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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1216: 39-50, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894545

RESUMEN

Cardiovascular disease burden increases with the increasing age of populations. Also, with increasing longevity, some individuals are ageing along an unfavourable path developing frailty syndrome. Epidemiologic studies indicate that frailty is overrepresented among the persons with cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, frail subjects tend to be burdened with cardiovascular disease to a greater degree than their biologically better-off peers. Hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, especially abdominal, and at least some other risk factors appear to be shared between frailty and cardiovascular disease. The probable common underlying pathophysiologic feature is inflammation and associated phenomena, possibly having its root in the inflammageing. We discuss these issues based on the results of original studies, comprehensive literature reviews, and metaanalyses, by hundreds of dedicated researchers worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Fragilidad , Anciano , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Anciano Frágil/estadística & datos numéricos , Fragilidad/complicaciones , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Obesidad Abdominal/complicaciones , Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
2.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 45(2): 203-212, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999468

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary flavonoid intake and the prevalence of obesity using body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent body fat (%BF) according to sex among Korean adults. Based on the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011, 23 118 adults in Korea were included. Dietary intakes were obtained using 24-h dietary recall data. A higher total intake of flavonoid was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity in women, based on %BF (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.82 [0.71-0.94]), and abdominal obesity (0.81 [0.71-0.92]). The intake of flavonols (0.88 [0.78-0.99]), flavanones (0.81 [0.72-0.92]), flavanols (0.85 [0.74-0.97]), isoflavones (0.85 [0.75-0.96]), and proanthocyanidins (0.81 [0.71-0.92]) was inversely associated with abdominal obesity, and a higher intake of flavanones (0.87 [0.76-0.99]) and proanthocyanidins (0.85 [0.75-0.98]) was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity, with respect to %BF in women. In contrast, the intake of flavonols (1.16 [1.02-1.33]), flavanones (1.18 [1.04-1.35]), and anthocyanidins (1.27 [1.11-1.46]) was positively associated with obesity based on BMI in men. In conclusion, high intake of dietary flavonoids may be associated with a decreased prevalence of abdominal obesity and obesity, based on %BF, among women. Novelty Higher flavonoid intake was associated with decreased prevalence of abdominal obesity and obesity based on %BF in Korean women. However, in men, the intake of flavonols, flavanones, and anthocyanidins was positively associated with obesity as given by BMI.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Flavonoides/administración & dosificación , Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , República de Corea/epidemiología , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Adulto Joven
3.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(1): 61-82, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981085

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a risk factor for cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Although the risk factors for MetS are well documented, differences in gender-based demographics among Kenyan adults with central obesity are lacking. AIM: Determine gender differences in the pattern of socio-demographics relevant to metabolic syndrome among Kenyan adults with central obesity at a mission hospital, Nairobi. METHODS: A cross-sectional baseline survey involving adults (N = 404) with central obesity aged 18-64 years, as part of a community-based lifestyle intervention study. Respondents were systematically sampled using the International Diabetes Federation definition for MetS. Lifestyle characteristics, anthropometric, clinical and biochemical markers were measured and analyzed using SPSS. RESULTS: High (87.2%) MetS prevalence associated with advanced age in males (p < 0.001) and females (p = 0.002) was observed. MetS was likely among divorced/separated/widowed (p = 0.021) and high income males (p = 0.002) and females (p = 0.017) with high income. Unemployed males (p = 0.008) and females with tertiary education (p = 0.019) were less likely to have MetS. Advanced age was likely to lead to high blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and triglycerides (p < 0.05). Males were more likely (p = 0.026) to have raised triglycerides, while females (p < 0.001) had low high density lipoproteins. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of MetS associated with social and gender differences among Kenyan adults with central obesity. These underscore the need to look beyond the behavioral and biological risks and focus on every nuance of gender differences in addressing MetS and CVDs.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Hospitales , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Empleo , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Kenia/epidemiología , Masculino , Estado Civil , Síndrome Metabólico/diagnóstico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Abdominal/diagnóstico , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
4.
Int Heart J ; 61(1): 103-108, 2020 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956154

RESUMEN

Waist circumference (WC) is measured for the assessment of abdominal obesity, whereas carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a marker of preclinical atherosclerosis. The relationship between WC and carotid IMT in the general population is not fully understood. In this study, we examined 1,182 subjects (658 men and 524 women, 62.3 ± 11.7 years on average) who underwent voluntary health check-ups and sought to determine the optimal cut-off value of WC for predicting carotid IMT thickness. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of WC was utilized to predict high carotid IMT (defined as carotid IMT ≥ 1.1 mm). We determined that the appropriate WC cut-off value was a WC ≥ 79 cm for men and women. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of high carotid IMT between WC ≥ 79 cm and WC < 79 cm in both men and women. However, multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the WC category was independently associated with high carotid IMT in men, but not in women. Our study indicates that the optimal cut-off value of WC to identify preclinical atherosclerosis may be lower than the current Japanese diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in both men and women. Compared to women, the association between WC and preclinical atherosclerosis may be more pronounced in men.


Asunto(s)
Aterosclerosis/diagnóstico , Obesidad Abdominal/diagnóstico , Anciano , Aterosclerosis/epidemiología , Grosor Intima-Media Carotídeo , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Curva ROC , Factores Sexuales , Circunferencia de la Cintura
5.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; 90(1-2): 95-102, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932777

RESUMEN

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious global health problem, thus the prevention and management of the disease is necessary. This study aimed to determine the effects of Ramadan Fasting (RF) on liver function, Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) in these patients. METHODS: Eighty-three NAFLD patients (57 males and 26 females) were enrolled in the study, 42 patients who practiced RF, between Jun 18 through July 17, 2015 and 41 patients in non-fasting groups. Anthropometric parameters and Ultrasound grading were measured before and after Ramadan. The biochemical parameters including lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides), liver enzymes (Aspartate aminotransferase, SGOT and Alanine aminotransferase, SGPT) were evaluated before and after Ramadan. AIP and VAI were calculated based on formula. RESULTS: The mean decreases in anthropometric indices were significantly different between groups. Similarly, the mean decrease in the total cholesterol values in the fasting group was remarkably greater than in the control group (p = 0.02). The values of AIP and VAI decreased at the end of the study in both group and the mean of changes showed no differences between groups (p = 0.79 and p = 0.65 for AIP and VAI, respectively). The changes in the concentrations of liver enzymes, as well as the severity of hepatic steatosis, showed remarkable differences between groups (p = 0.03, p = 0.05, and p = 0.02 for SGOT and SGPT, and Liver steatosis, respectively). CONCLUSION: RF improved liver steatosis in NAFLD patients and might be useful in the management of NAFLD.


Asunto(s)
HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Ayuno/metabolismo , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Obesidad Abdominal , Triglicéridos/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/química , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Triglicéridos/química
6.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; 90(1-2): 59-66, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932788

RESUMEN

Some studies indicated poor vitamin D level in NAFLD which is independently correlated with severity of steatosis. Low 25(OH) D3 levels are associated with an impaired lipid profile. Impaired levels and function of vaspin and omentin, which are adipokines, have been demonstrated in NAFLD patients. This study determined the relationship between vitamin D and serum liver enzymes, ultrasound findings, some adipokines, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) in patients with NAFLD in a cross-sectional study. This study was a cross-sectional study in eighty-three NAFLD patients (57 males and 26 females). Plasma levels of omentin-1e-1, vaspin were measured. Anthropometric indices metabolic status was assessed. Visceral adiposity index and atherogenic index of plasma were calculated according to suggested formula. Anthropometric indices, lipid profiles, liver enzymes as well as abdominal ultrasonography and the status of vitamin D were assessed. The results showed that aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (44.22 ± 8.5 IU/L vs. 40.19 ± 8.75 IU/L, p-value = 0.039) AIP (0.767 ± 0.142 vs. 0.6417 ± 0.139, p < 0.001) and VAI (9.28 ± 3.25 vs. 7.048 ± 2.415, p = 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency compared to those with vitamin D sufficiency. The positive correlations between Vaspin levels and vitamin D were found to be remarkably significant in both males and females (r = 0.437; P = 0.004; P < 0.001, r = -0.709, respectively. In both males and females serum vitamin D concentrations were negatively associated with AIP. Partial correlations controlling for age and sex showed that vitamin D is significantly and inversely associated with AIP, VAI, AST, and ALT. Additionally, vitamin D levels correlated directly with vaspin.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Obesidad Abdominal , Vitamina D/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/fisiopatología
8.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 103, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800914

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between adiposity, major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, and to assess the role of inflammation, diet quality and physical activity in this association. METHODS: We used data from 2,977 individuals from the 1993 Pelotas Cohort (Brazil) who attended the 18- and 22-year follow-ups. We assessed general obesity using body mass index, fat mass index, and abdominal obesity using waist circumference. Major Depressive Disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were assessed using the mini-international neuropsychiatric interview. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were used as a measure of inflammation; diet quality was estimated using the revised diet quality index, and physical activity was assessed by the International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ, min/day). The association between adiposity and major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder was assessed using logistic regression, and the natural indirect effect via the mediators was estimated using G-computation. RESULTS: General obesity assessed by body mass index (OR: 2.3; 95% CI:1.13; 4.85), fat mass index (OR: 2.6; 95%CI: 1.37; 4.83), and abdominal obesity (OR: 2.5; 95%CI: 1.18; 5.39) were associated with higher odds of major depressive disorder, whereas major depressive disorder was only associated with obesity assessed by body mass index (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.09; 3.46). Obesity and generalized anxiety disorder were not associated. C-reactive protein, diet quality and physical activity did not mediate the effect of obesity on major depressive disorder, and C-reactive protein mediated about 25% of the effect of major depressive disorder on adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: Depression, but not generalized anxiety disorder, is associated with adiposity in both directions, with a stronger evidence for the direction obesity-depression. Inflammation explains part of the effect of major depressive disorder on obesity but not the other way around. Further research should explore other mechanisms that could be involved in the association between obesity and depression.


Asunto(s)
Adiposidad/fisiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/fisiopatología , Dieta , Ejercicio/psicología , Obesidad/psicología , Adolescente , Antropometría , Brasil , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Estudios de Cohortes , Ejercicio/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangre , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidad Abdominal/psicología , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Valores de Referencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
9.
Kardiologiia ; 59(11): 21-30, 2019 Dec 11.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849296

RESUMEN

Background Long-term secondary preventive programs in coronary heart disease (CHD) are of highest efficacy but numerous logistical problems often compromise their implementation. Contemporary remote technologies have a potential to overcome these barriers. AIM: To assess  the impact of 2 preventive counselling programs with subsequent remote support in CHD patients with concomitant obesity. METHODS: A prospective randomized parallel-group study in 120 stable CHD patients hospitalized for elective coronary revascularization who were from 40 to 65 years old and had concomitant obesity. Patients were randomized (1:1:1) into 3 groups (n=40 each). Before discharge, Groups 1 and 2 received a single-session comprehensive counselling with focus on diet followed by remote counselling by phone (Group 1) or via text messages (Group 2). Remote counselling was delivered weekly (Months 1-3) and then monthly (Months 4-6). Group 3 received only standard advice from their attending physicians. The patients were followed for 12 months with assessment of adiposity measures, self-reported dietary patterns, physical activity (IPAQ questionnaire), smoking status, blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose, lipids and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, as well as of clinical events. RESULTS: At 1 year of follow-up, the patients from both intervention groups showed a marked improvement of several risk factors including obesity: the body mass index was reduced by 1.48±0.13 kg/m² in Group 1 and by 1.53±0.18 kg/m² in Group 2; the waist circumference went down by 7.62±0.49 and by 7.41±0.74 cm, respectively; the height-normalized fat mass decreased by 4.66±0.40 kg and 5.98±0.63 kg, respectively (all P values are <0.01 vs corresponding changes in the control group). These changes were coupled with more healthy dietary patterns and less sedentary lifestyles in both intervention groups: the proportion of patients with low activity level fell from 87.5% to 2.5% in Group 1 and from 80% to 10% in Group 2 (both p values <0.01 vs control). In Group 1, BP decreased by 18.08±2.20 mmHg (systolic) and 8.56±1.61 mmHg (diastolic); both р values <0.01 vs Group 3. In Group 2 systolic BP dropped by only 11.95±2.50 mmHg (non-significant) and diastolic BP by 6.33±1.52 mmHg (р<0.05 vs control). The proportion of smokers went down from 30% to 5% in Group 1 and from 22.5% to 0% in Group 2 (both p values <0.01 vs control). The fasting glucose levels decreased by 0.21±0.20 mmol/L in Group 1 and by 0.48±0.25 mmol/L in Group 2 (<0.01 vs control, both), but there were no meaningful improvements in blood lipids or CRP. CONCLUSION: Long-term (6 months) secondary prevention programs incorporating remote support technologies result into sustained improvement of key secondary prevention indicators in obese CHD patients, irrespective of the support modality (by phone or via electronic messaging).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Coronaria , Obesidad Abdominal , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedad Coronaria/complicaciones , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Abdominal/complicaciones , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Prevención Secundaria
10.
Kardiologiia ; 59(12): 11-19, 2019 Dec 11.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849306

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Quality of life, which is determined both by the physical symptoms and by psychosocial risk factors, is among the primary treatment goals in coronary heart disease (CHD). Therefore, it is reasonable to assess the impact of any therapeutic interventions in CHD on these measures. AIM: To assess the changes of psychological status and quality of life in patients with CHD and abdominal obesity (AO) over time during 2 secondary prevention programs using two different modalities of remote support. METHODS: An open-label randomized study with 3 parallel groups enrolling hospitalized patients with stable CHD and AO (most hospitalizations were due to elective revascularization procedures). The patients were randomized into 2 intervention groups (Group I and Group II) and into Group III (control). Both intervention groups received secondary prevention programs including one in-hospital preventive counselling session with focus on healthy eating habits and subsequent remote support for 6 months (Month 1 to 3: once a week; Month 4 to 6: once a month). Group I received this subsequent counselling via phone calls and Group II received text messages via different platforms according to patient preferences. Group III received standard advice at discharge only. During 1 year of follow-up motivation for lifestyle changes and continued participation in secondary prevention programs, anxiety and depression symptoms (HADS), stress levels (10-point VAS) and quality of life (HeartQol) were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 120 patients were enrolled (mean age±SD, 57.75±6.25 years; men, 83.4%) who had a high baseline motivation to participate in preventive programs. At 1 year of follow-up there was a substantial improvement in anxiety and depression symptoms in Groups I and II which was absent in Group III. As a result, the proportion of patients with HADS-A score ≥8 dropped from 45.0% to 10.0% in Group I and from 40.0% to 7.5% in Group II (both р values <0.01 vs control), and the proportion of participants with HADS-D ≥8 decreased from 30.0% to 10.0% (р<0.01 vs control) and from  12.5% to 0% (р<0.05 vs control), respectively. Stress level decreased in Groups I and II by 3.95±0.38 and 3.56±0.39 баллов, respectively (both р values <0.01 vs control). The HeartQol global score increased by 1.07±0.08 points in Group I and by 0.98±0.13 points in Group (both р values <0.01 vs control). CONCLUSION: Both secondary prevention programs with long-term remote support targeting obese CHD patients resulted in improvement of pivotal measures of their psychological status i.e. into a decline of anxiety and depression symptomatology, stress reduction and into a better quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Coronaria , Obesidad Abdominal , Anciano , Enfermedad Coronaria/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad , Obesidad Abdominal/complicaciones , Calidad de Vida , Prevención Secundaria
11.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 101, 2019 11 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694716

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prospective data are sparse for active commuting to work and body weight in Asia. We assessed the association of 5-year changes in commuting mode with body mass index (BMI) and the indicators of abdominal obesity in Japanese working adults. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, we studied 29,758 participants (25,808 men and 3950 women) in Japan aged 30 to 64 years at baseline who underwent further health examination 5 years after the baseline examination. Changes in BMI were calculated from objectively measured body height and weight at baseline and follow-up examination. Visceral and subcutaneous fat areas and waist circumference measured by computed tomography scans were used as indicators for abdominal adiposity. Linear regression was applied to estimate the association of changes in commuting mode with the obesity outcomes. RESULTS: Within the 5-year study period, adults who maintained inactive commuting gained weight, and compared with this group, adults who switched to inactive commuting had higher weight gain; conversely, adults who switched to active or public transportation commuting and especially those who maintained active or public transportation commuting experienced less weight gain. Subgroup analysis showed similar tendency across the different transitions of leisure-time exercise or occupational physical activity. For example, among adults who maintained no exercise (n = 16,087), the adjusted mean (95% confidence intervals) of the BMI change over 5 years in kg/m2 were 0.27 (0.24 to 0.30) for maintained inactive commuting group (reference), 0.34 (0.30 to 0.38) for switching to inactive commuting group (P = 0.046), 0.20 (0.18 to 0.22) for switching to active commuting or public transportation group (P = 0.001), and 0.09 (0.06 to 0.13) for maintained active commuting or public transportation group (P < 0.001). Maintained inactive commuting tended to be associated with larger gain in abdominal adiposity indicators. CONCLUSION: Switching from inactive commuting mode to more physically active commuting mode and maintaining active commuting can promote body weight control among working adults across different levels of occupational or leisure-time physical activity.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Transportes , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Transportes/métodos , Transportes/estadística & datos numéricos
12.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(12): 1353-1360, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668457

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Circulating level of glutamate, a by-product of the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids, has been positively correlated with visceral adipose tissue accumulation and waist circumference (WC). The aim of the present study was to assess the potential of using glutamate level to identify individuals with abdominal obesity and a high cardiometabolic risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study sample included 99 men and 99 women. Fasting serum glutamate was measured using the Biocrates p180 kit. Anthropometric and metabolic variables were used to identify individuals with abdominal obesity (WC ≥ 95 cm in both sexes), the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTW) phenotype and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Mean (±SD) age was 34.1 ± 10.1 years, mean BMI was 29.0 ± 6.2 kg/m2 and mean WC was 92.7 ± 16.5 cm. Glutamate was strongly correlated with WC (r = 0.66 for men; r = 0.76 for women, both p < 0.0001) and multiple markers of metabolic dysfunction, particularly fasting triglyceride level (r = 0.59 for men; r = 0.57 for women, both p < 0.0001), HDL-cholesterol level (r = -0.45, p < 0.0001 in both sexes) and the HOMA-IR index (r = 0.65 for men; r = 0.60 for women, both p < 0.0001). Logistic regressions showed that glutamate had an excellent accuracy to identify individuals with abdominal obesity (ROC_AUC: 0.90 for both sexes), a good accuracy to identify those with the HTW phenotype (ROC_AUC: 0.82 for men; 0.85 for women) and fair-to-good accuracy for the MetS (ROC_AUC: 0.78 for men; 0.89 for women). CONCLUSION: Glutamate level may represent an interesting potential biomarker of abdominal obesity and metabolic risk.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Glutámico/sangre , Síndrome Metabólico/sangre , Obesidad Abdominal/sangre , Adiposidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Ayuno/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólico/etiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Abdominal/complicaciones , Obesidad Abdominal/diagnóstico , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Triglicéridos/sangre , Regulación hacia Arriba , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Adulto Joven
13.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(5): 725-730, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762245

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To understand the relationship between obesity and depression in the elderly in China, and to explore whether there are differences between the genders. METHODS: The data were collected from the 2015 China Health and Retirement National Investigation (China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, CHARLS). The respondents were grouped according to depressive status. The difference of depressive status between the elderly male and female groups was examined by Chi-square test. The relationship between depression, obesity and the other sociological factors was analyzed by binary logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 4 019 valid cases, including 2 109 males (52.48%) and 1 910 females (47.52%). All the respondents were aged 60 years and over. There were 474 cases of central obesity (11.79%) and 2 418 cases of abdominal obesity (60.16%). There were significant differences in central obesity and abdominal obesity between the elderly male and female groups (P < 0.001). 1 304 cases suffered from depression, accounting for 32.45%, of which 539 cases were male (41.33%) and 765 cases were female (58.67%). Different groups of gender, central obesity and abdominal obesity had significant differences in depressive status (P < 0.001). The results of univariate analysis indicated that the characteristics of female, divorced/widowed/unmarried, in rural areas, having chronic diseases and functional loss were the risk factors for depression. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that, in terms of the total sample, after adjustment for the confounding factors, both central obesity and abdominal obesity groups were less likely to suffer from depression. After stratified by gender, both central obesity and abdominal obesity were negatively correlated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: The elderly with central obesity or abdominal obesity are less likely to suffer from depression, regardless of gender.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/complicaciones , Obesidad Abdominal/complicaciones , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1533, 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730482

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of abdominal obesity is increasing worldwide. Adults with abdominal obesity have been reported to have increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether non-obese subjects (body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2) with abdominal obesity examined in the framework of the Swiss-Hungarian Cooperation Programme had increased metabolic risk compared to participants without abdominal obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 5228 non-obese individuals. Data were collected between July 2012 and February 2016. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple logistic regression models were applied, odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) being the outcomes. RESULTS: 607 (11.6%) out of the 5228 non-obese individuals had abdominal obesity. The correlation analysis indicated that the correlation coefficients between BMI and waist circumference (WC) were 0.610 in males and 0.526 in females. In this subgroup, the prevalence of high systolic blood pressure, high fasting blood glucose, and high total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher. The logistic regression model based on these data showed significantly higher risk for developing high systolic blood pressure (OR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.20-1.94), low HDL cholesterol (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.09-3.89), and high trygliceride level (OR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.27-2.16). CONCLUSIONS: There was a very high, significant, positive correlation between WC and BMI. Abdominal obesity was found to be strongly related to certain metabolic risk factors among non-obese subjects. Hence, measuring waist circumference could be recommended as a simple and efficient tool for screening abdominal obesity and related metabolic risk even in non-obese individuals.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Metabólicas/etiología , Obesidad Abdominal/fisiopatología , Adulto , Glucemia/análisis , Presión Sanguínea , Índice de Masa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Ayuno/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Hungría/epidemiología , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Abdominal/complicaciones , Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Triglicéridos/sangre , Circunferencia de la Cintura
15.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(11): 1600-1605, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719283

RESUMEN

Background: Findings from studies on obesity and benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) have been inconsistent. With a previous study done in our facility showing no correlation between anthropometric indices of obesity and BPE, this study aimed at reevaluating the association between obesity and BPE using sonographic indices of abdominal/central obesity. Materials and Methods: Ninety consenting subjects with clinically confirmed BPE had their height and weight [(to calculate body mass index (BMI)] as well as waist and hip circumference [to calculate waist-hip ratio (WHR)] done. The subcutaneous, preperitoneal, and visceral fat thicknesses (SFT, PFT, and VFT, respectively) of these subjects and their prostate volumes were measured on transabdominal Ultrasonography (USS). Transrectal USS was also done to measure the total prostate and transitional zone volumes. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: WHR and waist circumference correlated positively with SFT (r = 0.325, P = 0.002 and r = 0.370, P = 0.000, respectively) and PFT (r = 0.209, P = 0.048 and r = 0.313, P = 0.003, respectively). While BMI correlated positively (r = 0.23, P = 0.029) with transrectal transitional zone volume, all three sonographic indices of adiposity correlated negatively (SFT: r = -0.223, P = 0.035; PFT: r = -0.321, P = 0.002; VFT: r = -0.242, P = 0.021) with transrectal total prostate volume. In addition, PFT correlated negatively with transabdominal prostate volume (r = -0.222, P = 0.037) and transrectal transitional zone volume (r = -0.211, P = 0.046). Conclusion: The relationship of BMI with transrectal transitional zone volume was a direct one, while that of SFT, PFT, and VFT with transrectal total prostate volume as well as PFT with transabdominal prostate volume and transrectal transitional zone volume was an inverse one.


Asunto(s)
Grasa Intraabdominal , Obesidad/complicaciones , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico por imagen , Grasa Subcutánea Abdominal , Ultrasonografía/métodos , Adiposidad , Adulto , Antropometría , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad Abdominal , Hiperplasia Prostática/epidemiología , Hiperplasia Prostática/etiología , Factores de Riesgo , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Relación Cintura-Cadera
16.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(9): 639-646, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635680

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the mediating effect of body dissatisfaction in correlation between obesity and dietary behavior changes for weight loss (DBCWL). METHODS: A total of 680 primary and middle school students were included in this study. Their body height, weight, and waistline were effectively measured, and they were also evaluated to assess their body dissatisfaction, perception of dietary behaviors, and DBCWL. The correlation among these factors was analyzed using mediating effect models. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was significantly higher in males than in females (P < 0.05). Overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, and body dissatisfaction significantly increased the risk for DBCWL (OR = 2.57, 2.77, and 1.95, respectively). Overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity significantly increased the risk for body dissatisfaction (OR = 6.00 and 4.70, respectively). Significant mediating effects of body dissatisfaction were observed in correlation between overweight/obesity and DBCWL and between abdominal obesity and DBCWL (OR = 2.20 and 1.92, respectively; P < 0.05), and the proportions of mediating effects among the total effects were 48.89% and 46.60%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Body dissatisfaction might play an important mediating effect in association between DBCWL and obesity, which indicates that guiding children to correctly recognize their body might be more conducive than promoting obese children toward weight loss through dietary behavior changes.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Pérdida de Peso , Adolescente , Niño , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/psicología , Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Obesidad Abdominal/psicología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/psicología , Prevalencia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1293, 2019 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615464

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of general and abdominal obesity has increased rapidly in China. The aims of this study were to estimate the dynamic prevalence of overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity and the distribution of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among Chinese adults. METHODS: Data were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). According to the suggestions of the WHO for Chinese populations, overweight was defined as a 23 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 27.5 kg/m2 and general obesity as a BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m2. Abdominal obesity was defined as a WC ≥ 90 cm for males and ≥ 80 cm for females. Grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3 obesity were defined as 27.5 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 32.5 kg/m2, 32.5 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 37.5 kg/m2, and BMI ≥ 37.5 kg/m2, respectively. Generalized estimation equations were used to estimate the prevalence and trends of overweight, general and abdominal obesity. RESULTS: This study included 12,543 participant. From 1989 to 2011, the median BMI of males and females increased by 2.65 kg/m2 and 1.90 kg/m2, respectively; and WC increased by 8.50 cm and 7.00 cm, respectively. In 2011, the age-adjusted prevalence of overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity were 38.80% (95% CI: 37.95-39.65%), 13.99% (95% CI: 13.38-14.59%), and 43.15% (95% CI: 42.28-44.01%), respectively, and significantly increased across all cycles of the survey among all subgroups (all P < 0.0001). The age-adjusted prevalence of grade 1-3 obesity significantly increased in total sample and sex subgroups (all P < 0.0001). For all indicators, there were significant increases in annual ORs among all subgroups (all P < 0.0001), with the exception of grade 2 obesity. Significant differences were observed in ORs across the three age groups in males. And ORs significantly decreased with age. CONCLUSIONS: The age-adjusted prevalence of overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity significantly increased among Chinese adults from 1989 to 2011. The obesity population is trending toward an increased proportion of males and younger individuals in China.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
18.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 153, 2019 10 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615512

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social inequalities in obesity have been observed not only by gender but also between ethnic groups. Evidence on combined dimensions of inequality in health, and specifically including indigenous populations, is however scarce, and presents a particularly daunting challenge for successful prevention and control of obesity in Bolivia, as well as worldwide. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were i) to examine intersectional inequalities in obesity and ii) to identify the factors underlying the observed intersectional inequalities. METHODS: An intersectional approach study was employed, using the information collected in a cross-sectional community-based survey. The sample consisted of youth and adults with permanent residence in Cochabamba department (N = 5758), selected through a multistage sampling technique. An adapted version of the WHO-STEPS survey was used to collect information about Abdominal obesity and risk factors associated. Four intersectional positions were constructed from gender (woman vs. men) and ethnic group (indigenous vs. mestizo). Joint and excess intersectional disparities in obesity were estimated as absolute prevalence differences between binary groups, using binomial regression models. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition was applied to estimate the contributions of explanatory factors underlying the observed intersectional disparities, using Oaxaca command in Stata software v15.1. RESULTS: The prevalence of abdominal obesity had a higher prevalence in mestizos (men 35.01% and women 30.71%) as compared to indigenous (men 25.38% and women 27.75%). The joint disparity was estimated at 7.26 percentage points higher prevalence in the doubly advantaged mestizo men than in the doubly disadvantaged indigenous women. The gender referent disparity showed that mestizo-women had a higher prevalence than indigenous-women. The ethnic referent disparity showed that mestizo-men had a higher prevalence than indigenous men. The behavioural risk factors were the most important to explain the observed inequalities, while differences in socioeconomic and demographic factors played a less important role. CONCLUSION: Our study illustrates that abdominal obesity is not distributed according to expected patterns of structural disadvantage in the intersectional space of ethnicity and gender in Bolivia. In the Cochabamba case, a high social advantage was related to higher rates of abdominal obesity, as well as the behavioural risk factors associated with them.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Obesidad/epidemiología , Grupos de Población/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bolivia , Estudios Transversales , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
19.
J Biosci ; 44(4)2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502573

RESUMEN

The current case-control study sought the association of BDNF rs6265 and MC4R rs17782313 with metabolic syndrome (MetS), MetS components and other related metabolic parameters in a sample of Pakistani subjects. Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin sensitivity showed a significantly lower mean whereas body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), cholesterol to HDL-C ratio, TG to HDL-C ratio, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, visceral adiposity index, lipid accumulation product and the product of TG and glucose showed a significantly higher mean in the presence of MetS. Reduced HDL-C appeared as the most frequent and hypertriglyceridemia as the least frequent component of MetS whereas clustering of reduced HDL-C + abdominal obesity (AO) + hyperglycemia appeared as the most prevalent combination of MetS components. Moreover, BDNF rs6265 showed BMI and gender independent association with increased risk of MetS in Pakistani individuals whereas MC4R rs17782313 showed BMI and gender dependent association with increased risk of MetS in Pakistani females. In addition, BDNF rs6265 and MC4R rs17782313 showed gender-dependent associations with decreased risk of having low HDL-C in males and increased risk of having abdominal obesity in females, respectively. However, no association was observed for metabolic variables other than components of MetS across genotypes of both BDNF rs6265 and MC4R rs17782313.


Asunto(s)
Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo/genética , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Síndrome Metabólico/genética , Receptor de Melanocortina Tipo 4/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Glucemia , Índice de Masa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Genotipo , Humanos , Insulina/sangre , Insulina/genética , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/sangre , Síndrome Metabólico/patología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Abdominal , Pakistán/epidemiología , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Factores de Riesgo , Triglicéridos/sangre , Triglicéridos/genética
20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(9): 3283-3292, 2019 Sep 09.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508749

RESUMEN

The scope of this study was to identify dietary patterns and their association with abdominal obesity in female shift workers in southern Brazil. A non-matched case-control study was conducted, including a total of 541 women aged between 18 and 53 years old (215 cases; 326 controls). The presence of abdominal obesity was assessed by measuring waist circumference ≥ 88 cm and dietary patterns were obtained by principal component analysis of 53 food items. The name of dietary patterns was assigned based on higher load factor and nutritional characteristics of foods. The association between abdominal obesity and dietary patterns was obtained by non-conditional logistic regression. Three dietary patterns were identified: "animal fat/calories," "snacks/fast-food" and "fruits/vegetables." After adjusted analysis, the cases presented a greater chance of adherence to the "fruits/vegetables" dietary pattern (OR = 2.26; 95% CI: 1.30 to 3.93) and a lower chance of adherence to the "snacks/fast food" pattern (OR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.36 to 1.01). In conclusion, this study identified three dietary patterns in female shift workers, and there was an improvement in nutrition in workers with abdominal obesity, representing a possible change in eating habits after their occurrence.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Conducta Alimentaria , Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Circunferencia de la Cintura/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Ingestión de Energía , Comida Rápida/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Horario de Trabajo por Turnos , Adulto Joven
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