical and trauma patients and reach 2 g/kg/d of protein intake during the first week of illness.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crítica/terapia , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Nutrición Enteral/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nitrógeno/orina , Prealbúmina/análisis , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
J Ren Nutr ; 29(4): 289-294, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630662

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In a prospective multicenter study on adult patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) receiving enteral and/or parenteral nutrition, administered carbohydrates and lipids were compared to the prescribed amounts, as well as to substrate utilization data derived from indirect calorimetry measurements. METHODS: Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured by indirect calorimetry. Nitrogen excretion was obtained from the protein catabolic rate calculated from urinary urea nitrogen when available and by urea kinetic-based methods in patients on renal replacement therapy. Fat and carbohydrate oxidations were derived from Frayn formulas. RESULTS: Ninety-two REE measurements were available in 35 critically ill patients with AKI (16 on renal replacement therapy). The mean lipid oxidation rate was 101 g/24 h (standard deviation [SD] 73.8), whereas prescribed lipids were 67 g/24 h (SD 32; P < .001). Carbohydrate utilization was derived from the same REE measurements yielding a mean carbohydrate oxidation of 105.8 g/24 h (SD 131.8), thus, much lower than the prescribed carbohydrates (186.7 g/24 h; SD 74.3; P < .001). The amount of fat and carbohydrates administered correlated to the prescribed amount (r = 0.896 and r = 0.829, respectively). Further analysis showed that this nutritional pattern was independent from the presence of sepsis. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that critically ill patients with AKI do not receive an amount of carbohydrate and lipids adequate to support their needs on the basis of measured substrate utilization data. Thus, current nutritional approach in these patients, based on commercial formulas, should be challenged with measured substrate utilization-guided nutritional support.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/fisiología , Lípidos/administración & dosificación , Lesión Renal Aguda/terapia , Anciano , Calorimetría Indirecta , Enfermedad Crítica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nitrógeno/orina , Apoyo Nutricional/métodos , Oxidación-Reducción , Estudios Prospectivos , Terapia de Reemplazo Renal/métodos
19.
Turk J Pediatr ; 61(3): 352-358, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916712

RESUMEN

Wu R, Li LH, Tian ZF, Xu WY, Hu JH, Liu YY. Nitrogen balance of very preterm infants with extrauterine growth restriction. Turk J Pediatr 2019; 61: 352-358. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of nitrogen balance in preterm infants with extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) during hospitalization. A total of 64 very preterm infants admitted to the Neonatal Medical Center of Huai`an Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital were enrolled from May to October 2014. These infants had gestational ages less than 32 weeks and were within 24 hours after birth. The enrolled infants were classified into EUGR (n=18) and non EUGR (n=46) groups according to the discharge weight being below or above the 10th percentile of the expected intrauterine growth for the postmenstrual age. The urinary urea nitrogen of the infants were assayed by the Kjeldahl method and determined at 1st, 7th, 14th and 28th day after birth. Nitrogen balance at each time point was calculated and compared between the EUGR and non EUGR groups. The incidence rate of small for gestational age (SGA) infants (33.3% vs 0.0%) in the EUGR group was higher than that in non EUGR group. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The birth weight (1.37±0.20 vs 1.63±0.27) and birth weight Z-score (-1.14±0.29 vs-0.37±0.66) in the EUGR group were lower those in non EUGR group. The difference was statistically significant (all p < 0.05). At the 1st, 7th, 14th and 28th day after birth, nitrogen balance values of all infants were negative, showing an upward trend with age. At each observation time point, the nitrogen balance values in the EUGR group were lower than those in non-EUGR group. The differences on the 1st and 28th day between two groups were statistically significant (both p < 0.05), while those on the other time point were not statistically significant (both p > 0.05). All very preterm infants of study were in negative nitrogen balance while the infants of EUGR group had more seriously negative balance.


Asunto(s)
Retardo del Crecimiento Fetal , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Nitrógeno/orina , Urea/orina , Peso al Nacer , Femenino , Edad Gestacional , Hospitalización , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Recién Nacido Pequeño para la Edad Gestacional , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(2): 1601-1607, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471912

RESUMEN

Our objectives were to assess the relationships between milk urea N (MUN), serum urea N (SUN), urine N (UN), and urinary urea N (UUN) in late-lactation cows fed N-limiting diets and compare these relationships with those previously established. Data were from a pen-based study in which 128 Holstein cows had been assigned to 1 of 16 pens in a randomized complete block design to assess the effects of diets containing 16.2, 14.4, 13.1, and 11.8% crude protein (CP, dry matter basis) during a 12-wk period. At least half of the cows in each pen were randomly selected to collect pen-level samples of serum and urine in wk 3, 7, and 11, when wk in lactation averaged 35, 39, and 43, respectively. A mixed model was developed to study the relationship of MUN with SUN, UN, and UUN. Week of lactation did not affect the relation between MUN and SUN across dietary treatments. However, we found a week × MUN interaction, suggesting that between wk 35 and 43 of lactation, UN excretion decreased from 89 to 73 g/d (-17 g/d) when MUN was 6.0 mg/dL (11.8% dietary CP) but increased from 142 to 149 g/d (+7 g/d) when MUN was 13.3 mg/dL (16.2% dietary CP). These effects were essentially due to changes in UUN excretion, which declined from 54 to 37 g/d (-17 g/d) and increased from 112 to 117 g/d (+5 g/d) when MUN was 6.0 and 13.3 mg/dL, respectively. When MUN was 11.2 mg/dL (15% dietary CP), UN and UUN excretions remained constant over time. Based on root mean squared prediction error and the concordance correlation coefficient, these data did not conform to most previously published prediction equations because of both mean and slope biases. The discrepancy could have resulted from difference in study design (cow vs. pen as experimental unit), dietary treatments (energy vs. N-limiting diets), frequency of measurement and duration of adaptation period (single measurement after 1 to 3 wk of adaptation vs. repeated measurements over a 12-wk period), method for determining urine volume (total collection vs. spot sampling), and the assay used to measure MUN. However, our data captured changes in kidney physiology that warrant further studies of long-term renal adaptation to N-limiting diets.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Leche/química , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Animales , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Bovinos/orina , Femenino , Lactancia , Nitrógeno/orina , Urea/análisis , Urea/orina
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