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1.
Water Res ; 169: 115201, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675607

RESUMEN

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in groundwater is fundamentally important with respect to biogeochemical reactions, global carbon cycling, heavy metal transport, water treatability and potability. One source of DOM to groundwater is from the transport of organic matter from the vadose zone by rainfall recharge. Changes in precipitation patterns associated with natural climate variability and climate change are expected to alter the load and character of organic matter released from these areas, which ultimately impacts on groundwater quality and DOM treatability. In order to investigate potential changes in groundwater DOM character after rainfall recharge, we sampled shallow groundwater from a coastal peat-rich sand aquifer in New South Wales, Australia, during an extended period of low precipitation (average daily precipitation rate < 1.6 mm day-1 over the 8 months prior to sampling), and after two heavy precipitation events (84 mm day-1 and 98 mm day-1 respectively). We assess changes in DOM composition after correcting for dilution by a novel combination of two advanced analytical techniques: liquid chromatography organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). We also assess changes in water chemistry pre- and post-rainfall. Post-rainfall, we show that the dilution-corrected amount of highly aromatic DOM molecular formulae (i.e. those categorised into the groups polyphenolics and condensed aromatics) were 1.7 and 2.0 times higher respectively than in pre-rainfall samples. We attribute this to the flushing of peat-derived DOM from buried organic material into the groundwater. We also identify that periods of low precipitation can lead to low hydrophilic/HOC ratios in groundwater (median = 4.9, n = 14). Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to compare the HOC fraction with FT-ICR MS compound groups. We show that HOC has a more aromatic character in pre-rainfall samples, and is less similar to the aromatic groups in post-rainfall samples. This suggests that the decline in water-borne hydrophobics observed post-rainfall could be associated with preferential adsorption of the hydrophobic aromatic DOM, making post-rainfall samples less treatable for potable water supply. Post-rainfall we also observe significant increases in arsenic (leading to concentrations greater than 3 times the World Health Organisation drinking water limit of 10 µg / L). Increases in coastal rainfall due to climate change may therefore alter the composition of groundwater DOM in coastal peatland areas in ways that may impact DOM bioavailability, and increase arsenic concentrations, reducing the ease of water treatment for human consumption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify the chemical and molecular changes of shallow groundwater DOM pre-rainfall and post-rainfall in a sedimentary organic carbon rich environment through multiple analytical techniques.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Arena , Australia , Humanos , Nueva Gales del Sur , Abastecimiento de Agua
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133924, 2019 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756867

RESUMEN

Since the middle of the twentieth century, microplastics have emerged as a pollutant of concern. Sea ports are recipients of large amount of discharges through ballast water, ship traffic and other commercial activities, which may additionally add to the overall marine microplastic pollution. The aim of this study was to determine the interrelationship of microplastic pollution in the sediments and oysters at six major seaports (Port Jackson, Botany, Kembla, Newcastle, Yamba and Eden) of New South Wales (NSW). The results revealed the significant abundance of microplastic particles both in sediments and oysters in all the studied seaports which were estimated to be around 83-350 particles/kg dry weight in the sediments and 0.15-0.83 particles/g wet weight in the oysters. Although, the abundance of microplastics showed similar pattern in the sediments and oysters of the studied seaports, oysters had higher number of microplastics than sediments in all sea ports. Moreover, the results showed that the shapes, size and colours in the oysters did not necessarily match the main components in the sediments, although the polymer types matched well between each other. Black fibres between 0.1mm-0.5mm in size were the most abundant microplastics in oysters, whereas white spherules between 0.5mm-1mm in size were dominant in the sediments of NSW seaports. Moreover, the analysis of variance between microplastic abundance in sediment and oysters showed a non-significant positive linear relationship. Fourier Transform Infrared analysis further indicated that both sediments and oysters contained microplastics with two main polymers, polyethylene terephthalate and nylon, which suggests that the abundance of microplastics in the study ports was highly influenced by the port activities, mainly the intensive commercial fishing and fish processing activities along with intensive anthropogenic and industrial activities inside and surroundings the port environments.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ostreidae/química , Plásticos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Animales , Nueva Gales del Sur
4.
J Law Med ; 27(1): 20-28, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682338

RESUMEN

In three judgments in favour of New South Wales medical practitioners between 2017 and 2019 the Supreme Court awarded ordinary and aggravated damages for harm done to professional reputations. The decisions in Al Muderis v Duncan (No 3) [2017] NSWSC 726, O'Neill v Fairfax Media Publications Pty Ltd (No 2) [2019] NSWSC 655 and Tavakoli v Imisides (No 4) [2019] NSWSC 7 are considered in the context of international decisions and analysis of doctors taking defamation action arising from online publications. Reflections are provided about the repercussions of the phenomenon, its commercial justification and the inhibitions that should be experienced before defamation and injurious falsehood actions are taken by medical practitioners.


Asunto(s)
Difamación , Médicos , Humanos , Nueva Gales del Sur
5.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 764-785, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682356

RESUMEN

Contemporary public health literature contains an increasing emphasis on the commercial determinants of health including the influence of unhealthy food, beverage and tobacco industries on government harm prevention policy agendas and global sustainable development goals. Effective capture by the industries of the crucial legislative process associated with the harm prevention initiatives would have a detrimental impact on public health. This article proposes a qualitative multi-spectrum prototype legislative capture test with broad application to a range of industries and jurisdictions at all levels of government where legislative capture may be suspected. It is predicated on a finding of significant encroachment of the public interest (PI) by special interest groups and reciprocating beneficial conduct between the lawmakers and the group. The test is populated from a critical case study of key New South Wales (NSW) alcohol industry statutory amendments within a doctrinal and social inquiry/power framework. It relies upon parliamentary records and secondary data to analyse critically the 2015 "fit for purpose" (FFP) reforms to NSW alcohol supply laws and their consistency with the PI and other constitutional safeguards. It aligns the reforms with other research relating to the magnitude of alcohol and gambling industry political donations and the operation of the alcohol outlet post reform approval process. The application of the test to the case study finds that the 2015 FFP amendments are indicative of legislative capture and associated clientele corruption - critical new considerations in the commercial determination of health. It also identifies the commodification of the PI.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Juego de Azar , Política de Salud , Humanos , Nueva Gales del Sur , Salud Pública/economía , Industria del Tabaco
6.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 786-799, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682357

RESUMEN

In 2004 legislators in New South Wales relied on Australia's National Competition Policy to change the reason for determining alcohol outlet approvals from a "needs" to a "harm minimisation" basis. This was predicated on the application of a rational social impact assessment (SIA) process. Within a short time, however, the volume of liquor licence applications began to erode that intention and the delays that applicants encountered placed politicians under pressure to fast-track the process. Subsequent liquor legislation retained the statutory obligation on decision-makers to ensure no overall detrimental social impact associated with the approval of an alcohol outlet licence. However, legislative amendments to the approval process reduced the number and kinds of licences and authorisations to which the social impact test applied and encouraged other shortcuts which undermine the validity of these assessments. The resulting statutory approval system in practice relegates SIA to an exception rather than the rule and has revealed the relative weakness of SIA as a public health safeguard.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Cambio Social , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Australia , Comercio , Nueva Gales del Sur
7.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 831-840, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682361

RESUMEN

Occupational therapists are experts in understanding the impact an injury has on a claimant's capacity to perform their pre-injury level of domestic activities. Lawyers use this information when litigating claims for domestic assistance support. This is the first study exploring lawyers' experiences with occupational therapy domestic assistance reports using an online survey. The online survey was completed by 20 lawyers who practise in New South Wales, Australia. Results indicated occupational therapy reports were used to determine the amount of gratuitous domestic care the claimant received, the impact injury has on daily function and tasks requiring assistance. Lawyers used therapists with medico-legal experience although the timeframe for receiving the report was also influential. A high-quality report uses supportive evidence linking function and recommendations for care. Therapists require a clear understanding of the legislation and transparent reasoning while lawyers need to provide sufficient information to assist therapists' conclusions.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Ocupacional , Australia , Humanos , Abogados , Nueva Gales del Sur , Terapeutas Ocupacionales
8.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 849-865, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682363

RESUMEN

Despite the increasing use of "vulnerability" in policy and legal documents, and the emerging scholarly literature about vulnerability and the law, there is little research focused on vulnerability from clients' perspectives. To address this gap, we analysed the New South Wales Civil and Administrative Tribunal (NCAT) and appellate court cases involving vulnerable clients and disciplined lawyers in NSW from 1 January 2011 to 30 January 2019. Our analysis of the cases draws from the "vulnerability theory" literature. We identified the following characteristics of clients for analysis: older age, gender, health impairment, and immigrant status. Twenty-eight tribunal cases and two appellate court cases involved vulnerable clients. Overall, the cases revealed that the relationship between public protection and vulnerability is not expressly discussed by NCAT. To optimise the legislative intent to safeguard the public, the NSW legislation should explicitly include vulnerability as a relevant feature of the disciplinary regime.


Asunto(s)
Abogados , Disciplina Laboral , Humanos , Nueva Gales del Sur
9.
Aust Vet J ; 97(12): 499-504, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674019

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cervicothoracic vertebral subluxation in sheep presents as a postural and locomotor disorder, and has been described in several breeds in Australia and overseas. Cervical myopathy may also be present in these cases. CASE REPORT: A New South Wales sheep producer reported a postural and locomotor disorder with a low prevalence in his Poll Merino stud flock, affecting neonate, weaner and adult sheep. Animals with postural abnormalities, variable degrees of ataxia and proprioceptive deficits involving both fore and hind limbs were described. Abnormalities of the cervicothoracic vertebral column were identified grossly during necropsy, with misalignment and consequent narrowing of the posterior cervical spinal canal. Lesions ranging from pallor (cellular degeneration) to white streaky lesions with pinpoint haemorrhage (necrosis) were identified in the cervicothoracic paravertebral musculature of affected animals. Boney abnormalities were further characterised by imaging studies. Pedigree analysis of the very extensive breeding and disease incident records available for this flock suggested that the disease was inherited. A similar case recognised in a separate New South Wales Poll Merino flock is also described. CONCLUSION: This report describes an entity of cervicothoracic vertebral subluxation in two Poll Merino sheep flocks, with cervical myopathy also identified in one, with preliminary evidence in the primary case that there is likely to be a hereditary basis. The two cases outlined in this report resemble the findings of several historical investigations into ovine flock postural disorders in Australia and beyond.


Asunto(s)
Vértebras Cervicales/patología , Enfermedades Musculares/veterinaria , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/genética , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/patología , Vértebras Torácicas/patología , Animales , Autopsia/veterinaria , Cruzamiento , Eutanasia Animal , Enfermedades Musculares/genética , Enfermedades Musculares/patología , Nueva Gales del Sur , Ovinos , Oveja Doméstica
10.
Zootaxa ; 4604(3): zootaxa.4604.3.12, 2019 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717186

RESUMEN

Black terrestrial planarians, 5 mm to 3 cm long, have been found in five locations in the United Kingdom, the earliest in 2015. They are identified as Australopacifica atrata (Steel, 1897), a species originally described from New South Wales, Australia. A detailed systematic discussion of original and later descriptions, all of which are of external features only and with no morphological details, is given in support of this identification. Sectioned specimens show partly mature ovaries and ventral testes though none show any development of the copulatory apparatus. They reproduce freely by fission. They appear to be generalist scavengers, having been found feeding on a dead slow worm, a dead mouse, an earthworm and also on rotten fruit. In captivity they feed on chicken liver, squashed slugs and earthworms. It is assumed that they have been inadvertently introduced to the UK and distributed through horticultural activity.


Asunto(s)
Planarias , Animales , Australia , Ratones , Nueva Gales del Sur , Reino Unido
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1510, 2019 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718597

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: At a population level, small reductions in energy intake have the potential to contribute to a reduction in the prevalence of childhood obesity. In many school systems, there is the potential to achieve a reduction in energy intake through modest improvements in foods packed in children's school lunchboxes. This study will assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a multi-component intervention that uses an existing school-based communication application to reduce the kilojoule content from discretionary foods and drinks consumed by children from school lunchboxes whilst at school. METHODS: A Type I hybrid effectiveness-implementation cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted in up to 36 primary schools in the Hunter New England, Central Coast and Mid North Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. Designed using the Behaviour Change Wheel, schools will be randomly allocated to receive either a 5-month (1.5 school terms) multi-component intervention that includes: 1) school lunchbox nutrition guidelines; 2) curriculum lessons; 3) information pushed to parents via an existing school-based communication application and 4) additional parent resources to address common barriers to packing healthy lunchboxes or a control arm (standard school practices). The study will assess both child level dietary outcomes and school-level implementation outcomes. The primary trial outcome, mean energy (kJ) content of discretionary lunchbox foods packed in children's lunchboxes, will be assessed at baseline and immediately post intervention (5 months or 1.5 school terms). Analyses will be performed using intention to treat principles, assessing differences between groups via hierarchical linear regression models. DISCUSSION: This study will be the first fully powered randomised controlled trial internationally to examine the impact of an m-health intervention to reduce the mean energy from discretionary food and drinks packed in the school lunchbox. The intervention has been designed with scalability in mind and will address an important evidence gap which, if shown to be effective, has the potential to be applied at a population level. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN:12618001731280 registered on 17/10/2018. Protocol Version 1.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Almuerzo , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Instituciones Académicas , Telemedicina , Niño , Preescolar , Comunicación , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Curriculum , Dieta/normas , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Aplicaciones Móviles , Nueva Gales del Sur , Política Nutricional , Padres , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Proyectos de Investigación
12.
Zootaxa ; 4583(1): zootaxa.4583.1.1, 2019 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716193

RESUMEN

Species from artesian springs associated with the Queensland Great Artesian Basin that were previously included in the tateid genus Jardinella are included in three new genera, namely Eulodrobia, with six species, five of them new and all from the Eulo Supergroup; Springvalia, with one species from the Springvale Supergroup; and Carnarvoncochlea with two previously-described species, from the Carnarvon Supergroup. The genus Edgbastonia is extended to include eight previously described species, in addition to the type species, and four new species-group taxa from the Barcaldine Supergroup springs; all but the type species are included in the new subgenus Barcaldinia. Three new species from non-artesian springs in north Queensland are included in Edgbastonia, one of them tentatively. Two additional related new genera, both with a single new species, are described from outside the Great Artesian Basin; Conondalia from southeast Queensland and Nundalia from north-eastern New South Wales. The genus Jardinella, previously used for all the Queensland spring tateids, is here restricted to three species found in coastal rivers and streams in northeast Queensland. A molecular phylogenetic analysis using COI and 16S mitochondrial genes in combination suggests that the Queensland Great Artesian Basin taxa may be more closely related to the tateid genera Austropyrgus, Pseudotricula, Posticobia and Potamopyrgus than to the South Australian GAB taxa, thus indicating the separate origins of these two desert spring faunas.


Asunto(s)
Gastrópodos , Animales , Australia , Nueva Gales del Sur , Filogenia , Queensland
13.
Aust Vet J ; 97(12): 515-523, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745981

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: A large-scale capture method was developed to enable sterilisation of a macropod population in western Sydney from 2005 to 2018. METHODS: Until March 2007, free ranging eastern grey kangaroos and red kangaroos were herded into purpose-built 15 m diameter capture yards (CYs) for darting with a projectile syringe. From March 2007 onwards, animals were free-range darted in large areas without herding. Kangaroos were darted with 1.33-5.10 mg/kg tiletamine/zolazepam and 0.01-0.02 mg/kg medetomidine, ± 0.03 mg/kg acepromazine. Deaths were monitored. Population counts were performed annually. RESULTS: There were 5825 capture events involving 3963 kangaroos. Over 85% of all captures occurred from 2005 to 2008. Of all reported deaths (n = 523), 135 were attributed to ill health. Musculoskeletal injuries incurred during capture were the main project-related cause of death (n = 116). Post capture myopathy was uncommonly diagnosed following capture (n = 19). CONCLUSION: The herding and capture method enabled a large number of kangaroos to be mobilised and captured with low mortality rates, and the use of CYs resulted in fewer capture-related injuries and deaths than free-range capture. The drug doses and combinations used for darting were safe and effective, and the capture technique was successfully applied to a population management project.


Asunto(s)
Macropodidae , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/veterinaria , Esterilización Reproductiva/veterinaria , Heridas y Traumatismos/veterinaria , Animales , Causas de Muerte , Femenino , Masculino , Nueva Gales del Sur/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/mortalidad , Esterilización Reproductiva/métodos , Heridas y Traumatismos/mortalidad
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738869

RESUMEN

Aim: To describe the epidemiology of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in New South Wales (NSW) from 2006 to 2015. Methods: LGV notification data between 2006 and 2015 from New South Wales were analysed to describe time trends in counts and rates by gender, age group and area of residence, as well as anatomical sites of infection. A positivity ratio was calculated using the number of LGV notifications per 100 anorectal chlamydia notifications per year. Data linkage was used to ascertain the proportion of LGV cases that were co-infected with HIV. Results: There were 208 notifications of LGV in NSW from 2006 to 2015; all were among men, with a median age of 42 years, and half were residents of inner-city Sydney. Annual notifications peaked at 57 (1.6 per 100,000 males) in 2010, declined to 16 (0.4 per 100,000 males) in 2014, and then increased to 34 (0.9 per 100,000 males) in 2015. Just under half (47.4%) of LGV cases were determined to be co-infected with HIV. Conclusion: The number of LGV notifications each year has not returned to the low levels seen prior to the peak in 2010. Continued public health surveillance is important for the management and control of LGV.


Asunto(s)
Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Linfogranuloma Venéreo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Notificación de Enfermedades , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Linfogranuloma Venéreo/microbiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Gales del Sur/epidemiología , Enfermedades del Recto , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adulto Joven
15.
Zootaxa ; 4613(3): zootaxa.4613.3.12, 2019 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716408

RESUMEN

Eurhamphus pancinii n. sp. is described based on a series of specimens collected in West Papua, in the Arfak Mountains and on Yapen Island. The only other species in the genus is Eurhamphus fasciculatus Shuckard known from New South Wales northwards into Queensland in Australia. The new species is distinguished from E. fasciculatus by the pronotum and elytra with the glabrous raised areas between the rows of scales very narrow, and elytra with sutural and interstria 3 low and evenly rounded throughout length, elytra in profile not humped towards base (both sexes), and in males by a shorter, less strongly dorsally granulate rostrum, front and middle tibia with inner margins with a very small subapical tooth, and inner edge of front tibia with only a few short, subapical hairs. Eurhamphus fasciculatus is associated with Hoop Pine, Araucaria cunninghamii and although no plant associations are available for specimens of the new species it is expected to be similarly associated with Araucaria.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Gorgojos , Animales , Australia , Femenino , Masculino , Nueva Gales del Sur , Queensland
16.
Zootaxa ; 4668(1): zootaxa.4668.1.2, 2019 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716637

RESUMEN

A new genus of Leptophlebiidae has been established to accommodate two morphospecies, previously known only from nymphs and assigned to the Australian genus Nousia (subgenus Australonousia).  The genus Deanophlebia is established for the species: Deanophlebia kala (Harker) (comb nov.) and Deanophlebia radsjoshi (sp. nov.), both of which were first found in the alpine regions of New South Wales but with a range which extends into East Gippsland in Victoria. The genus can be distinguished from Nousia by the consistently larger size of both the imagos and nymphs. Furthermore, fore and hind wing venation and genitalia morphology are characteristic in the imago as is mouthpart morphology in the nymph. Differences between Deanophlebia and Nousia are defined and discussed and differences between the subgenera of Nousia are re-defined.


Asunto(s)
Ephemeroptera , Animales , Australia , Genitales , Nueva Gales del Sur , Ninfa
17.
Zootaxa ; 4647(1): zootaxa.4647.1.18, 2019 Jul 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716986

RESUMEN

Five new species of Topalia (Nosybeidae) are described from Australia: Topalia caliginosa sp. nov. from Victoria, T. corinnensis sp. nov. from Tasmania, T. dunlopi sp. nov. and T. katyae sp. nov. from Norfolk Island and T. royi sp. nov. from New South Wales. The genus was known previously from Australia from unidentified specimens only. I revise the generic definition, provide a key to species and clarify the family placement and taxonomic status of Topalia, Nosybea, Lamellocepheus and Charassobates. From a phylogenetic analysis and identification of synapomorphies, I consider Topalia, Nosybea and Lamellocepheus are valid, morphologically related and included in the Nosybeidae. The superfamily Charassobatoidea is valid, and contains Charassobatidae, Nosybeidae and Microtegeidae. These families have synapomorphies of a narrow, elongate subcapitulum, minute notogastral setae with at least one pair in the d series retained in the adults (dm in Nosybeidae, dp or dm in Microtegeidae, full complement in Charassobates). Immatures of Nosybeidae and Microtegeidae are undescribed, but in Charassobates are eupheredermous, plicate, and the tritonymph has the full complement of setae in the d series. Charassobates and Topalia have the synapomorphy of a ventral plate tectum, providing strong evidence for their relatedness. By way of contrast, the Cepheoidea, in which Nosybeidae and Microtegeidae have been placed by various authors, have a broad subcapitulum, well-developed setiform notogastral setae positioned marginally and lacking the d series, and no ventral plate tectum. The immatures are eupheredermous but non-plicate and the tritonymph lacks setae in the d series. Based on these differences, Nosybeidae, Microtegeidae and Charassobatidae cannot be included in the Cepheoidea.


Asunto(s)
Ácaros , Animales , Melanesia , Nueva Gales del Sur , Filogenia , Tasmania , Victoria
18.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 582-588, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577863

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To quantify barriers to healthcare for young people (12-24 years) and identify socio-demographic correlates and predictors. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey targeted young people living in New South Wales, Australia, with oversampling of marginalised groups. Principles Component Analysis (PCA) identified clusters of barriers. Ordinal regression identified predictors of each barrier cluster. RESULTS: A total of 1,416 young people completed surveys. Participants with chronic conditions and increasing psychological distress reported a greater number of barriers. Of 11 potential barriers to visiting a health service, cost was most common (45.8%). The PCA identified three clusters: structural barriers (61.3%), attitudinal barriers (44.1%) and barriers relating to emerging autonomy (33.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Barriers to healthcare reported by young people are multi-dimensional and have changed over time. Structural barriers, especially cost, are the most prominent among young people. Approaches to overcome structural barriers need to be addressed to better support marginalised young people's healthcare access. Implications for public health: Understanding predictors of different barrier types can inform more targeted approaches to improving access. Equitable access to healthcare is a priority for early diagnosis and treatment in young people, especially reducing out of pocket costs.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Nueva Gales del Sur , Marginación Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Adulto Joven
19.
Aust Vet J ; 97(12): 509-514, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631331

RESUMEN

This study analysed the race day veterinary reports from harness racing meetings controlled by the New South Wales Greyhound and Harness Racing Regulatory Authority between 1 September 2008 and 30 June 2009. The findings of all prerace and postrace examinations were analysed, and the frequency of observations was recorded. Chi-square testing was used to determine whether the incidence of abnormalities differed between age groups and tracks. A total of 542 meetings were conducted during the period of the study, with veterinary examinations conducted at 395 of these meetings. A total of 520 veterinary examinations (60 prerace and 460 postrace) were conducted. During the period of the study, 3685 horses started 31,393 times. Injuries occurring during the warm-up or start were the most common finding on prerace examination (11 reports) followed by lameness (6 reports). Lameness was the most common problem identified during postrace examinations, occurring at a rate of 2.10 cases per 1000 starts. Other problems identified at a rate of more than 1 per 1000 starts were poor postrace recovery/heat stress (2.04) and lacerations (1.75). Falls occurred at a rate of 1.72 cases per 1000 starts. Two-year-old horses were less likely to be lame than 3, 5 and 6-year-old horses. There was no difference in the rate of falls or lameness between tracks. This study provides a benchmark against which ongoing improvements in welfare can be assessed.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Caballos/epidemiología , Cojera Animal/epidemiología , Animales , Femenino , Caballos/lesiones , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Nueva Gales del Sur/epidemiología , Deportes
20.
Waste Manag ; 100: 199-207, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542720

RESUMEN

Land application of composted municipal solid waste (C-MSW) can divert waste from landfill but can also be a route of entry into the environment for contaminants. This study presents a preliminary human health and ecological risk assessment for organic contaminants in C-MSW generated in New South Wales, Australia, to identify and prioritise contaminants of concern. Following an initial screening assessment, terrestrial and aquatic risks were assessed by predicted soil and water concentrations, respectively. The assessment ranked contaminants as very high, high, medium or low priority. A qualitative review was then used to identify contaminants of concern, which included polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates, bisphenol A and dibutyltin. Phenol was initially categorised as very high priority but due to its rapid degradation in soil, this is likely to be overly-conservative. The herbicides dicamba and MCPA were categorised as medium priority or higher but due to uncertainties in the data, these categories are also likely to be overly-conservative. A range of contaminants had concentrations below the screening criteria and were therefore considered low risk. Many contaminants were below the limit of reporting in all samples and were therefore not considered to be sufficiently distributed in the material to pose a risk. Some contaminants were detected in the material but could not be assessed as no criteria were available. The information from this study can be used by regulators when managing land application of C-MSW to ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are managed appropriately.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Residuos Sólidos , Australia , Humanos , Nueva Gales del Sur , Medición de Riesgo
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