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1.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 303, 2022 06 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701453

RESUMEN

Due to their relevance for the entire society, environmental hazards have largely been investigated in terms of their psychological effects. However, a complete image database comprising different categories of catastrophes has not been proposed yet. We selected 200 photographs of the most frequent natural disasters with the aim to collect the emotional reactions of observers. In particular, 20 stimuli were selected for each of the following 10 categories: earthquake, volcanic activity, lightning, hailstorm, drought, fire, landslide, epidemic, and neutral and positive images as control categories. A sample of 605 participants completed an online survey, in which they were asked to rate either the valence or the arousal of each stimulus, by using a Self-Assessment Manikin. The Environmental Risk to Humans database associates the emotional reactions to these visual stimuli, together with the demographics of the sample (e.g., gender, age, marital status, income, previous experience of natural disasters). The database constitutes a tool to explore human reactions to natural hazards, providing a controlled set of stimuli for different types of catastrophes.


Asunto(s)
Nivel de Alerta , Bases de Datos Factuales , Emociones , Sustancias Peligrosas , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 76: 101752, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738684

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Avoidance, inherent to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, is theoretically and empirically linked to the maintenance of PTSD symptom severity. While research indicates traumatized individuals avoid positive and trauma memories, several PTSD treatments focus exclusively on traumatic memories. We examined the mediating role of PTSD's avoidance in the relationship between processing positive memories and PTSD cluster severity (intrusion, mood/cognitions, arousal). METHODS: Sixty-five trauma-exposed college students (Mage = 22.52; 86.10% female) were randomly assigned to 3 conditions: narrating/processing, writing/processing, or control (same task across baseline [T0] and follow-up [T1]). RESULTS: Half-longitudinal mediation models indicated participation in the narrating vs. writing and control conditions predicted decreases in T1 intrusion severity via reduction in T1 avoidance severity. Similarly, participation in the narrating vs. writing and control conditions predicted decreases in T1 mood/cognitions' severity via reduction in T1 avoidance severity. Participation in the narrating vs. writing condition predicted decreases in T1 arousal severity via reduction in T1 avoidance severity. LIMITATIONS: Data was obtained from an analogue small-size sample of university students. In addition, sessions were only 6-8 days apart, with the processing component of each session lasting ∼30 min. CONCLUSIONS: Processing positive memories may relate to lower PTSD severity via a reduction in PTSD's avoidance, paralleling effects of processing trauma memories. Our findings support future investigations of the mechanisms underlying impacts of positive memory processing in the context of PTSD treatments.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Adulto , Afecto , Nivel de Alerta , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Memoria/fisiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Síndrome , Adulto Joven
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10613, 2022 Jun 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739234

RESUMEN

Affective experience has an important role in decision-making with recent theories suggesting a modulatory role of affect in ongoing subjective value computations. However, it is unclear how varying expectations and uncertainty dynamically influence affective experience and how dynamic representation of affect modulates risky choices. Using hierarchical Bayesian modeling on data from a risky choice task (N = 101), we find that the temporal integration of recently encountered choice parameters (expected value, uncertainty, and prediction errors) shapes affective experience and impacts subsequent choice behavior. Specifically, self-reported arousal prior to choice was associated with increased loss aversion, risk aversion, and choice consistency. Taken together, these findings provide clear behavioral evidence for continuous affective modulation of subjective value computations during risky decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Asunción de Riesgos , Afecto , Nivel de Alerta , Teorema de Bayes , Conducta de Elección , Humanos
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(25): e2201143119, 2022 Jun 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696573

RESUMEN

Good sleepers and patients with insomnia symptoms (poor sleepers) were tracked with two measures of arousal; conventional polysomnography (PSG) for electroencephalogram (EEG) assessed cortical arousals, and a peripheral arterial tonometry device was used for the detection of peripheral nervous system (PNS) arousals associated with vasoconstrictions. The relationship between central (cortical) and peripheral (autonomic) arousals was examined by evaluating their close temporal dynamics. Cortical arousals almost invariably were preceded and followed by peripheral activations, while large peripheral autonomic arousals were followed by cortical arousals only half of the time. The temporal contiguity of these two types of arousals was altered in poor sleepers, and poor sleepers displayed a higher number of cortical and peripheral arousals compared with good sleepers. Given the difference in the number of peripheral autonomic arousals between good and poor sleepers, an evaluation of such arousals could become a means of physiologically distinguishing poor sleepers.


Asunto(s)
Nivel de Alerta , Sistema Nervioso Autónomo , Corteza Cerebral , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/fisiología , Corteza Cerebral/fisiología , Electroencefalografía , Humanos , Polisomnografía , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/fisiopatología
5.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 138: 104712, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643119

RESUMEN

Organisms ranging from plants to higher mammals have developed 24-hour oscillation rhythms to optimize physiology to environmental changes and regulate a plethora of neuroendocrine and behavioral processes, including neurotransmitter and hormone regulation, stress response and learning and memory function. Compelling evidence indicates that a wide array of memory processes is strongly influenced by stress- and emotional arousal-activated neurobiological systems, including the endocannabinoid system which has been extensively shown to play an integral role in mediating stress effects on memory. Here, we review findings showing how circadian rhythms and time-of-day influence stress systems and memory performance. We report evidence of circadian regulation of memory under stress, focusing on the role of the endocannabinoid system and highlighting its circadian rhythmicity. Our discussion illustrates how the endocannabinoid system mediates stress effects on memory in a circadian-dependent fashion. We suggest that endocannabinoids might regulate molecular mechanisms that control memory function under circadian and stress influence, with potential important clinical implications for both neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric conditions involving memory impairments.


Asunto(s)
Nivel de Alerta , Endocannabinoides , Animales , Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Ritmo Circadiano , Emociones/fisiología , Endocannabinoides/fisiología , Humanos , Mamíferos , Memoria/fisiología
7.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 142: 105818, 2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662007

RESUMEN

The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a reliable and efficient protocol to induce acute psychosocial stress in the laboratory. If circumstances do not allow in-person assessments, an online version of the TSST could create more flexible research opportunities. To date, studies have confirmed subjective and autonomic stress responses to online TSST protocols. In this preregistered study (https://osf.io/u57aj), we focused on the effect of a TSST online for adults (TSST-OA) on cortisol and alpha amylase levels, and pleasure and arousal ratings. As cortisol stress reactivity is mediated by sex, we further compared men and women. We hypothesized significant increases in cortisol, alpha amylase and arousal, and a decrease in pleasure in response to the TSST-OA. Also, we expected stronger cortisol responses in males as compared with females, as in the laboratory TSST. N = 48 adults (56% female, meanage=23.02 years, SD=3.19) participated in the study. Saliva sampling devices were sent to participants' home before testing sessions, during which the experimenter, a mixed-sex panel, and the participant joined a video call. Participants underwent the TSST-OA and overall provided five saliva samples for cortisol and alpha amylase detection. Pleasure and arousal ratings and psychometric questionnaires were also completed online. As hypothesized, the TSST-OA significantly increased cortisol, alpha amylase, and arousal levels, while it decreased pleasure. Moreover, cortisol responses were significantly stronger in males as compared to females. 64% of subjects were classified as responders (cortisol rise>1.5nmol/l). The TSST-OA successfully induced psychophysiological stress in adults. Our protocol offers new possibilities to study stress outside of the laboratory.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocortisona , Nivel de Alerta , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Placer , Pruebas Psicológicas/normas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto Joven , alfa-Amilasas/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269156, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709093

RESUMEN

This study aimed to discover predictors of subjective and objective difficulty in emotion perception from dynamic facial expressions. We used a multidimensional emotion perception framework, in which observers rated the perceived emotion along a number of dimensions instead of choosing from traditionally-used discrete categories of emotions. Data were collected online from 441 participants who rated facial expression stimuli in a novel paradigm designed to separately measure subjective (self-reported) and objective (deviation from the population consensus) difficulty. We targeted person-specific (sex and age of observers and actors) and stimulus-specific (valence and arousal values) predictors of those difficulty scores. Our findings suggest that increasing age of actors makes emotion perception more difficult for observers, and that perception difficulty is underestimated by men in comparison to women, and by younger and older adults in comparison to middle-aged adults. The results also yielded an increase in the objective difficulty measure for female observers and female actors. Stimulus-specific factors-valence and arousal-exhibited quadratic relationships with subjective and objective difficulties: Very positive and very negative stimuli were linked to reduced subjective and objective difficulty, whereas stimuli of very low and high arousal were linked to decreased subjective but increased objective difficulty. Exploratory analyses revealed low relevance of person-specific variables for the prediction of difficulty but highlighted the importance of valence in emotion perception, in line with functional accounts of emotions. Our findings highlight the need to complement traditional emotion recognition paradigms with novel designs, like the one presented here, to grasp the "big picture" of human emotion perception.


Asunto(s)
Emociones , Expresión Facial , Anciano , Nivel de Alerta , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción , Autoinforme
9.
Sleep ; 45(5)2022 05 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35554586

RESUMEN

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The objective assessment of insomnia has remained difficult. Multisensory devices collecting heart rate (HR) and motion are regarded as the future of ambulatory sleep monitoring. Unfortunately, reports on altered average HR or heart rate variability (HRV) during sleep in insomnia are equivocal. Here, we evaluated whether the objective quantification of insomnia improves by assessing state-related changes in cardiac measures. METHODS: We recorded electrocardiography, posture, and actigraphy in 33 people without sleep complaints and 158 patients with mild to severe insomnia over 4 d in their home environment. At the microscale, we investigated whether HR changed with proximity to gross (body) and small (wrist) movements at nighttime. At the macroscale, we calculated day-night differences in HR and HRV measures. For both timescales, we tested whether outcome measures were related to insomnia diagnosis and severity. RESULTS: At the microscale, an increase in HR was often detectable already 60 s prior to as well as following a nocturnal chest, but not wrist, movement. This increase was slightly steeper in insomnia and was associated with insomnia severity, but future EEG recordings are necessary to elucidate whether these changes occur prior to or simultaneously with PSG-indicators of wakefulness. At the macroscale, we found an attenuated cardiac response to sleep in insomnia: patients consistently showed smaller day-night differences in HR and HRV. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating state-related changes in cardiac features in the ambulatory monitoring of sleep might provide a more sensitive biomarker of insomnia than the use of cardiac activity averages or actigraphy alone.


Asunto(s)
Actigrafía , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Humanos , Polisomnografía , Sueño/fisiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/complicaciones , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/diagnóstico
10.
Sleep ; 45(5)2022 05 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35554589

RESUMEN

STUDY OBJECTIVES: This paper reports on the multicentric validation of a novel FDA-cleared home sleep apnea test based on peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT HSAT). METHODS: One hundred sixty-seven participants suspected of having obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were included in a multicentric cohort. All patients underwent simultaneous polysomnography (PSG) and PAT HSAT, and all PSG data were independently double scored using both the recommended 1A rule for hypopnea, requiring a 3% desaturation or arousal (3% Rule), and the acceptable 1B rule for hypopnea, requiring a 4% desaturation (4% Rule). The double-scoring of PSG enabled a comparison of the agreement between PAT HSAT and PSG to the inter-rater agreement of PSG. Clinical endpoint parameters were selected to evaluate the device's ability to determine the OSA severity category. Finally, a correction for near-boundary apnea-hypopnea index values was proposed to adequately handle the inter-rater variability of the PSG benchmark. RESULTS: For both the 3% and the 4% Rules, most endpoint parameters showed a close agreement with PSG. The 4-way OSA severity categorization accuracy of PAT HSAT was strong, but nevertheless lower than the inter-rater agreement of PSG (70% vs 77% for the 3% Rule and 78% vs 81% for the 4% Rule). CONCLUSIONS: This paper reported on a multitude of robust endpoint parameters, in particular OSA severity categorization accuracies, while also benchmarking clinical performances against double-scored PSG. This study demonstrated strong agreement of PAT HSAT with PSG. The results of this study also suggest that different brands of PAT HSAT may have distinct clinical performance characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Síndromes de la Apnea del Sueño , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño , Nivel de Alerta , Humanos , Manometría , Polisomnografía/métodos , Síndromes de la Apnea del Sueño/diagnóstico , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/diagnóstico
11.
Comput Biol Med ; 145: 105519, 2022 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35585734

RESUMEN

In recent years, with the rapid development of machine learning, automatic emotion recognition based on electroencephalogram (EEG) signals has received increasing attention. However, owing to the great variance of EEG signals sampled from different subjects, EEG-based emotion recognition experiences the individual difference problem across subjects, which significantly hinders recognition performance. In this study, we presented a method for EEG-based emotion recognition using a combination of a multi-scale residual network (MSRN) and meta-transfer learning (MTL) strategy. The MSRN was used to represent connectivity features of EEG signals in a multi-scale manner, which utilized different receptive fields of convolution neural networks to capture the interactions of different brain regions. The MTL strategy fully used the merits of meta-learning and transfer learning to significantly reduce the gap in individual differences between various subjects. The proposed method can not only further explore the relationship between connectivity features and emotional states but also alleviate the problem of individual differences across subjects. The average cross-subject accuracies of the proposed method were 71.29% and 71.92% for the valence and arousal tasks on the DEAP dataset, respectively. It achieved an accuracy of 87.05% for the binary classification task on the SEED dataset. The results show that the framework has a positive effect on the cross-subject EEG emotion recognition task.


Asunto(s)
Nivel de Alerta , Electroencefalografía , Emociones , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Redes Neurales de la Computación
12.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 221: 105451, 2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35623311

RESUMEN

Individuals exhibit variability in the degree of correspondence between autonomic and subjective indicators of emotional experience. The current study examined whether convergence between autonomic arousal and negative emotions during emotion-inducing story vignettes is associated with internalizing symptoms in school-aged children. A diverse sample of 97 children aged 8 to 12 years participated in this study in which they reported on their anxiety and depression. Children's electrodermal activity was assessed while they read vignettes depicting children experiencing sadness and fear. Participants also reported on their emotional reaction to the vignettes. Children's anxiety and electrodermal activity to fear vignettes were associated only at high levels, but not mean or low levels, of self-reported negative emotions to fear vignettes. These findings suggest that hyperawareness, in which self-reported negative emotionality is high when physiological reactivity is also high, is associated with greater risk for anxiety, but not depression, during middle childhood.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Nivel de Alerta , Ansiedad/psicología , Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Niño , Emociones/fisiología , Miedo/fisiología , Humanos , Tristeza
13.
eNeuro ; 9(3)2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606150

RESUMEN

Electroencephalography (EEG) has long been used to index brain states, from early studies describing activity in the presence and absence of visual stimulation to modern work employing complex perceptual tasks. These studies have shed light on brain-wide signals but often lack explanatory power at the single neuron level. Similarly, single neuron recordings can suffer from an inability to measure brain-wide signals accessible using EEG. Here, we combined these techniques while monkeys performed a change detection task and discovered a novel link between spontaneous EEG activity and a neural signal embedded in the spiking responses of neuronal populations. This "slow drift" was associated with fluctuations in the subjects' arousal levels over time: decreases in prestimulus α power were accompanied by increases in pupil size and decreases in microsaccade rate. These results show that brain-wide EEG signals can be used to index modes of activity present in single neuron recordings, that in turn reflect global changes in brain state that influence perception and behavior.


Asunto(s)
Nivel de Alerta , Electroencefalografía , Encéfalo/fisiología , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Humanos , Neuronas , Estimulación Luminosa
14.
Brain Behav ; 12(6): e2597, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35560984

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Over the past years, electroencephalography (EEG) studies focused on task-related activity to characterize cortical responses associated with emotion regulation (ER), without exploring the possibility that regulating emotions can leave a trace in the brain by affecting its oscillatory activity. Demonstrating whether the effect of regulation alters the brain activity after the session and whether this reflects an increased cognitive regulatory ability has great relevance. METHODS: To address this issue, 5 min of electrical brain activity at rest were recorded before and after (1) one session in which participants perceived and regulated (through distancing) their emotions (regulation session, ReS), and (2) another session in which they only perceived emotions (attend session, AtS). One hundred and sixty visual stimuli were presented, and subjective ratings of valence and arousal of stimuli were recorded. RESULTS: Behavioral results showed the efficacy of the regulation strategy in modulating both arousal and valence. A cluster-based permutation test on EEG data at rest revealed a significant increase in theta and delta activity after the ReS compared to the AtS, suggesting that regulating emotions can alter brain activity after the session. CONCLUSIONS: These results allowed us to outline a comprehensive view of the neurophysiological mechanisms associated with ER, as well as some possible implications in psychotherapy.


Asunto(s)
Electroencefalografía , Emociones , Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Emociones/fisiología , Humanos
15.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267749, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584096

RESUMEN

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition affecting nearly a quarter of the United States war veterans who return from war zones. Treatment for PTSD typically consists of a combination of in-session therapy and medication. However; patients often experience their most severe PTSD symptoms outside of therapy sessions. Mobile health applications may address this gap, but their effectiveness is limited by the current gap in continuous monitoring and detection capabilities enabling timely intervention. The goal of this article is to develop a novel method to detect hyperarousal events using physiological and activity-based machine learning algorithms. Physiological data including heart rate and body acceleration as well as self-reported hyperarousal events were collected using a tool developed for commercial off-the-shelf wearable devices from 99 United States veterans diagnosed with PTSD over several days. The data were used to develop four machine learning algorithms: Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, Logistic Regression and XGBoost. The XGBoost model had the best performance in detecting onset of PTSD symptoms with over 83% accuracy and an AUC of 0.70. Post-hoc SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) additive explanation analysis showed that algorithm predictions were correlated with average heart rate, minimum heart rate and average body acceleration. Findings show promise in detecting onset of PTSD symptoms which could be the basis for developing remote and continuous monitoring systems for PTSD. Such systems may address a vital gap in just-in-time interventions for PTSD self-management outside of scheduled clinical appointments.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Veteranos , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Nivel de Alerta , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Estados Unidos , Veteranos/psicología
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 292: 43-48, 2022 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575847

RESUMEN

Burnout syndrome and depression are prevalent mental health problems in many societies today. Most existing methods used in clinical intervention and research are based on inventories. Natural Language Processing (NLP) enables new possibilities to automatically evaluate text in the context of clinical Psychology. In this paper, we show how affective word list ratings can be used to differentiate between texts indicating depression or burnout, and a control group. In particular, we show that depression and burnout show statistically significantly higher arousal than the control group.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural , Nivel de Alerta , Agotamiento Psicológico , Depresión/diagnóstico
17.
Psychiatr Hung ; 37(2): 133-149, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35582867

RESUMEN

Low sexual desire, also called Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder or Sexual Interest/ Arousal Disorder, is a type of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD). This article reviews diagnostic considerations, a historical overview of how current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria was developed, including a crossover from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) to DSM-5, diagnostic considerations in pharmaceutical treatments for low female sexual desire as well as the predominant sexual response cycle models that DSM-5 criteria was built on. It provides a historical overview of the two majorly divergent camps of perspective, namely the DSM-5 and the ICSM/ ICD classification systems, their theoretical and research basis. It concludes that female sexual desire is a rather complex phenomenon and a mechanism set in motion by intricate hormonal, emotional, relational and biological processes. Psychiatrists are well-suited in both recognizing, diagnosing and treating female sexual desire problems. Authors of this review encourage flexibility and a patient focused approach in clinical practice, which would both require utilizing a biopsychosocial perspective and the use of a multi-specialty team.


Asunto(s)
Disfunciones Sexuales Psicológicas , Nivel de Alerta , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Femenino , Humanos , Libido , Conducta Sexual , Disfunciones Sexuales Psicológicas/diagnóstico , Disfunciones Sexuales Psicológicas/psicología , Disfunciones Sexuales Psicológicas/terapia
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(21): e2119599119, 2022 05 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588453

RESUMEN

A century-long debate on bodily states and emotions persists. While the involvement of bodily activity in emotion physiology is widely recognized, the specificity and causal role of such activity related to brain dynamics has not yet been demonstrated. We hypothesize that the peripheral neural control on cardiovascular activity prompts and sustains brain dynamics during an emotional experience, so these afferent inputs are processed by the brain by triggering a concurrent efferent information transfer to the body. To this end, we investigated the functional brain­heart interplay under emotion elicitation in publicly available data from 62 healthy subjects using a computational model based on synthetic data generation of electroencephalography and electrocardiography signals. Our findings show that sympathovagal activity plays a leading and causal role in initiating the emotional response, in which ascending modulations from vagal activity precede neural dynamics and correlate to the reported level of arousal. The subsequent dynamic interplay observed between the central and autonomic nervous systems sustains the processing of emotional arousal. These findings should be particularly revealing for the psychophysiology and neuroscience of emotions.


Asunto(s)
Nivel de Alerta , Encéfalo , Electroencefalografía , Corazón , Nervio Vago , Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Corazón/inervación , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Nervio Vago/fisiología
19.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511620

RESUMEN

Objective:This study sought to explore the effect of age on arousal index in patients with OSAHS, and the significance of arousal index among different phenotypes identified through cluster analysis according to clinical symptoms and complications. Methods:A total of 607 adult patients with OSAHS who received polysomnography in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from July 2020 to July 2021 were selected. All patients registered basic human data, symptoms, complaints and complications, completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. We explored the distribution of several PSG parameters in different age groups, and included typical symptoms and complications into cluster analysis to explore the parameter differences in patients with different phenotypes. Results:Young patients had the lowest arousal index and arousal frequency in NREM stage, in middle-aged patients, the arousal index was relatively higher, the arousal times during NREM with oxygen desaturation were the highest. Among elderly patients, the wakefulness after sleep onset(WASO) was the longest, the arousal times in REM sleep was the lowest, and the spontaneous arousal times in NREM sleep were the highest(P<0.05). Among the 3 types according to the cluster analysis, phenotype Ⅰwas characterised by maximally complications, excessive daytime sleepiness and obesity, while memory and attention impairment were obvious in phenotype Ⅱ. Phenotype Ⅲhad minimal complications, relatively better mental state with shorter time-course of snoring and apnea. Phenotype I differed significantly by higher severity, more severe hypoxemia, higher arousal index and longer WASO time(P<0.05). Conclusion:the arousal index distribution varies among OSAHS patients with different age, and cluster analysis shows that patients with severe symptoms and more complications tend to have higher arousal index.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Somnolencia Excesiva , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño , Anciano , Nivel de Alerta , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polisomnografía , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/complicaciones , Ronquido/complicaciones
20.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 112, 2022 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501885

RESUMEN

In infancy and in the early years of life, emotion regulation and attachment relationships with parents are tightly intertwined. However, whether this link persists into adolescence has not yet been established and requires exploration. This pilot study utilizes an experimental design to assess the patterns of parent-adolescent interactions that are hypothesised to be related to two specific aspects of adolescents' emotion regulation, namely: visual attention and autonomic arousal to distress and comfort stimuli. Two innovative and ecologically valid methodologies were utilized to assess (a) patterns of attachment-based parent-adolescent interactions among 39 adolescent-parent dyads from the general population, using the Goal-corrected Partnership in Adolescence Coding System (Lyons-Ruth et al. Goal corrected partnership in adolescence coding system (GPACS), 2005) applied to a conflict discussion task; (b) the two aspects of adolescent emotion regulation were assessed with the Visual/Autonomic Regulation of Emotions Assessment (VAREA) (Vulliez-Coady et al. Visual/Autonomic Regulation of Emotions Assessment, VAREA) paradigm, an attachment-related, emotionally arousing experimental procedure, using a distress-then-comfort paradigm, in conjunction to an eye-tracker synchronized with a physiological device that measured gaze and skin conductance response, (SCR), or emotional reactivity. In line with research in infancy, as predicted, markers of secure parent-adolescent interaction were linked to higher amplitude of SCR for distress and comfort pictures, and with longer attention to comfort pictures. On the other hand, parental role-confusion was associated with less time spent on comfort pictures by the adolescent. Overall, this pilot study suggests that interventions supporting collaborative communication between adolescents and their parents, as well as working to reduce parental role-confusion, may improve adaptive adolescent emotion regulation as assessed via physiological measures.


Asunto(s)
Nivel de Alerta , Padres , Adolescente , Humanos , Padres/psicología , Proyectos Piloto
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