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1.
J Sports Sci ; 38(9): 1009-1017, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160828

RESUMEN

During 20 m shuttle tests, obese adolescents may have difficulty achieving maximum cardiorespiratory performance due to the presence of braking-relaunch phases (BRP). Nineteen obese adolescents aged 15.2 ± 1.5 years (body mass index [BMI] = 39.7 ± 5.9 kg.m-2) performed three graded walking exercises on a 50 m track at speeds between 3 and 6 km/h: a continuous-straight-line protocol (C), a continuous protocol that required turning back every 30 sec (C-BRP) and an intermittent protocol that consisted of successively walking then resting for 15 sec (15-15). Oxygen uptake (VO2), aerobic cost of walking (Cw), ventilation (VE) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at each stage during the protocols. During C-BRP, the responses were not significantly higher compared with C (p > 0.30). During 15-15, the VO2, Cw and VE were ~ 15 to 25% lower than during C beginning at 4 km/h (p < 0.05). In obese adolescents, the respiratory impact of sudden directional changes during the 20 m shuttle-type test appeared to be minor at walking speeds. During the 15-15 test, the intensity increases more progressively, and this design may encourage obese adolescents to walk further than during a continuous test.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular/fisiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/fisiopatología , Percepción/fisiología , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Respiración , Caminata/fisiología , Adolescente , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología
2.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 13-20, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597515

RESUMEN

Cross-sectional study aimed to analyse differences in cognitive performance across fitness components categories (cardiorespiratory fitness [CRF], speed-agility and muscular fitness [MF]) and weight status in children, and to determine whether physical fitness mediates the association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive performance. Fitness components and BMI were measured using standard procedures in 630 children aged 5-to-7 years from the provinces of Cuenca and Ciudad Real, Spain. BADyG was used to assess cognitive performance. We used ANCOVA models to test mean differences in cognition scores by BMI and fitness categories. Hayes's PROCESS macro was used for mediation analyses. Children with normal weight scored better in spatial factor and general intelligence than their overweight/obese peers (p < 0.05), but differences were attenuated when controlling for CRF (p > 0.05). Children with better results in CRF and speed-agility scored better in all cognitive dimensions even after controlling for BMI (p < 0.05). Similarly, children with high MF obtained better scores in verbal factor (p < 0.05). All fitness components acted as mediators of the relationship between BMI and general intelligence (p < 0.05). These findings highlight the crucial role of fitness in minimising the negative effect of excess weight on children's cognition.Abbreviations: BMI: Body mass index; CRF: Cardiorespiratory fitness; MF: Muscular fitness; BADyG E1: Battery of general and differential aptitudes; SES: Socioeconomic status; SD: Standard deviation; IE: Indirect effect.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Aptitud Física/psicología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Capacidad Cardiovascular/psicología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Inteligencia/fisiología , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Sobrepeso/fisiopatología , Sobrepeso/psicología , Obesidad Pediátrica/fisiopatología , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Clase Social
3.
Dev Neurorehabil ; 23(1): 31-38, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684786

RESUMEN

Background: Childhood overweight and obesity, in addition to weight stigma, can result in numerous physical and psychosocial conditions. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are at a higher risk of developing overweight/obesity than their typically developing peers, yet we know little about what matters to them with regards to weight and their bodies.Methods: Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with youth with ASD. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a phenomenological approach within an interpretive paradigm.Results: Participants mostly showed little concern about their weight. Participants highly valued moving their bodies and reported feeling good about their bodies.Discussion: Findings suggest that children with ASD may be more engaged in healthcare discussions focusing on growth and health rather than size and weight. This approach can also reduce stigmatizing discussions.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Obes Facts ; 12(6): 669-677, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842015

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In the recent decades, a dramatic increase in childhood obesity is one of the main public health problems. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of Iranian mothers towards childhood obesity. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive research was conducted on KAP of 432 mothers and their children aged 6-7 years (214 boys and 218 girls) who were referred to the Zarandieh health centers, Iran, in 2017. The participants were selected via multistage random sampling. Demographic and KAP data were obtained by self-report using standard questionnaires. The weight and height of the subjects were measured according to standard methods and body mass index was calculated. Data were analyzed by inferential statistics using SPSS18 software. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity (OB) was 11.5% in boys and 7% in girls. The mean score for attitude for mothers with normal-weight children was higher than for mothers with obese children. Food habits like consumption of breakfast, having fast food at least twice a week, and eating in front of TV were associated with OB. Physical activity habits like duration of TV watching/computer games/sleep and regular physical exercise were associated with OB. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the importance of educating Iranian mothers to change of lifestyle (eating and physical activity habits) and attitudes towards weight control in their children. Therefore, it seems that these results may be valuable in the development of educational programs and strategies for the prevention of childhood obesity.


Asunto(s)
Escolaridad , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Conducta Materna , Madres , Obesidad Pediátrica , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Conducta Materna/fisiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Madres/psicología , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Prevalencia , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
5.
PLoS Med ; 16(11): e1002971, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770371

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In countries undergoing rapid economic transition such as China, rates of increase in childhood obesity exceed that in the West. However, prevention trials in these countries are inadequate in both quantity and methodological quality. In high-income countries, recent reviews have demonstrated that school-based prevention interventions are moderately effective but have some methodological limitations. To address these issues, this study evaluated clinical- and cost- effectiveness of the Chinese Primary School Children Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviour Changes Intervention (CHIRPY DRAGON) developed using the United Kingdom Medical Research Council complex intervention framework to prevent obesity in Chinese primary-school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, we recruited 40 state-funded primary schools from urban districts of Guangzhou, China. A total of 1,641 year-one children with parent/guardian consent took part in baseline assessments prior to stratified randomisation of schools (intervention arm, 20 schools, n = 832, mean age = 6.15 years, 55.6% boys; control arm n = 809, mean age = 6.14 years, 53.3% boys). The 12-month intervention programme included 4 school- and family-based components delivered by 5 dedicated project staff. We promoted physical activity and healthy eating behaviours through educational and practical workshops, family activities, and supporting the school to improve physical activity and food provision. The primary outcome, assessed blind to allocation, was between-arm difference in body mass index (BMI) z score at completion of the intervention. A range of prespecified, secondary anthropometric, behavioural, and psychosocial outcomes were also measured. We estimated cost effectiveness based on quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), taking a public sector perspective. Attrition was low with 55 children lost to follow up (3.4%) and no school dropout. Implementation adherence was high. Using intention to treat analysis, the mean difference (MD) in BMI z scores (intervention - control) was -0.13 (-0.26 to 0.00, p = 0.048), with the effect being greater in girls (MD = -0.18, -0.32 to -0.05, p = 0.007, p for interaction = 0.015) and in children with overweight or obesity at baseline (MD = -0.49, -0.73 to -0.25, p < 0.001, p for interaction < 0.001). Significant beneficial intervention effects were also observed on consumption of fruit and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages and unhealthy snacks, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and physical activity in the intervention group. Cost effectiveness was estimated at £1,760 per QALY, with the probability of the intervention being cost effective compared with usual care being at least 95% at a willingness to pay threshold of £20,000 to 30,000 per QALY. There was no evidence of adverse effects or harms. The main limitations of this study were the use of dietary assessment tools not yet validated for Chinese children and the use of the UK value set to estimate QALYS. CONCLUSIONS: This school- and family-based obesity prevention programme was effective and highly cost effective in reducing BMI z scores in primary-school-aged children in China. Future research should identify strategies to enhance beneficial effects among boys and investigate the transferability of the intervention to other provinces in China and countries that share the same language and cultures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Identifier ISRCTN11867516.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , China , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidad/prevención & control , Sobrepeso/prevención & control , Servicios de Salud Escolar/tendencias , Instituciones Académicas , Conducta Sedentaria
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1574, 2019 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775696

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that improvement of dietary habits through increased whole grain foods consumption at an early age has the potential to lead to betterment in lifelong health and wellness. The GReat-Child Trial™ was a 12-week quasi-experimental study with 6 months follow-up investigating a multi-component whole grain intervention, which consisted of behavioral, personal and environmental factors based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the GReat-Child Trial™, as well as to determine the changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of whole grains consumption among overweight/obese children. METHODS: Two schools in Kuala Lumpur with similar socio-demographic characteristics were assigned as intervention (IG) and control (CG), respectively. Inclusion criteria were healthy Malaysian overweight/obese children aged 9 to 11 years who had no serious co-morbidity. Children who reported consuming whole grain foods in their 3-day diet-recall during recruitment were excluded. A total of 63 children (31 IG; 32 CG) completed the intervention. KAP questionnaire was self-administered at baseline [T0] and post intervention (at 3rd [T1] and 9th month [T2]). The baseline differences between the IG and CG across socio-demographics and scores of KAP toward whole grains were determined using chi-square and t-test, respectively. ANCOVA was performed to determine the effect of the GReat-Child Trial™ on KAP towards whole grains at post-intervention and follow-up. Baseline variables were considered as covariates. RESULTS: The IG attained significantly higher scores in knowledge (mean difference = 4.23; 95% CI: 3.82, 4.64; p < 0.001), attitudes (mean difference = 7.39; 95% CI: 6.36, 8.42; p < 0.001) and practice (mean difference = 6.13; 95% CI: 4.49, 7.77; p < 0.001) of whole grain consumption compared to the CG, after adjusting for confounders. The IG reported significantly higher scores in knowledge (mean difference = 6.84; 95% CI: 6.53, 7.15; p < 0.001), attitudes (mean difference = 9.16; 95% CI: 8.08, 10.24; p < 0.001) and practice (mean difference = 8.03; 95% CI: 5.34, 10.73; p < 0.001) towards whole grains at T2 compared to T0. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that this intervention made a positive impact on improving children's KAP on whole grains. We anticipate the GReat-Child Trial™ to be a program that could be incorporated into school interventions to improve whole grain consumption among Malaysian children for obesity prevention.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Granos Enteros , Niño , Cognición , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Malasia , Masculino , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Teoría Social
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17274, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568007

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Weight status and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are rising public health concerns. An increasing number of reports indicate that individuals with ASD may have unhealthy weight status, but the evidence is mixed. To understand the weight status in individuals with ASD and provide strategies for prevention and intervention, we describe the protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at assessing the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight in ASD. METHODS: A broad range of key bibliographic databases including MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Science will be searched to identify studies reporting the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight in patients with ASD. Retrieved records will be independently screened by 2 authors and relevant estimates will be extracted from studies reporting data on obesity, overweight, and underweight prevalence among individuals with ASD. The assessment of study quality will be conducted primarily using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale and checklist proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Prevalence estimates of obesity and overweight will be separately pooled using random-effects model. The pooled estimates will be summarized and presented by regional groupings. Subgroup analysis will be conducted for variables (such as study setting, participants' age, and geographical region) across studies, depending on data availability. Between-study heterogeneity will be assessed using the I statistic and explored through subgroup analyses. This systematic review and meta-analysis will be reported following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses checklist and the meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology statements guidelines for meta-analysis and systematic reviews of observational studies. RESULTS: In this study, we will outline details of the aims and methods on the meta-analysis of weight status of individuals with ASD. CONCLUSION: The results of this study will summarize the current data of weight status of individuals with ASD. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO-National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42019130790).


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/complicaciones , Peso Corporal , Niño , Humanos , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/psicología , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/psicología , Obesidad Pediátrica/complicaciones , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Delgadez/complicaciones , Delgadez/psicología
8.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 19(3): 209-217, sept. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-184967

RESUMEN

Background/Objective: In recent decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, with the major implications for public health. However, the factors that contribute to obesity in children are still poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the role of parental reflective functioning (PRF) in childhood obesity. Method: In a cross-sectional design, 120 sets of parents of 60 children (n = 30 with obesity, age range 6-11) were recruited by local paediatricians. Parents completed the Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire. Children's and parents’ weight (assessed by BMI), as well as their socio-economic status (SES), were assessed to explore the contribution of PRF in the prediction of children's weight, controlling for parents’ weight and SES. Results: t-test showed significant differences with medium effect sizes in BMI, SES and PRF between parents of children with and without obesity. The best model resulted from hierarchical multiple regression analyses and showed that mothers’ PRF predicted children's BMI above and beyond the prediction by parents’ BMI and SES. Conclusions: Low maternal PRF could be an important target for intervention strategies, highlighting the need to consider parental responses to children's emotions in the treatment of childhood obesity, particularly in parents with low SES and high BMI


Antecedentes/Objetivo: En las últimas décadas la prevalencia de la obesidad infantil ha aumentad, teniendo implicaciones relevantes por la salud pública, pero hay todavía poca comprensión de los factores que contribuyen a la misma. La finalidad del estudio es investigar el papel de la función reflectiva parental (PRF) en la obesidad infantil. Método: En un estudio transversal, 120 parejas de padres de 60 niños (30 con obesidad, con edades entre 6 y 11 años) fueron reclutados por pediatras locales. Los padres tuvieron que rellenar el Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire. El peso de los niños y de los padres (BMI), así como el estado socio-económico (SES) fueron evaluados para explorar la contribución del PRF a la predicción del peso de los niños, en relación al peso parental y al SES. Resultados: El t-test ha mostrado diferencias significativa entre padres de niños con y sin obesidad en BMI, SES y PRF. El mejor modelo resultado de los análisis de regresión múltiple jerárquica ha mostrado que el PRF materno puede predecir el BMI de los niños más que el BMI paterno y el SES. Conclusiones: Un PRF materno bajo podría representar una diana importante para estrategias de intervención


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(3): 345-350, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041332

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the prevalence of physical inactivity in adolescent students in the city of Porto Velho, RO, Northern Brazil, and its associated factors. Methods: School-based study, conducted with 2,694 adolescents. The self-reported variable for outcome was physical inactivity. Factors associated with inactive behavior were verified by multiple logistic regression. The independent variables were inserted into the model in hierarchical blocks. Results: The overall prevalence of inactive behavior was 39.5%. Females showed a higher prevalence of physical inactivity (46.2%) than males (31.4%). Adolescents in private schools and with reports of negative health perception had a high prevalence of physical inactivity. Regarding associated factors, the female sex showed a magnitude of association of 1.84 with physical inactivity. Being in a private school was associated with a 2.54 times greater chance of physical inactivity compared to public school students. Going to school by bus, car or motorcycle was associated with a 1.29 and 1.63 higher chance of physical inactivity respectively. Adolescents who reported having a negative health perception had 1.29 higher chance of physical inactivity, while having excess body fat showed magnitude of association of 1.36 in adolescents. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of physical inactivity in the studied adolescents. Considering that the behavior of physical inactivity adopted during adolescence may continue in adulthood, the promotion of actions that can change this behavior may improve health in the future as well as quality of life.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar a prevalência do comportamento inativo de estudantes adolescentes da cidade de Porto Velho, RO, Brasil, e os fatores associados a ele. Métodos: Estudo de base escolar realizado com 2.694 adolescentes. A variável autorreferida à exposição ao desfecho foi a inatividade física. Verificam-se os fatores associados ao comportamento inativo pela regressão logística múltipla. As variáveis independentes foram inseridas no modelo em blocos hierarquizados. Resultados: A prevalência geral de comportamento inativo foi de 39,5%. O sexo feminino mostrou maior prevalência de comportamento inativo (46,2%) do que o masculino (31,4%). Adolescentes em escolas particulares e com relatos de percepção de saúde negativa apresentaram alta prevalência de comportamento inativo. Na verificação dos fatores associados, o sexo feminino mostrou magnitude de associação de 1,84 com o comportamento inativo. Estar institucionalizado em escola particular mostrou 2,54 vezes mais chance de ter comportamento inativo em comparação aos estudantes das escolas públicas. A locomoção para escola por ônibus e carro ou motocicleta revelou magnitudes de associação com o comportamento inativo de 1,29 e 1,63, respectivamente. Adolescentes que apontaram a percepção de saúde negativa tiveram 1,29 mais chance de ter comportamento inativo em relação ao relato de saúde positiva, enquanto ter excesso de gordura corporal mostrou magnitude de associação de 1,36 em adolescentes. Conclusões: A prevalência de comportamento inativo foi alta em estudantes adolescentes. Considerando que o comportamento inativo adotado durante a adolescência pode permanecer nos anos posteriores, sugere-se a promoção de ações para a modificação de comportamento visando à melhoria da saúde e qualidade de vida.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sedentaria , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Brasil/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Sistema de Vigilancia de Factor de Riesgo Conductual , Obesidad Pediátrica/etiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología
10.
Eat Behav ; 34: 101316, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419769

RESUMEN

There is growing evidence of an association between the relative reinforcing value of food (RRVF; how hard a child is willing to work for a food versus a non-food reinforcer) and weight across many life stages, but few studies have examined this association among preschool age children. This study investigated the association between the RRVF (measured as the food reinforcing ratio (FRR)) and body mass index (BMI) z-score and percent fat mass (%FM), in 3 year-old children. The sample was comprised of 33 children who were 3 years of age (36-47 months). Children selected their favourite food reinforcer (cookie) and non-food (audiobook) reinforcer to be used in the FRR task, which was delivered using a sequential progressive fixed ratio reward schedule. Child height, weight and percent body fat using bioelectrical impedance analysis were assessed by trained research staff. Linear regression analyses showed that FRR was significantly and positively associated with BMI z-scores. FRR was not significantly associated with %FM. Findings from this study support the RRVF as a potential risk factor in the development of childhood obesity. Longitudinal research involving larger sample sizes would strengthen future research exploring associations between RRVF and body composition in preschool age children.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal/fisiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Recompensa , Peso Corporal , Preescolar , Femenino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Factores de Riesgo
12.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(4): 2495-2501, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405667

RESUMEN

Childhood obesity prevalence is shooting up at a phenomenal rate worldwide, leading to long-term devastating consequences. A great number of studies have investigated factors contributing to the increase in BMI of children and adolescents. School-based, home-based and clinic-based solutions have been suggested as possible viable strategies, among which school-based interventions is believed to produce a noticeable effect on a massive scale. However, the question of whether school interventions, especially school education exert significant impact on childhood obesity or not, is left with mixing results. This article aims to holistically review the relationship between school education and childhood obesity. Various factors are covered, including health education, nutrition education, school nutrition, physical education, teachers' awareness, teaching practice and school stress, In all, school education is not the answer to childhood obesity but just part of it. More attempts from other stakeholders (parents, community, policy makers, researchers, etc.) should be made in order to solve this complicated puzzle.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Salud/métodos , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Humanos
14.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262065

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to determine if the associations between eating competence (EC) and eating behaviors that were found in a USA sample of predominantly Hispanic parents of 4th grade youth could be replicated in a USA sample of predominantly non-Hispanic white parents of 4th graders. Baseline responses from parents (n = 424; 94% white) of youth participating in a year-long educational intervention were collected using an online survey. Validated measures included the Satter Eating Competence Inventory (ecSI 2.0TM), in-home fruit/vegetable (FV) availability, healthful eating behavior modeling, and FV self-efficacy/outcome expectancies (SE/OE). Data were analyzed with general linear modeling and cluster analyses. The findings replicated those from the primarily Hispanic sample. Of the 408 completing all ecSI 2.0TM items, 86% were female, 65% had a 4-year degree or higher, and 53% were EC (ecSI 2.0TM score ≥ 32). Compared with non-EC parents, EC modeled more healthful eating, higher FV SE/OE, and more in-home FV availability. Behaviors clustered into those striving toward more healthful practices (strivers; n = 151) and those achieving them (thrivers; n = 255). Striver ecSI 2.0TM scores were lower than those of thrivers (29.6 ± 7.8 vs. 33.7 ± 7.6; p < 0.001). More EC parents demonstrated eating behaviors associated with childhood obesity prevention than non-EC parents, encouraging education that fosters parent EC, especially in tandem with youth nutrition education.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil , Conducta Alimentaria , Padres/psicología , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Niño , Conducta Infantil/etnología , Colorado/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Conducta Alimentaria/etnología , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/etnología , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidad Pediátrica/etnología , Obesidad Pediátrica/fisiopatología , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada , Factores de Riesgo
15.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340578

RESUMEN

Childhood obesity is a growing concern worldwide. Though multifactorial, the family environment exerts significant influence on children's eating habits. Grandparents are increasingly involved as caregivers and they can significantly influence their grandchildren's eating habits. Yet, literature on this topic is lacking. This exploratory sequential mixed methods study (qualitative interview and interviewer-administered questionnaire) aims to understand grandparents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on the feeding of their grandchildren in Singapore. A total of 11 interview participants and 396 questionnaire respondents with at least one grandchild, aged 12 years and below were included. Qualitative interviews informed the questionnaire development. Responses to interview questions about knowledge, attitudes, and practices revealed sub-themes such as knowledge on the impact of feeding, attitude toward feeding role, and challenges to feeding. Of the 396 participants, 35% were primary caregivers (defined as the person who spends the most time with the grandchild and performs most of the caregiving tasks). Nutritional knowledge was fair (median score 5/8), with misconceptions centered around healthy feeding practices. Grandparents who were primary caregivers, female, Malay, and younger than 70 years old believed that they played an important role in feeding their grandchild (p < 0.05). Overall, 47.2% of the grandparents rarely or never set a maximum limit on the amount of unhealthy food eaten, of which 77.1% are non-primary caregivers. In comparison, primary caregivers tend to set a maximum limit to the amount of unhealthy food their grandchildren eat and choose a wide variety of food (p < 0.05). These findings support the need for further improvement of grandparents' feeding knowledge and practices as part of tackling childhood obesity.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil , Conducta Alimentaria , Abuelos/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Niño , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales Infantiles , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Conducta del Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidad Pediátrica/fisiopatología , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada , Singapur
16.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340602

RESUMEN

The aim of this review was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among European children aged 2-7 years from 2006 to 2016 and to analyze these estimations by gender, country, and food group consumption. We searched CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases from their inception until 27 February 2019 including cross-sectional studies and baseline measurements of cohort studies with overweight and obesity defined according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria. Both the inverse-variance fixed-effects method and the DerSimonian and Laird random effects method were used to determinate pooled prevalence estimates and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 32 studies (n = 197,755 children) with data from 27 European countries were included. Overall, the pooled prevalence estimates of overweight/obesity in European children (aged 2-7 years) during the period 2006-2016 was 17.9% (95% CI: 15.8-20.0), and the pooled prevalence estimate of obesity was 5.3% (95% CI: 4.5-6.1). Southern European countries showed the highest prevalence of excess weight. Additional measures to address the obesity epidemic in early life should be established, especially in European countries where the prevalence of excess weight is very high.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil , Dieta/efectos adversos , Conducta Alimentaria , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Niño , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales Infantiles , Preescolar , Ingestión de Energía , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidad Pediátrica/fisiopatología , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Prevalencia , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada , Factores de Riesgo
17.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 31(6): 344-351, 2019 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157651

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: As the incidence of global obesity increases, concerns about adverse health outcomes in adolescents continues to rise. The complexity and expense of this problem require early recognition and specific preventive treatments. Knowledge of genetics and determinants of food choices contributing to adolescent obesity warrants further examination. The primary goal was to appraise the literature from the past decade (2007-2017) on the current state of food choice and genetic determinants of adolescent overweight/obesity in the United States. The secondary goal was to determine trends in the literature and areas for future research. METHODS: A systematic review of research studies in the United States from 2007 to 2017 was completed. Database searches were conducted using CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycArticles, PubMed, Scopus, Academic Search Complete, Web of Science, BIOSIS, and the Cochrane Library. A total of 535 studies were selected. Of these, 283 studies focused on determinants of food choices and 165 studies focused on genetic factors. CONCLUSIONS: A total of 41 full-text articles included in this literature review contained studies limited exclusively to adolescents. Stress factors related to food choices demonstrated a new trend being explored. The need for precision health, the application of genetic information, could uncover ways food choices affect adolescent obesity. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The etiology of adolescent obesity requires that nurses gain knowledge of genetics and food choice determinants to inform personalized treatments for adolescents, which may establish effective interventions that promote healthy weight achievement.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Obesidad Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Conducta de Elección , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidad Pediátrica/genética , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos
18.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146440

RESUMEN

Differences in postprandial insulin, glucose, and/or free fatty acid concentrations, following the consumption of breakfast, have been demonstrated to be dependent on habitual breakfast patterns. This study examined the effects of habitual breakfast patterns on postprandial appetite, satiety, and hormonal responses along with daily food intake following the consumption of normal-protein (NP) vs. higher-protein (HP) breakfasts in overweight adolescents. Thirty-seven girls (age: 19 ± 1 year; BMI: 29.0 ± 3.4 kg/m2) participated in the semi-randomized crossover design study. Participants were grouped according to whether they habitually skipped (SKIP, n = 18) or consumed breakfast (CONSUME, n = 19), and consumed a NP (350 kcal; 13 g protein) or HP (350 kcal; 35 g protein) breakfast for 3 days/pattern. On day 4, breakfast was provided, and appetite questionnaires and blood samples were collected throughout an 8 h testing day. Daily food intake was also assessed. Regardless of habitual breakfast patterns, the consumption of HP breakfast led to greater daily fullness (29,030 ± 6,010 min × mm) vs. NP breakfast (26,910 ± 5580 min × mm; p = 0.03). Daily protein consumption was greater (98 ± 15 g vs. 78 ± 15 g), and carbohydrate consumption was lower (331 ± 98 g vs. 367 ± 94 g) with HP vs. NP (both, p < 0.001). No other differences were observed. These data suggest that the recommendation to consume a HP breakfast for improved satiety and ingestive behavior is appropriate for overweight adolescent girls, regardless of habitual breakfast patterns.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Regulación del Apetito , Desayuno , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Conducta Alimentaria , Obesidad Pediátrica/dietoterapia , Respuesta de Saciedad , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Estudios Cruzados , Femenino , Humanos , Missouri , Obesidad Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidad Pediátrica/fisiopatología , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Factores Sexuales , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
19.
Compr Child Adolesc Nurs ; 42(sup1): 226-233, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192711

RESUMEN

This study aims to explore mothers' experiences in caring for overweight children under five years of age. This study used a descriptive phenomenology approach, with in-depth interviews with ten mothers who had overweight children under five years of age (2-5 years) selected by purposive sampling. The data was then analyzed using thematic analysis based on Collaizi's approach. This study produced eight themes illustrating that mothers were not only unaware of the children's overweight condition, but even felt more pleased to have overweight kids. This caused mothers not to give the optimum effort in limiting their children's food intake. The low awareness mothers had towards their children's overweight condition indicated the need for an intervention program that focuses on overweight children under five years of age to empower the family and increase family awareness in managing obesity early.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Madre-Hijo , Madres/psicología , Obesidad Pediátrica/complicaciones , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Preescolar , Empatía , Femenino , Humanos , Indonesia , Entrevistas como Asunto/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Investigación Cualitativa
20.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(6): e13828, 2019 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162133

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing in China, and the effect of mobile phone short message service (SMS) interventions to prevent early childhood obesity needs to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of an SMS intervention on the prevention of obesity in young children. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design SMS intervention was carried out in 4 community health centers (CHCs) in Shanghai, China. A total of 2 CHCs were assigned to the intervention group, and 2 CHCs were assigned to the control group. Mothers in the intervention group received weekly SMS messages on breastfeeding and infant feeding from the third trimester to 12 months postpartum. The primary outcomes were children's body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, and weight-for-length z-score at 12 and 24 months. Factors associated with higher BMI and weight-for-length z-score at 24 months were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 582 expectant mothers were recruited at the beginning of the third gestational trimester. 477 (82.0%) and 467 (80.2%) mothers and their children were followed up to 12 and 24 months postpartum, respectively. There were no significant differences in children's BMI, BMI z-score, and weight-for-length z-score at 12 and 24 months between the 2 groups. Factors associated with higher BMI, BMI z-score, and weight-for-length z-score at 24 months included higher birth weight, introduction of solid foods before 4 months, and taking a bottle to bed at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The SMS intervention did not show a significant effect on children's BMI, BMI z-score, or weight-for-length z-score at 12 and 24 months. Introduction of solid foods before 4 months and taking a bottle to bed at 12 months were significantly and positively correlated with a higher BMI, BMI z-score, and weight-for-length z-score at 24 months. Further studies with more rigorous design are needed to evaluate the effect of SMS interventions on preventing early childhood obesity.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Madres/psicología , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Envío de Mensajes de Texto/normas , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Preescolar , China , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Envío de Mensajes de Texto/instrumentación , Envío de Mensajes de Texto/estadística & datos numéricos
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