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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 623685, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422737

RESUMEN

Physical activity (PA) is an important factor for the prevention of overweight and obesity, particularly during adolescence. This study focuses on the understudied adolescent population of New Caledonia with the aim to (1) determine the daily PA levels and estimate the sedentary time through out-of-school sitting time; (2) highlight the influence of sociodemographic and environmental factors, and (3) assess the associations of PA and sitting time with overweight and obesity. A sample of 508 school-going adolescents living in New Caledonia was surveyed about their PA habits using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form, as well as about the context in which they usually engage in PA. The influences of the place of living and ethnic community were also investigated. Results indicated that about 66% of the adolescents performed an average of at least 60 min of PA daily. Both Melanesian adolescent boys and girls were more active than Caucasian adolescents but only when they lived in rural areas (females: 115 vs. 93 min/day, p = 0.018; males: 133 vs. 97 min/day, p = 0.018). Indeed, PA was reduced in an urban environment (females: 88 min/day; males: 95 min/day, p = 0.028; rural vs. urban in Melanesian adolescents). Melanesian adolescents also spent less time in out-of-school sitting than Caucasian adolescents independently of where they lived (females: 164 vs. 295 min/day, p < 0.001; males: 167 vs. 239 min/day, p = 0.001). Feeling safe was positively associated with PA levels (females: ORadj = 2.85, p < 0.001; males: ORadj = 4.45, p < 0.001). In the adolescent boys, accessibility to a suitable place was also an important factor (ORadj = 2.94, p = 0.002). Finally, while PA and sitting time were negatively associated with overweight in male adolescents (ORadj = 0.28, p = 0.044 and ORadj = 0.39, p = 0.004), they were not in females. Living in a rural area allowed the Melanesian adolescents to maintain a more active lifestyle with more physical activities and less sitting time. Our results also indicated that safety was an important driver for engagement in PA. The urban environment in New Caledonia appears to be a contributor of a less active lifestyle in adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Población Rural , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nueva Caledonia , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Conducta Sedentaria
2.
Parasitol Res ; 120(8): 2749-2758, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322733

RESUMEN

Development of the Pasture and Cattle Management (PCM) method is a priority to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus australis, in New Caledonia. The PCM method provides the foundation for sustainable integrated tick control because approximately 95% of cattle ticks in infested pastures are off the host in the non-parasitic life stages, and the practice of treating cattle intensely with chemical acaricides is a risk for the emergence of resistance to these active ingredients in commercial acaricidal products available for veterinary use. Here, we report the findings of an assessment survey to document the utility of the PCM method. Analyses of questionnaire data provided by 21 beef cattle producers describing their management of 37 herds informed how to (1) assess the ability of PCM to reduce acaricide use and (2) prioritize best practices and define recommendations to breeders promoting efficient tick control with minimum acaricide use. Boosted regression tree analysis showed a significant (p = 0.002) reduction of ≈33% in the number of acaricide treatments from 7.9 to 5.3 per year by using PCM. Of the 24 factors identified as potentially affecting acaricide use, six factors accounted for ≈86% of the variability in number of acaricide treatments applied annually. The six most influential factors involved farm characteristics as well as pasture and herd management recommendations. These results demonstrated the usefulness of PCM for integrated control of R. australis infestations while reducing acaricide use to improve cattle production in New Caledonia.


Asunto(s)
Acaricidas , Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Rhipicephalus , Control de Ácaros y Garrapatas , Infestaciones por Garrapatas , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Nueva Caledonia , Control de Ácaros y Garrapatas/métodos , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/prevención & control , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/veterinaria
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 384, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212244

RESUMEN

The tick Rhipicephalus australis, formerly known as Rhipicephalus microplus, is the most economically important ectoparasite of livestock in New Caledonia, affecting cattle health and production. Decades of control attempts based on the application of chemical acaricides have exerted a strong selective pressure on R. australis populations, some of which have evolved resistance to these treatments. Research to develop integrated tick control programs is now focused on decreasing applications of chemicals. This study reports the implementation of a method of pasture and herd management involving minimal strategic use of long-acting acaricides, here defined as those having substantial efficacy against larvae for several weeks. Diverse parameters concerning the utilization of long-acting acaricides in association with pasture and herd management on 21 New Caledonian farms over a 5-year period were analyzed to optimize their strategic use. Longer larval acaricidal effect was achieved with a commercial pour-on formulation of fluazuron than with a commercial injectable (subcutaneous) formulation containing 3.15% ivermectin. Pasture and herd management allowed an increase in the delay between a long-lasting acaricide application and the subsequent acaricide treatment from 11.0 weeks to 17.7 weeks. However, if ticks were detected and reported by producers on the day of a long-acting acaricide application, the delay to the following treatment was reduced from 18.5 weeks to 11.2 weeks. The impact of a long-acting acaricide treatment on larval populations in pastures was greatest with a stocking rate of 5 animals per hectare grazing during 1 week. These results provide science-based evidence to cattle producers for adaptive integrated tick management in order to delay the development of acaricide resistance.


Asunto(s)
Acaricidas , Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Rhipicephalus , Infestaciones por Garrapatas , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Nueva Caledonia , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/prevención & control , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/veterinaria
4.
Am J Bot ; 108(7): 1181-1200, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278558

RESUMEN

PREMISE: Cunoniaceae are a family of shrubs and trees with 27 genera and ca. 335 species, mostly confined to tropical and wet temperate zones of the southern hemisphere. There are several known issues regarding generic limits, and the family also displays a number of intriguing long-range disjunctions. METHODS: We performed a phylogenomic study using the universal Angiosperms353 probe set for targeted sequence capture. We sampled 37 species covering all genera in the Cunoniaceae, and those in the three closely related families of the crown Oxalidales (Brunelliaceae, Cephalotaceae, and Elaeocarpaceae). We also performed analyses for molecular dating and ancestral area reconstruction. RESULTS: We recovered the topology (Cunoniaceae, (Cephalotaceae, (Brunelliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae))) and a well-resolved genus-level phylogeny of Cunoniaceae with strongly supported clades corresponding to all previously recognized tribes. As previously suspected, the genera Ackama and Weinmannia were recovered as paraphyletic. Australasia was inferred as the likely ancestral area for the family. CONCLUSIONS: The current distribution of Cunoniaceae is best explained by long-distance dispersal with a few possible cases of Australasian-American vicariance events. Extinctions may have been important in determining the mostly Oceanian distribution of this family while some genera in the tribe Cunonieae and in New Caledonia have undergone recent bursts of diversification. New generic diagnoses, 80 new combinations, and one new name are provided for a recircumscribed Ackama (including Spiraeopsis), a much smaller Weinmannia (mostly New World), and a resurrected Pterophylla to accommodate Old World taxa previously in Weinmannia.


Asunto(s)
Semillas , Nueva Caledonia , Filogenia , Filogeografía
5.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069005

RESUMEN

The food environment in New Caledonia is undergoing a transition, with movement away from traditional diets towards processed and discretionary foods and beverages. This study aimed to develop an up-to-date food composition database that could be used to analyze food and nutritional intake data of New Caledonian children and adults. Development of this database occurred in three phases: Phase 1, updating and expanding the number of food items to represent current food supply; Phase 2, refining the database items and naming and assigning portion size images for food items; Phase 3, ensuring comprehensive nutrient values for all foods, including saturated fat and total sugar. The final New Caledonian database comprised a total of 972 food items, with 40 associated food categories and 25 nutrient values and 615 items with portion size images. To improve the searchability of the database, the names of 593 food items were shortened and synonyms or alternate spelling were included for 462 foods. Once integrated into a mobile app-based multiple-pass 24-h recall tool, named iRecall.24, this country-specific food composition database would support the assessment of food and nutritional intakes of families in New Caledonia, in a cross-sectional and longitudinal manner, and with translational opportunities for use across the wider Pacific region.


Asunto(s)
Manejo de Datos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Ingestión de Alimentos , Aplicaciones Móviles , Evaluación Nutricional , Adulto , Bebidas , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Carbohidratos de la Dieta , Electrónica , Ingestión de Energía , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Humanos , Melanesia , Nueva Caledonia , Nutrientes , Polinesia , Tamaño de la Porción
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1346-1357, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139961

RESUMEN

Dengue virus (DENV) evolutionary dynamics are characterized by frequent DENV genotype/lineage replacements, potentially associated with changes in disease severity and human immunity. New Caledonia (NC) and Cambodia, two contrasted epidemiological settings, respectively experienced a DENV-1 genotype IV to I replacement in 2012 and a DENV-1 genotype I lineage 3-4 replacement in 2005-2007, both followed by a massive dengue outbreak. However, their underlying evolutionary drivers have not been elucidated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these genotype/lineage switches reflected a higher transmission fitness of the replacing DENV genotype/lineage in the mosquito vector using in vivo competition experiments. For this purpose, field-derived Aedes aegypti from NC and Cambodia were orally challenged with epidemiologically relevant pairs of four DENV-1 genotype I and IV strains from NC or four DENV-1 genotype I lineage 3 and 4 strains from Cambodia, respectively. The relative transmission fitness of each DENV-1 genotype/lineage was measured by quantitative RT-PCR for infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Results showed a clear transmission fitness advantage of the replacing DENV-1 genotype I from NC within the vector. A similar but more subtle pattern was observed for the DENV-1 lineage 4 replacement in Cambodia. Our results support the hypothesis that vector-driven selection contributed to the DENV-1 genotype/lineage replacements in these two contrasted epidemiological settings, and reinforce the idea that natural selection taking place within the mosquito vector plays an important role in DENV short-term evolutionary dynamics.


Asunto(s)
Aedes/virología , Virus del Dengue/genética , Dengue/virología , Mosquitos Vectores/virología , Selección Genética , Animales , Cambodia/epidemiología , Dengue/epidemiología , Dengue/transmisión , Virus del Dengue/fisiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Aptitud Genética , Genotipo , Humanos , Nueva Caledonia/epidemiología , Filogenia , Saliva/virología
7.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 682021 May 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152290

RESUMEN

Based on light and electron microscopical studies, a new nematode parasite, Echinocephalus inserratus sp. n. (Spirurida: Gnathostomatidae), is described from the spiral valve of the broad cowtail stingray Pastinachus ater (Macleay) (Dasyatidae, Myliobatiformes) from off New Caledonia. The new species is morphologically and biometrically most similar to Echinocephalus overstreeti Deardorff et Ko, 1983, differing from it mainly in the absence of serrations on the posterior parts of pseudolabia and on interlabia, and in having a longer gubernaculum (150-299 µm long). Morphologically unidentifiable, mostly encapsulated larvae of Echinocephalus spp. were recorded from the following six species of teleost fishes collected in New Caledonian waters, serving as paratenic hosts: Perciformes: Acanthopagrus berda (Forsskål) (Sparidae) and Nemipterus furcosus (Valenciennes) (Nemipteridae); Tetraodontiformes: Abalistes stellatus (Anonymous), Pseudobalistes fuscus (Bloch et Schneider) (both Balistidae), Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin) (Tetraodontidae) and Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus) (Monacanthidae). Co-parasitising larvae of Ascarophis sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. were also collected from P. fuscus. All these findings represent new host and geographical records. A key to valid species of Echinocephalus Molin, 1858 is provided.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Peces/epidemiología , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Rajidae , Infecciones por Spirurida/veterinaria , Thelazioidea/clasificación , Animales , Femenino , Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Larva/anatomía & histología , Larva/clasificación , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Larva/ultraestructura , Masculino , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo/veterinaria , Nueva Caledonia/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Infecciones por Spirurida/epidemiología , Infecciones por Spirurida/parasitología , Thelazioidea/anatomía & histología , Thelazioidea/crecimiento & desarrollo , Thelazioidea/ultraestructura
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165423

RESUMEN

Burkholderia novacaledonica is a Betaproteobacterial species isolated from ultramafic soils in New Caledonia. The characterization and classification of this species into the Burkholderia genus was done simultaneously with the proposal of the new genus Caballeronia, initially composed of closely related Burkholderia glathei-like species. Thereafter, some reports based on the use of phylogenetic marker genes suggested that B. novacaledonica forms part of Caballeronia genus. Lacking a formal validation, and with the availability of its genome sequence, a genome-based phylogeny of B. novacaledonica was obtained to unravel its taxonomic position in Burkholderia sensu lato. A partial gyrB gene phylogeny, extended multilocus sequence typing on homologous protein sequences, and genomic distance-based phylogeny, all support the placement of this species in the Caballeronia genus. Therefore, the reclassification of B. novacaledonica to Caballeronia novacaledonica comb. nov. is proposed.


Asunto(s)
Burkholderia/clasificación , Burkholderia/genética , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Secuencia de Bases , Burkholderiaceae/clasificación , Burkholderiaceae/genética , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Ácidos Grasos/química , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Nueva Caledonia , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Microbiología del Suelo
9.
Zootaxa ; 4984(1): 98107, 2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186693

RESUMEN

New Caledonia has an endemic opiliofauna with two named species of Triaenonychidae, 17 Troglosironidae and eight Zalmoxidae. The recent finding of Neopilionidae on Grande Terre was thus surprising, and required the formal description of a new genus, which we undertake here. Martensopsalis gen. nov. is characterized by a small unsclerotized body with a unique palp with a pointed basal apophysis on the ventral side of the femur and with a distal apophysis on the prolateral side of the patella. The distinct external morphology, simple penis and unique phylogenetic position justify the erection of the new genus with Martensopsalis dogny spec. nov. as its type species. In addition to the type locality we report several other localities of putative congeneric, yet undescribed species.


Asunto(s)
Arácnidos/anatomía & histología , Arácnidos/clasificación , Animales , Masculino , Nueva Caledonia , Filogenia
10.
Zootaxa ; 4980(3): 401450, 2021 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186970

RESUMEN

Recent expeditions to Rapa Nui (also known as Easter Island) and New Caledonia have revealed undescribed species from mesophotic and deeper depths. This includes three new species from Rapa Nui, Hacelia raaraa, Linckia profunda (Ophidiasteridae), Uokeaster ahi (Asterodiscididae) and two new species from New Caledonia, Astroglypha pyramidata n. gen. and Ophidiaster colossus (Ophidiasteridae). The new genus Astroglypha is described for A. pyramidata but the genus also includes the Atlantic Tamaria passiflora, which is reassigned herein. Pauliastra n. gen. is designated as a replacement for the homonym issue with Pauliella. New occurrences and synonymies are addressed for taxa related to New Caledonia, Rapa Nui and adjacent regions. A morphology based phylogenetic analysis agrees with prior work which placed Goniaster among the Asterodiscididae and posits biogeographic relationships among asterodiscidid genera. Implications for the Goniasteridae and placement of Goniaster among asterodiscidid genera are discussed. Biogeography and relationships among taxa from Rapa Nui and New Caledonia are reviewed. In situ observations from species observed from Rapa Nui are included.


Asunto(s)
Estrellas de Mar , Distribución Animal , Animales , Nueva Caledonia , Filogenia , Polinesia , Estrellas de Mar/clasificación
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1953): 20210684, 2021 06 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130505

RESUMEN

The deep-seafloor in the tropical Indo-Pacific harbours a rich and diverse benthic fauna with numerous palaeoendemics. Here, we describe a new species, genus and family of brittle-star (Ophiuroidea) from a single eight-armed specimen collected from a depth between 360 and 560 m on Banc Durand, a seamount east of New Caledonia. Leveraging a robust, fossil-calibrated (265 kbp DNA) phylogeny for the Ophiuroidea, we estimate the new lineage diverged from other ophiacanthid families in the Late Triassic or Jurassic (median = 187-178 Myr, 95% CI = 215-143 Myr), a period of elevated diversification for this group. We further report very similar microfossil remains from Early Jurassic (180 Myr) sediments of Normandy, France. The discovery of a new ancient lineage in the relatively well-known Ophiuroidea indicates the importance of ongoing taxonomic research in the deep-sea, an environment increasingly threatened by human activities.


Asunto(s)
Equinodermos , Fósiles , Animales , Francia , Humanos , Nueva Caledonia , Filogenia
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 470, 2021 May 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030658

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2017, New Caledonia experienced an outbreak of severe dengue causing high hospital burden (4379 cases, 416 hospital admissions, 15 deaths). We decided to build a local operational model predictive of dengue severity, which was needed to ease the healthcare circuit. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical and biological parameters associated with severe dengue in the cohort of patients hospitalized at the Territorial Hospital between January and July 2017 with confirmed dengue, in order to elaborate a comprehensive patient's score. Patients were compared in univariate and multivariate analyses. Predictive models for severity were built using a descending step-wise method. RESULTS: Out of 383 included patients, 130 (34%) developed severe dengue and 13 (3.4%) died. Major risk factors identified in univariate analysis were: age, comorbidities, presence of at least one alert sign, platelets count < 30 × 109/L, prothrombin time < 60%, AST and/or ALT > 10 N, and previous dengue infection. Severity was not influenced by the infecting dengue serotype nor by previous Zika infection. Two models to predict dengue severity were built according to sex. Best models for females and males had respectively a median Area Under the Curve = 0.80 and 0.88, a sensitivity = 84.5 and 84.5%, a specificity = 78.6 and 95.5%, a positive predictive value = 63.3 and 92.9%, a negative predictive value = 92.8 and 91.3%. Models were secondarily validated on 130 patients hospitalized for dengue in 2018. CONCLUSION: We built robust and efficient models to calculate a bedside score able to predict dengue severity in our setting. We propose the spreadsheet for dengue severity score calculations to health practitioners facing dengue outbreaks of enhanced severity in order to improve patients' medical management and hospitalization flow.


Asunto(s)
Dengue/clasificación , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiología , Dengue/patología , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Nueva Caledonia/epidemiología , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Triaje
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003738

RESUMEN

A novel anaerobic, alkaliphilic, mesophilic, Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming bacterium was isolated from an alkaline thermal spring (42 °C, pH 9.0) in New Caledonia. This bacterium, designated strain LB2T, grew at 25-50 °C (optimum, 37 °C) and pH 8.2-10.8 (optimum, pH 9.5). Added NaCl was not required for growth (optimum, 0-1 %) but was tolerated up to 7 %. Strain LB2T utilized a limited range of substrates, such as peptone, pyruvate, yeast extract and xylose. End products detected from pyruvate fermentation were acetate and formate. Both ferric citrate and thiosulfate were used as electron acceptors. Elemental sulphur, nitrate, nitrite, fumarate, sulphate, sulfite and DMSO were not used as terminal electron acceptors. The two major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The genome consists of a circular chromosome (3.7 Mb) containing 3626 predicted protein-encoding genes with a G+C content of 36.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolate is a member of the family Proteinivoraceae, order Clostridiales within the phylum Firmicutes. Strain LB2T was most closely related to the thermophilic Anaerobranca gottschalkii LBS3T (93.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). Genome-based analysis of average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization of strain LB2T with A. gottschalkii LBS3T showed respective values of 70.8 and 13.4 %. Based on phylogenetic, genomic, chemotaxonomic and physiological properties, strain LB2T is proposed to represent the first species of a novel genus, for which the name Alkalicella caledoniensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed (type strain LB2T=DSM 100588T=JCM 30958T).


Asunto(s)
Clostridiales/clasificación , Manantiales de Aguas Termales/microbiología , Filogenia , Anaerobiosis , Bacterias Anaerobias/clasificación , Bacterias Anaerobias/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Composición de Base , Clostridiales/aislamiento & purificación , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Grasos/química , Fermentación , Nueva Caledonia , Hibridación de Ácido Nucleico , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 787: 147438, 2021 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000538

RESUMEN

Mangrove forest is a key ecosystem between land and sea, and provides many services such as trapping sediments and contaminants. These contaminants include trace metals (TM) that can accumulate in mangroves soil and biota. This paper innovates by the comparative study of the effects of the watershed inputs on TM distribution in mangrove soil, on roots bioconcentration factors of two species (Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa), and on Fe plaque formation and immobilization of these TM. Two mangrove forests in New Caledonia were chosen as study sites. One mangrove is located downstream ultramafic rocks and a Ni mine (ultrabasic site), whereas the second mangrove ends a volcano-sedimentary watershed (non-ultrabasic site). TM concentrations (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were measured in soil, porewaters, and roots of both species via ICP-OES or Hg analyzer. Analyzed TM were significantly more concentrated in soils at the ultrabasic site with Fe, Cr, and Ni the most abundant. Iron, Mn, and Ni were the most concentrated in the roots with mean values of 9,651, 192, and 133 mg kg-1 respectively. However, the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Fe (0.16) and Ni (0.11) were low due to a lack of ions in the dissolved phase and potential uptake regulation. The uptake of TM by mangrove trees was influenced by concentrations in soil, but more importantly by their potential bioavailability and the physiological characteristics of each species. TM concentrations and BCF were lower for R. stylosa probably due to less permeable root system. A. marina limits TM absorption through Fe plaque formation on its pneumatophores with a capacity to retain TM up to 94% for Mn. Mean Fe plaque formation is potentially correlated to Fe concentration in soil. Eventually, framboids of pyrite were observed within root tissues in the epidermis of A. marina's pneumatophores.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Oligoelementos , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Nueva Caledonia , Oligoelementos/análisis , Humedales
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 536-544, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686914

RESUMEN

Compared to the previous 2013-2014 outbreak, dengue 2016-2017 outbreak in New Caledonia was characterized by an increased number of severe forms associated with hepatic presentations. In this study, we assessed the virological factors associated with this enhanced severity. Whole-genome sequences were retrieved from dengue virus (DENV)-1 strains collected in 2013-2014 and from severe and non-severe patients in 2016-2017. Fitness, hepatic tropism and cytopathogenicity of DENV 2016-2017 strains were compared to those of 2013-2014 strains using replication kinetics in the human hepatic cell line HuH7. Whole-genome sequencing identified four amino acid substitutions specific to 2016-2017 strains and absent from 2013-2014 strains. Three of these mutations occurred in predicted T cell epitopes, among which one was also a B cell epitope. Strains retrieved from severe forms did not exhibit specific genetic features. DENV strains from 2016-2017 exhibited a trend towards reduced replicative fitness and cytopathogenicity in vitro compared to strains from 2013-2014. Overall, the 2016-2017 dengue outbreak in New Caledonia was associated with a viral genetic evolution which had limited impact on DENV hepatic tropism and cytopathogenicity. These mutations, however, may have modified DENV strains antigenicity, altering the anti-DENV immune response in some patients, in turn favoring the development of severe forms.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04615364.


Asunto(s)
Virus del Dengue/genética , Virus del Dengue/patogenicidad , Dengue/epidemiología , Dengue/virología , Evolución Molecular , Hepatitis/virología , Sustitución de Aminoácidos , Animales , Línea Celular , Dengue/inmunología , Virus del Dengue/inmunología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Variación Genética , Genoma Viral , Genotipo , Humanos , Mutación , Nueva Caledonia/epidemiología , Filogenia , ARN Viral , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Replicación Viral , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
16.
Zootaxa ; 4927(4): zootaxa.4927.4.7, 2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756693

RESUMEN

Six species are recognised in the genus Lefroyothrips, including one new species from Australia. The metascutal chaetotaxy of two of these species is unique amongst Thripidae. New distribution records given here indicate that four of the species are widely distributed: L. pictus across tropical Africa, L. lefroyi from northern India to Taiwan, L. fasciatus from Malaysia to northern Australia and New Guinea, and L. varatharajani from southern India to New Caledonia and northern Australia. An illustrated key is provided to the six known species in this genus.


Asunto(s)
Thysanoptera , Distribución Animal , Animales , Australia , Malasia , Nueva Caledonia
17.
Zootaxa ; 4941(2): zootaxa.4941.2.3, 2021 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756939

RESUMEN

The endemic New Caledonian Brachyglutini genus Baraxina is revised. Seventeen species are recognized, of which sixteen are newly described: B. francoisi Raffray, 1886; B. amieuana sp. n., B. grimbacheri sp. n., B. kanakorum sp. n., B. rutai sp. n., B. aoupinica sp. n., B. asymmetrica sp. n., B. burwelli sp. n., B. dzumacana sp. n., B. jenisi sp. n., B. koghisiana sp. n., B. lescheni sp. n., B. monteithi sp. n., B. parakoghisiana sp. n., B. pecki sp. n., B. poroana sp. n., and B. wanati sp. n.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Distribución Animal , Animales , Islas , Nueva Caledonia
18.
Appetite ; 163: 105192, 2021 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675860

RESUMEN

In recent decades, the food cultures of the Pacific populations have undergone a profound transition, particularly because the increasing trade exchanges with Western countries have facilitated access to a wide range of processed foods. Essentially, a new normative model of eating is now taking the place of the traditional models. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore what 'eating well', 'good food' and 'bad food' now mean in the New Caledonian family context and, more broadly, to categorise the current food practices and representations in adolescents' families. A double qualitative methodology was applied: 59 face-to-face interviews with 30 parents and 29 adolescents in both rural and urban areas and 15 collective structured discussions with middle-school classes (11- to 16-year-olds) of almost 25 students each. The main results showed various normative frames for nutrition, food quantities, local provenance, and personal taste. Food practices were related to food availability (having a home garden or involvement in family farming), socioeconomic status and community. In addition, access to nutritional information, temporal and financial constraints mostly in the urban area, and the role of food socialisation between parents and children had an impact on food practices and perceptions. The permanence of food cultures, mainly observed in families in rural areas, and the social inequalities in urban areas regarding food availability are highlighted. The positive perception of 'local food' as 'cultural', 'organic' and 'healthy' may help policymakers communicate clear messages to reach a sustainable food system.


Asunto(s)
Preferencias Alimentarias , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Niño , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Nueva Caledonia , Islas del Pacífico , Investigación Cualitativa , Población Rural
19.
Acta Parasitol ; 66(3): 907-914, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687644

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The nematode Ascarophis distorta Fusco et Overstreet, 1978 (Cystidicolidae), originally described from the butterflyfish Chaetodon paucifasciatus Ahl (Perciformes, Chaetodontidae) in the Red Sea, was established based solely on the light microscopical (LM) examination of specimens. However, the present taxonomy of cystidicolid nematodes is mostly based on details of the cephalic structures properly visible only with the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). METHODS: Helminthological examinations of some marine fishes from coral reefs off New Caledonia, South Pacific, carried out in the years 2003-2007, revealed the presence of A. distorta in two Chaetodon spp. and thus enabled its redescription. The nematode specimens were studied with the use of both LM and SEM. RESULTS: The specimens of A. distorta were obtained from the stomach of the threadfin butterflyfish Chaetodon auriga Forsskål and the vagabond butterflyfish Chaetodon vagabundus Linnaeus. This is just the second record of this parasite since its description 43 years ago. SEM, used in this species for the first time, revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported or insufficiently described morphological features, such as details in the cephalic structure, the shape of deirids, structure of the distal tip of the left spicule, or the exact number and distribution of male caudal papillae. The finding of A. distorta in C. auriga and C. vagabundus off New Caledonia represents new host and geographical records. The examination of 39 specimens of butterflyfishes from off New Caledonia, belonging to 14 Chaetodon spp. and 3 Heniochus spp., revealed that the nematode was only present in the 2 fish species listed above. CONCLUSIONS: This parasite seems to be host-specific to only certain species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodon spp.), and is probably widespread in the Indo-Pacific region, as well as its hosts.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Peces , Nematodos , Perciformes , Animales , Masculino , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Nueva Caledonia , Estómago
20.
Mol Ecol ; 30(8): 1892-1906, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619812

RESUMEN

Anomalous heat waves are causing a major decline of hard corals around the world and threatening the persistence of coral reefs. There are, however, reefs that have been exposed to recurrent thermal stress over the years and whose corals appear to have been tolerant against heat. One of the mechanisms that could explain this phenomenon is local adaptation, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly known. In this work, we applied a seascape genomics approach to study heat stress adaptation in three coral species of New Caledonia (southwestern Pacific) and to uncover the molecular actors potentially involved. We used remote sensing data to characterize the environmental trends across the reef system, and sampled corals living at the most contrasted sites. These samples underwent next generation sequencing to reveal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), frequencies of which were associated with heat stress gradients. As these SNPs might underpin an adaptive role, we characterized the functional roles of the genes located in their genomic region. In each of the studied species, we found heat stress-associated SNPs located in proximity of genes involved in pathways well known to contribute to the cellular responses against heat, such as protein folding, oxidative stress homeostasis, inflammatory and apoptotic pathways, and DNA damage-repair. In some cases, the same candidate molecular targets of heat stress adaptation recurred among species. Together, these results underline the relevance and the power of the seascape genomics approach for the discovery of adaptive traits that could allow corals to persist across wider thermal ranges.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Animales , Antozoos/genética , Arrecifes de Coral , Genómica , Respuesta al Choque Térmico/genética , Nueva Caledonia
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