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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 312: 123564, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506041

RESUMEN

Biochar was prepared by rapid pyrolysis using pine nut shell as raw materials. Then cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide modified magnetic biochar material (CTAB-MC) was obtained after modifying biochar by FeCl3 and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The CTAB-MC was characterized by SEM, FTIR, XRD and Magnetic analyses. Adsorptive property of the CTAB-MC for acid chrome blue K (AK) was studied. It was found that adsorption capacity was affected by solution pH, temperature, adsorption time, initial concentration and ionic strength. The CTAB-MC showed higher adsorption ability toward acid chrome blue K, which was up to 40% higher than that of MC. The experimental results showed that adsorption data of AK on the CTAB-MC well conformed to the Langmuir isotherm adsorption model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The CTAB-MC can be recycled three times. This work reveals that CTAB-MC is a promising adsorbent with broad application prospects.


Asunto(s)
Cetrimonio , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adsorción , Compuestos Azo , Bromuros , Carbón Orgánico , Cinética , Fenómenos Magnéticos , Naftalenosulfonatos , Nueces , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario
2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(6): 1178-1189, 2020 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412597

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is convincing evidence that daily whole almond consumption lowers blood LDL cholesterol concentrations, but effects on other cardiometabolic risk factors such as endothelial function and liver fat are still to be determined. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether isoenergetic substitution of whole almonds for control snacks with the macronutrient profile of average snack intakes, had any impact on markers of cardiometabolic health in adults aged 30-70 y at above-average risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: The study was a 6-wk randomized controlled, parallel-arm trial. Following a 2-wk run-in period consuming control snacks (mini-muffins), participants consumed either whole roasted almonds (n = 51) or control snacks (n = 56), providing 20% of daily estimated energy requirements. Endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation), liver fat (MRI/magnetic resonance spectroscopy), and secondary outcomes as markers of cardiometabolic disease risk were assessed at baseline and end point. RESULTS: Almonds, compared with control, increased endothelium-dependent vasodilation (mean difference 4.1%-units of measurement; 95% CI: 2.2, 5.9), but there were no differences in liver fat between groups. Plasma LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased in the almond group relative to control (mean difference -0.25 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.45, -0.04), but there were no group differences in triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, liver function enzymes, fetuin-A, body composition, pancreatic fat, intramyocellular lipids, fecal SCFAs, blood pressure, or 24-h heart rate variability. However, the long-phase heart rate variability parameter, very-low-frequency power, was increased during nighttime following the almond treatment compared with control (mean difference 337 ms2; 95% CI: 12, 661), indicating greater parasympathetic regulation. CONCLUSIONS: Whole almonds consumed as snacks markedly improve endothelial function, in addition to lowering LDL cholesterol, in adults with above-average risk of CVD.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02907684.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Endotelio Vascular/fisiopatología , Grasas/metabolismo , Hígado/metabolismo , Prunus dulcis/metabolismo , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/sangre , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueces/metabolismo , Factores de Riesgo , Bocadillos , Triglicéridos/sangre , Vasodilatación
5.
Science ; 367(6485)2020 03 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217702

RESUMEN

Marine food-reliant subsistence systems such as those in the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) were not thought to exist in Europe until the much later Mesolithic. Whether this apparent lag reflects taphonomic biases or behavioral distinctions between archaic and modern humans remains much debated. Figueira Brava cave, in the Arrábida range (Portugal), provides an exceptionally well preserved record of Neandertal coastal resource exploitation on a comparable scale to the MSA and dated to ~86 to 106 thousand years ago. The breadth of the subsistence base-pine nuts, marine invertebrates, fish, marine birds and mammals, tortoises, waterfowl, and hoofed game-exceeds that of regional early Holocene sites. Fisher-hunter-gatherer economies are not the preserve of anatomically modern people; by the Last Interglacial, they were in place across the Old World in the appropriate settings.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Hombre de Neandertal , Exoesqueleto , Animales , Arqueología , Océano Atlántico , Aves , Cuevas , Peces , Mamíferos , Nueces , Pinus , Portugal , Alimentos Marinos , Tortugas
6.
Food Chem ; 319: 126529, 2020 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199146

RESUMEN

Claims in the lay literature suggest soaking nuts enhances mineral bioavailability. Research on legumes and grains indicate soaking reduces phytate levels, however, there is no evidence to support or refute these claims for nuts. We assessed the effects of different soaking regimes on phytate and mineral concentrations of whole and chopped almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, and walnuts. The treatments were: 1. Raw; 2. soaked for 12 h in salt solution; 3. soaked for 4 h in salt solution; 4. soaked for 12 h in water. Phytate concentrations were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and minerals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Differences in phytate concentrations between treated and untreated nuts were small, ranging from -12% to +10%. Overall, soaking resulted in lower mineral concentrations, especially for chopped nuts, and did not improve phytate:mineral molar ratios. This research does not support claims that 'activating' nuts results in greater nutrient bioavailability.


Asunto(s)
Arachis/química , Nueces/química , Rosanae/química , Disponibilidad Biológica , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Nutrientes/química , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Fítico/química
8.
Plant Dis ; 104(5): 1358-1368, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196416

RESUMEN

Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is an economically important woody nut and edible oil tree all over the world. However, walnut production is limited by walnut anthracnose, which is a disastrous disease that causes significant yield losses. Studying the etiology of anthracnose on walnut and the pathogens' virulence and sensitivities to fungicides would be beneficial for effective control. This study was conducted to identify the pathogen of walnut anthracnose and reveal the population diversity of pathogens through virulence, sensitivities to fungicides, and genetic variation. A total of 13 single-spore Colletotrichum isolates were collected from walnut anthracnose-diseased fruits and leaves from 13 walnut commercial orchards in Henan, Hubei, Shandong, and Shaanxi provinces in China. The isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu stricto (s.s.) according to multilocus phylogenetic analyses (internal transcribed spacer, actin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and chitin synthase), morphological as well as cultural characters, and pathogenicity. When the same walnut tissue was inoculated with different isolates, the disease lesion size was different. The results showed that the virulence of all isolates was considerably different, and the differences were not correlated with geographic origins. The virulence to walnut leaves and fruits inoculated with the same isolate was significantly different. Based on the virulence to walnut leaves and fruits, the 13 isolates were divided into three groups. Virulence of 69.2% of the isolates to walnut fruits was higher than that to leaves; 15.4% of isolates had no difference in pathogenicity, and the virulence to walnut leaves was higher for 15.4% of isolates. Tebuconazole, difenoconazole, flusilazole, and carbendazim inhibited the growth of fungal mycelia, and the concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50) values were 0.4 to 20.5, 0.6 to 2.6, 0.2 to 1.6, and 0.002 to 0.2 µg/ml, respectively, with average values of 6.5 ± 6.9, 1.5 ± 0.6, 0.9 ± 0.4, and 0.1 ± 0.05 µg/ml, respectively. All isolates were more sensitive to difenoconazole, flusilazole, and carbendazim than tebuconazole (P < 0.01). Isolate sensitivities to the same fungicide were different. Isolates SL-31 and TS-09 were the least sensitive to carbendazim and tebuconazole, respectively, and the resistance ratios were 87.3 and 51.6, respectively. Sensitivities to difenoconazole and flusilazole were largely consistent among all isolates, and the resistance ratios were from 1 to 4.6 and from 1 to 7, respectively. Therefore, difenoconazole and flusilazole could be chosen for disease control. The differences of pathogenicity and fungicide sensitivity were not correlated with geographic regions. These results indicated that there was high intraspecific diversity of populations in C. gloeosporioides s.s. that caused walnut anthracnose. For effective management, the targeted control strategy should be implemented based on the different geographic regions.


Asunto(s)
Colletotrichum , Fungicidas Industriales , Juglans , China , Nueces , Filogenia , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Virulencia
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(8): 2381-2392, 2020 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037817

RESUMEN

Increasing level of inflammation and oxidative stress could lead to memory impairment. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effects of walnut peptides against memory deficits induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice and further to explore the underlying anti-inflammatory mechanisms against LPS-elicited inflammation in BV-2 cells. Results showed that walnut protein hydrolysate (WPH) and its low-molecular-weight fraction (WPHL) could ameliorate the memory deficits induced by LPS via normalizing the inflammatory response and oxidative stress in brain, especially WPHL. Furthermore, 18 peptides with anti-inflammatory activities on LPS-activated BV-2 cells were identified from WPHL and it was found that Trp, Gly, and Leu residues in peptides might contribute to the anti-inflammation. Meanwhile, the strong anti-inflammatory effects of LPF, GVYY, and APTLW might be related to their hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues as well. LPF, GVYY, and APTLW could reduce the content of proinflammatory mediators and cytokines by downregulating related enzyme expressions and mRNA expressions. Additionally, ROS and mitochondria homeostasis might also contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/administración & dosificación , Disfunción Cognitiva/tratamiento farmacológico , Juglans/química , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Péptidos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/química , Disfunción Cognitiva/inducido químicamente , Disfunción Cognitiva/inmunología , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Humanos , Lipopolisacáridos/efectos adversos , Aprendizaje por Laberinto , Ratones , Peso Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/administración & dosificación , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/química , Nueces/química , Péptidos/química
10.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(1): 80-85, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037771

RESUMEN

The relationship between areca nut as a primary carcinogen and oral cancer has been widely concerned. Areca can change the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy in cells, and the levels of ROS and autophagy are closely related to the occurrence and development of tumors. This paper reviewed the relationships among areca nut, intracellular ROS, and autophagy.


Asunto(s)
Autofagia , Neoplasias de la Boca , Fibrosis de la Submucosa Bucal , Areca , Humanos , Nueces , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno
11.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 124(5): 466-472, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044450

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Tree nuts are common causes of food-related allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. Resolution of tree nut allergy is thought to be low, yet studies of the natural history of tree nut allergy are limited. This review summarizes the available literature regarding tree nut allergy prevalence and natural history and discusses emerging diagnostic and prognostic developments that will inform clinical management of tree nut allergy. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive literature search using PubMed was performed. STUDY SELECTIONS: Peer-reviewed publications relating to tree nut allergy prevalence, resolution, and diagnosis were selected, and findings were summarized using a narrative approach. RESULTS: Tree nut allergy prevalence varies by age, region, and food allergy definition, and ranges from less than 1% to approximately 3% worldwide. Reports on the natural history of tree nut allergy data are limited to retrospective clinical data or cross-sectional survey data of self-reported food allergy, with reported resolution ranging from 9% to 14%. Component-resolved diagnostics and basophil activation testing offer the potential to improve the diagnostic accuracy and predicted prognosis of specific tree nut allergy, but studies are limited. CONCLUSION: Tree nut allergy remains an understudied area of food allergy research with limited region-specific studies based on robust food allergy measures in population cohorts with longitudinal follow-up. This currently limits our understanding of tree nut allergy prognosis.


Asunto(s)
Anafilaxia/epidemiología , Hipersensibilidad a la Nuez/epidemiología , Alérgenos/inmunología , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Antígenos de Plantas/inmunología , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad a la Nuez/diagnóstico , Nueces/inmunología , Prevalencia , Pronóstico
12.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(4): 484-488, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100059

RESUMEN

Biochar is an important material for remediation of contaminated soils, however, different biochars have variable effects on bioavailability of heavy metals. This experiment revealed that peanut shell biochar (PSB) has highest reduction of 78% concentration of Pb in plant roots. The maize straw biochar (MSB) has significantly decreased Zn and Cd concentration (mg/kg dry weight) in Chinese cabbage than other treatments of biochars. The plants of Chinese cabbage have exhibited an efficient transport capability for Zn and Cd. The biochars have reduced exchangeable form of Cd/Zn, enhanced residual heavy metals, and consequently diminished accumulation of heavy metals in plants. The straw block biochar (SBB), PSB and MSB have efficiently relieved the stresses of heavy metals in plants.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico/química , Metales Pesados/análisis , Oryza/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Suelo/química , Arachis/química , Disponibilidad Biológica , Metales Pesados/metabolismo , Nueces/química , Oryza/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Zea mays/química
13.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 395-419, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006366

RESUMEN

Nuts are fruits composed of two parts: an inedible hard shell and an edible seed. Nuts are known as an energy-dense and nutrient-rich food source. In general, nuts are recognized as a good source of fat, fiber, and protein. Nuts are extremely beneficial parts of any diet since their consumption may lower risk for some diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. They are acknowledged for their low glycemic index owning to high unsaturated fat and protein content and relatively low carbohydrate content. They have been shown to increase cognitive function as well.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable , Valor Nutritivo , Nueces/química , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
14.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(1): 116-123, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925636

RESUMEN

Two selected walnut cultivars (Xiangling and Jizhaomian) growing in China were analyzed in terms of proximate and mineral composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile. According to the higher kernel rate (61.22%), thinner shell (1.03 mm), higher content of fat (66.93%), protein (20.97%), essential amino acids (29.31% of total amino acids) and minerals such as manganese, zinc and copper, Xiangling would be the more nutritive cultivar with more commercial value. However, Jizhaomian would be the more healthful cultivar based on the higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (79.39% of total fatty acids), and it would be more sensitive to rancidity. Jizhaomian also showed higher content in potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. Genotype is the major source of variability in morphology and chemical compositions. Regardless of the cultivar, consumption of walnuts is desirably encouraged, since all of them contain compounds potentially beneficial to health.


Asunto(s)
Juglans , China , Ácidos Grasos , Valor Nutritivo , Nueces
15.
Food Chem ; 314: 126192, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958750

RESUMEN

Nuts and dried fruits have been part of the human diet since prehistoric times. They are nutrient-rich foods and constitute an excellent means to deliver health-promoting bioactive compounds. As such, they serve as important healthful snack items, besides being part of many traditional and new recipes of gastronomy worldwide. Frequent consumption of nuts and/or dried fruits is highly recommended to obtain the full benefit of the nutrients, bioactives, and antioxidants that they contain, together with their desirable flavour. The macronutrients, micronutrients, and other health-promoting bioactive compounds contained in nuts and dried fruits may synergistically contribute to modulate the risk of cardiometabolic and other non-communicable diseases through various mechanisms. Experimental research, prospective studies, and human clinical trials have reported beneficial effects of nut consumption on various health outcomes. The benefits of dried fruits, however, have been less explored. This review summarizes recent findings on bioactive constituents, health claims, and health benefits of nuts and dried fruits and also discusses their great potential as healthy foods to benefit a number of diseases afflicting human beings.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Frutas , Nueces , Antioxidantes/análisis , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Desecación , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Manipulación de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Micronutrientes/análisis , Micronutrientes/farmacología , Nueces/química
16.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 221-227, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892570

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: Autophagy can be either tumor promotive or suppressive. We previously identified an autophagy-inducing activity in the 30-100 kDa fraction of areca-nut-extract (ANE 30-100K) and showed that several tumor cells subjected to chronic ANE 30-100K stimulation (CAS) exhibited higher resistance against stressed environments including serum-free (SF) conditions in vitro. Herein, we aimed to assess whether CAS can also provide growth advantages for tumor cells in vivo and the therapeutic effect of autophagy inhibition on CAS-treated tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Esophageal CE81T/VGH cells and nude mice were used as experimental models. Autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ), as well as another anticancer drug cisplatin (DDP), were chosen to challenge CAS-treated CE81T/VGH cells in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: CAS-treated CE81T/VGH cells expressed higher levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3A/B-II (LC3-II) and beclin 1 proteins, and showed stronger resistance to SF and hypoxia conditions, that were mitigated by CQ or 3-MA in vitro. Furthermore, CAS-treated CE81T/VGH cells induced significantly larger tumors in mice, which were also attenuated by single 3-MA or CQ treatment. Finally, the combined treatment of 3-MA or CQ with DDP further up-regulated DDP-induced caspase-3 activity in vitro and exhibited synergistic anti-tumor effects on mice. CONCLUSION: CAS may up-regulate tumoral autophagy and provide growth advantage for tumors both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, autophagy inhibition alone or in combination with DDP may achieve positive therapy for tumors encountered with CAS.


Asunto(s)
Areca/química , Autofagia , Neoplasias/patología , Nueces/química , Regulación hacia Arriba , Animales , Autofagia/genética , Hipoxia de la Célula/genética , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Desnudos
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(8): 2316-2328, 2020 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995376

RESUMEN

The climate change is already affecting many agricultural systems and human environments, and the implementation of adaptation strategies, especially those related to irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions, is urgent. In this regard, deep knowledge about the effects that irrigation has on the food quality parameters will allow us to estimate the potential benefits of deficit irrigation (DI) strategies. This work presents the effects on the quality parameters of three almond cultivars (Marta, Guara, and Lauranne) subjected to three irrigation doses: (i) full-irrigated treatment (FI) at 100% crop evapotranspiration (ETC), (ii) an overirrigated treatment at 150% ETC (150% ETC), and (iii) regulated deficit irrigation (RDI65) treatment, in which irrigation was done as in FI, expect during the kernel-filling period when this treatment received 65% ETC. According to experimental findings, the cultivar most sensitive to water stress was Marta, having the most significant improvements for RDI65. In general, the effects of the irrigation dose on the morphological and physicochemical parameters were not huge but some improvements were observed in key parameters such as the color and contents of specific sugars, organic acids, and unsaturated fatty acids. Thus, it can be concluded that the irrigation dose did not drastically affect the fruit almond quality, although it is possible to improve several key parameters when a moderate RDI strategy is applied.


Asunto(s)
Riego Agrícola/métodos , Nueces/química , Prunus dulcis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Color , Humanos , Nueces/crecimiento & desarrollo , Nueces/metabolismo , Prunus dulcis/química , Prunus dulcis/metabolismo , Gusto , Agua/análisis , Agua/metabolismo
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 590-600, 2020 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912155

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Walnut consumption counteracts oxidative stress and inflammation, 2 drivers of cognitive decline. Clinical data concerning effects on cognition are lacking. OBJECTIVES: The Walnuts And Healthy Aging study is a 2-center (Barcelona, Spain; Loma Linda, CA) randomized controlled trial examining the cognitive effects of a 2-y walnut intervention in cognitively healthy elders. METHODS: We randomly allocated 708 free-living elders (63-79 y, 68% women) to a diet enriched with walnuts at ∼15% energy (30-60 g/d) or a control diet (abstention from walnuts). We administered a comprehensive neurocognitive test battery at baseline and 2 y. Change in the global cognition composite was the primary outcome. We performed repeated structural and functional brain MRI in 108 Barcelona participants. RESULTS: A total of 636 participants completed the intervention. Besides differences in nutrient intake, participants from Barcelona smoked more, were less educated, and had lower baseline neuropsychological test scores than those from Loma Linda. Walnuts were well tolerated and compliance was good. Modified intention-to-treat analyses (n = 657) uncovered no between-group differences in the global cognitive composite, with mean changes of -0.072 (95% CI: -0.100, -0.043) in the walnut diet group and -0.086 (95% CI: -0.115, -0.057) in the control diet group (P = 0.491). Post hoc analyses revealed significant differences in the Barcelona cohort, with unadjusted changes of -0.037 (95% CI: -0.077, 0.002) in the walnut group and -0.097 (95% CI: -0.137, -0.057) in controls (P = 0.040). Results of brain fMRI in a subset of Barcelona participants indicated greater functional network recruitment in a working memory task in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Walnut supplementation for 2 y had no effect on cognition in healthy elders. However, brain fMRI and post hoc analyses by site suggest that walnuts might delay cognitive decline in subgroups at higher risk. These encouraging but inconclusive results warrant further investigation, particularly targeting disadvantaged populations, in whom greatest benefit could be expected.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01634841.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva/dietoterapia , Juglans/metabolismo , Nueces/metabolismo , Anciano , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagen , Disfunción Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Femenino , Envejecimiento Saludable , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Memoria , Persona de Mediana Edad , España
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 927-942, 2020 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910006

RESUMEN

Nuts contain a vast array of phenolic compounds having important biological properties. They include substances allocated into the five major groups named phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic lignans, and stilbene derivatives. The complexity in composition does not allow for setting a universal extraction procedure suitable for extraction of all nut phenolics. The use of non-conventional extraction techniques, such as those based on microwave, ultrasound, and compressed fluids, combined with generally recognized as safe solvents is gaining major interest. With regard to the latter, ethanol, water, and ethanol-water mixtures have proven to be effective as extracting solvents and allow for clean, safe, and low-cost extraction operations. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in biological properties of natural phenolic compounds, especially on their role in the prevention of several diseases in which oxidative stress reactions are involved. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on nut phenolic extraction and their chemical profiles and bioactive properties.


Asunto(s)
Nueces/química , Fenoles/química , Fenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Humanos , Fenoles/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(1): 219-227, 2020 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773150

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has confirmed that nuts are one of the best food groups at reducing LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol (TC). However, the comparative effects of different types of nuts on blood lipids are unclear. OBJECTIVES: This network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials aimed to assess the comparative effects of walnuts, pistachios, hazelnuts, cashews, and almonds on typical lipid profiles. METHODS: We conducted literature searches to identify studies comparing ≥2 of the following diets-walnut-enriched, pistachio-enriched, hazelnut-enriched, cashew-enriched, almond-enriched, and control diets-for the management of triglycerides (TGs), LDL cholesterol, TC, and HDL cholesterol. Random-effects network meta-analyses, ranking analyses based on the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curves, and sensitivity analyses according to the potential sources of heterogeneity across the included studies were performed for each outcome. RESULTS: Thirty-four trials enrolling 1677 participants were included in this study. The pistachio-enriched diet was ranked best for TG (SUCRA: 85%), LDL cholesterol (SUCRA: 87%), and TC (SUCRA: 96%) reductions. For TG and TC reductions, the walnut-enriched diet was ranked as the second-best diet. Regarding LDL cholesterol reduction, the almond-enriched diet was ranked second best. The pistachio-enriched and walnut-enriched diets were more effective at lowering TG, LDL cholesterol, and TC compared with the control diet. Regarding TG and TC reductions, the pistachio-enriched diet was also more effective than the hazelnut-enriched diet. For TG reduction, the walnut-enriched diet was better than the hazelnut-enriched diet. However, these findings are limited by the low quality of evidence ratings. In addition, the quality of this network meta-analysis was limited by the small number and generally poor reporting of available studies. CONCLUSIONS: The pistachio-enriched and walnut-enriched diet could be better alternatives for lowering TGs, LDL cholesterol, and TC compared with other nut-enriched diets included in this study. The findings warrant further evaluation by more high-quality studies.This network meta-analysis was registered at www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO as CRD42019131128.


Asunto(s)
LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Nueces/metabolismo , Triglicéridos/sangre , Adulto , Anacardium/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Corylus/metabolismo , Humanos , Juglans/metabolismo , Pistacia/metabolismo , Prunus dulcis/metabolismo , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
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