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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130735, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365247

RESUMEN

Green and black teas are regarded to possess therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity, however it is not clear which tea performs better in body weight control. In this study, aiming to eliminate cultivar variation, green tea phenolics (GTP) were oxidized by tyrosinase to obtain oxidized tea phenolics (OTP). Thereafter, their anti-obesity effect on high-fat diet induced obese mice were compared. The results showed that despite their distinctive phenolic profiles, GTP and OTP exerted similar anti-obesity properties after 12 weeks of dietary intervention. Furthermore, cecal microbiota profiling exhibited comparable modulatory effects of GTP and OTP on multiple bacterial taxa, including Parabacteroides distasonis, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, and Akkermansia muciniphila, which were strongly associated with obesity related indexes. Putative bacterial function profiling implicated that both GTP and OTP might regulate the lipid metabolism similarly. Collectively, the oxidation of GTP did not influence the anti-obesity and gut microbiota modulatory effects to any large extent.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , , Animales , Bacteroidetes , Ratones , Ratones Obesos , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Obesidad/etiología
2.
Infectio ; 25(4): 262-269, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286720

RESUMEN

Abstract Objective: To analyse the clinic characteristics, risk factors and evolution of the first cohort of hospitalised patients with confirmed infection by COVID-19 in 5 Colombian institutions. Materials and methods: Is a retrospective observational study of consecutive hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed from March 01 to May 30, 2020 in Colombia. Results: A total of 44 patients were included. The median age was 62 years. 43.2% had a history of smoking, while 69.8% were overweight or obese. 88.6% had at least one comorbidity and 52.3% had three or more comorbidities. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were the most frequent comorbidities (40.9% and 34.1%, respectively). The 30-day mortality rate was 47.7% with a median of 11 days. The composite outcome occurred in the 36.4%. The biomarkers associated with mor tality risk included troponin higher than 14 ng/L (RR: 5.25; 95% CI 1.37-20.1, p = 0.004) and D-dimer higher than 1000 ng/ml (RR: 3.0; 95% CI 1.4-6.3, p = 0.008). Conclusions: The clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalized Colombian was characterised by a more advanced stage of the infection.


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar las características, clínicas, factores de riesgo, y la evolución de pacientes hospitalizados con infección confirmada por COVID-19 en 5 Institu ciones de Colombia. Material y método: Es un estudio observacional retrospectivo de pacientes consecutivos hospitalizados con diagnóstico de COVID-19 confirmado entre 01 de Febrero de 2020 y 30 de Mayo de 2020 en Colombia. Resultados: Un total de 44 pacientes fueron incluidos. La mediana de edad fue de 62 años y la mayoría del sexo masculino. El 43.2% tenían historia de tabaquismo, mientras que el 69.8% tenían sobrepeso u obesidad. El 88.6% tenían al menos una comorbilidad y el 52.3% tenían tres o más comorbilidades. La hipertensión arterial fue la comorbilidad más frecuente (40.9%), seguido de la dislipidemia (34.1%). La tasa de letalidad a 30 días fue de 47.7% y ocurrió con una mediana de 11 días. El 36.4% presentó el desenlace compuesto. Los biomarcadores asociados con el riesgo de muerte fue troponina > 14 ng/mL (RR:5.25, IC95% 1.37-20.1, p=0.004) y dímero D mayor a 1000 mg/dL (RR: 3.0, IC95% 1.4-6.3, p=0.008). Conclusiones: El curso clínico de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en colombianos hospitalizados fue un estadio más avanzado de la infección.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Biomarcadores , COVID-19 , Pacientes , Tabaquismo , Comorbilidad , Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Mortalidad , Colombia , Sobrepeso , Cursos , Infecciones , Obesidad
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211359, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1252506

RESUMEN

Aim: To evaluate the effects of an intervention for the prevention of obesity on the prevalence of dental caries disease in Spanish children. Methods: Two cities participated intervention study nested in a cohort IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary and lifestyle induced health effects in children and infants): Huesca, where there was a 2-year intervention, which encouraged less sugar consumption; and Zaragoza (control). The prevalence of caries was evaluated by examining the 1st permanent molars in the 7-11 age range, using the ICDAS (International Caries Detection and Assessment System). These teeth erupt at 6 years of age and at the baseline (2007-2008) were free of caries because they were not present in the oral cavity. As outcomes, white spots were selected, combining the ICDAS criteria 1 and 2, and untreated caries, combining criteria 4, 5 and 6. Their association with socioeconomic variables, BMI (Body Mass Index), frequency of sugar intake, sex and parents' perceptions of their children, was investigated. To do so, the chi-square test was applied (p<0.05). Results: The sample consisted of 281 children. The prevalence of white spots and untreated caries was higher in Huesca, despite the intervention. There was no association between the outcomes and the variables studied (p>0.05). Conclusion: The intervention for the prevention of obesity did not exert any association with the prevalence of caries in Spanish children


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Salud Bucal , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Obesidad
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 661471, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604150

RESUMEN

Inadequate physical activity is currently one of the leading risk factors for mortality worldwide. University students are a high-risk group in terms of rates of obesity and lack of physical activity. In recent years, activity trackers have become increasingly popular for measuring physical activity. The aim of the present study is to examine whether university students in Hungary meet the health recommendations (10,000 steps/day) for physical activity and investigate the impact of different variables (semester-exam period, days-weekdays, days, months, sex) on the level of physical activity in free-living conditions for 3 months period. In free-living conditions, 57 healthy university students (male: 25 female: 32 mean age: 19.50 SD = 1.58) wore MiBand 1S activity tracker for 3 months. Independent sample t-tests were used to explore differences between sexes. A One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to explore differences in measures among different grouping variables and step count. A Two-way ANOVA was conducted to test for differences in the number of steps by days of the week, months, seasons and for sex differences. Tukey HSD post-hoc tests were used to examine significant differences. Students in the study achieved 10,000 steps per day on 17% of days (minimum: 0%; maximum: 76.5%; median: 11.1%). Unfortunately, 70% of the participants did not comply the 10,000 steps at least 80% of the days studied. No statistical difference were found between sexes. However, significant differences were found between BMI categories (underweight <18.50 kg/m2; normal range 18.50-24.99 kg/m2; overweight: 25.00-29.99 kg/m2 obese > 30 kg/m2, the number of steps in the overweight category was significantly lower (F = 72.073, p < 0.001). The average daily steps were significantly higher in autumn (t = 11.457, p < 0.001) than in winter. During exam period average steps/day were significantly lower than during fall semester (t = 13.696, p < 0.001). On weekdays, steps were significantly higher than on weekends (F = 14.017, p < 0.001), and even within this, the greatest physical activity can be done by the middle of the week. Our data suggest that university students may be priority groups for future physical activity interventions. Commercial activity trackers provide huge amount of data for relatively low cost therefore it has the potential to objectively analyze physical activity and plan interventions.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Universidades , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Hungría , Masculino , Obesidad/epidemiología , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
5.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 45: 399-403, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620346

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIM: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health threat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between D-Sat and depression, anxiety and stress in obese patients during the coronavirus pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in 228 obese and overweight women on a weight loss diet was conducted through the use of two questionnaires. General characteristics, anthropometric indices, D-Sat and mental status were assessed in these patients. RESULTS: The greatest weight loss (WL) and waist circumference (WC) change was associated with the highest tertile of the D-Sat score in the first four months of the coronavirus pandemic (P < 0.05). Participants with the highest tertile of all D-sat score compared to those with the lowest had an 84% decrease in odds of depression. The highest tertile was also associated with decreased odds of anxiety (OR: 0.32 95%CI: 0.14; 0.68) The adjusted odds of stress score were negatively associated to the highest tertile of the D-Sat score (OR: 0.09, 95%CI (0.03, 0.23). WL was inversely related to stress (P < 0.05). Participants with higher WL and WC reduction had fewer depressive symptoms (P < 0.05). Sleep time and family income were associated with obesity. CONCLUSIONS: D-Sat and positive personal and family dynamics can improve the mental status of obese and overweight patients during quarantine.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Satisfacción del Paciente , Satisfacción Personal , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 206, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603587

RESUMEN

Introduction: type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a global public health crisis. The increment in the cases has contributed significantly to the parallel increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. This paper aimed to analyse the relationship between lipid profile, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) with the glycaemic control of the diabetes patients in Kedah. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted, using the Kedah audit samples data extracted from the National Diabetes Registry (NDR) from the year 2014 to 2018. A total of 25,062 registered type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were selected using the inclusion and exclusion criteria from the registry. Only patients with complete data on their HbA1C, lipid profile, waist circumference and BMI were analysed using SPSS version 21. Results: the means for the age, BMI and waist circumference of the samples were 61.5 (±10.85) years, 27.3 (±5.05) kg/m2 and 89.46 (±13.58) cm, respectively. Poor glycaemic control (HbA1c>6.5%) was observed in 72.7% of the patients, with females having poorer glycaemic control. The BMI and waist circumference were found to be significantly associated with glycaemic control (P<0.001). The total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins values showed positive correlation with glycaemic control (r = 0.178, 0.157, 0.145, p<0.001), while high-density lipoproteins values are negatively correlated (r = -0.019, p<0.001). Conclusion: implementing lifestyle changes such as physical activity and dietary modifications are important in the management of BMI, waist circumference and body lipids, which in turn results in improved glycaemic control.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Hemoglobina A Glucada/metabolismo , Lípidos/sangre , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Malasia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso , Sistema de Registros , Circunferencia de la Cintura/fisiología
7.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(2): 252-258, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601512

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Information on trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the high-risk groups helps plan health promotion programmes and health policy. This study examined trends in overweight and obesity from 2006 to 2016 and the associated socio-demographic factors in 2016 among 20 to 49-year-old women in Nepal. METHODS: Nationally representative cross-sectional data were used from three Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2006 (n=7809), 2011 (n=4561), and 2016 (n=4904) in Nepal. Bodyweight and height were measured by trained personnel. Overweight was defined as 23.0 to 27.5 kg/m2 and obesity as >27.5 kg/m2 based on Asian-specific criteria in the main analyses. Multinomial logistic regression models were adjusted for age, parity, education, and wealth index. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight increased from 16.6% to 26.8% and obesity from 3.9% to 14.3% between 2006 and 2016. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 2.26 (2.06 to 2.49) for overweight and 5.26 (4.48 to 6.18) for obesity in 2016 compared with 2006. Age 30 to 49 years, higher wealth index, parity 1 to 3 and education were associated with a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity, whereas the association between the area of residence (urban/rural) and prevalence of overweight or obesity was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased among Nepalese women of reproductive age between 2006 and 2016. More research is needed on how to prevent overweight and obesity among women, especially women aged 30 to 49 years or with higher wealth, in Nepal.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad , Sobrepeso , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nepal/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
8.
Br J Nurs ; 30(17): 1040-1041, 2021 Sep 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605257

RESUMEN

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses a recent government-commissioned review on the food system of the UK.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Obesidad , Humanos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/prevención & control , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
9.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 991-996, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605468

RESUMEN

The prevalence of obesity continues to increase worldwide day by day causing a serious health problem and impose a significant impact on the National Health Service (NHS) budget. Obesity usually arises from the interactions of multiple genes and lifestyle factors. This study was done to evaluate changes of serum creatinine and creatinine clearance rate in obese female age ranged 30-60 years in comparison to normal healthy female of same age. This study, a cross-sectional analytical type, was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh between the period from January 2020 to December 2020. A total number of 100 female subjects were included in this study. Among them fifty (50) normal healthy female were taken as control group (Group I) and fifty (50) obese female were taken as study group (Group II). To see the level of serum creatinine determined by Kinetic Colorimetric method and creatinine clearance rate was calculated from serum creatinine by Cockcroft-Gault equation. Data was calculated by unpaired Student's't' test and were expressed as mean (±SD). Pearson's correlation coefficient test was done to find the correlation of serum creatinine and creatinine clearance rate with BMI. In this study we found that mean serum Creatinine and Creatinine clearance rate were higher in obese female in comparison to normal healthy female. Again, serum Creatinine and Creatinine clearance rate were positively correlated with BMI. Therefore, to prevent obesity related complications and leading a healthy life we suggest estimations of these parameters routinely.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad , Medicina Estatal , Adulto , Creatinina , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología
10.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(9): 1281-1289, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610730

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Physical activity plays an important role on children with obesity. This study evaluated the effects of plyometric training on the anthropometry, body composition, and the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) of boys with obesity. METHODS: Boys aged 7 to 9 years old were divided in: non-trained (N.=12) and trained (N.=29). The plyometric training program consisted of jumps on nonconsecutive days for twelve weeks. Anthropometry and body composition, BP and HR were evaluated. BP, HR and rate-pressure product were recorded at rest and 2 minutes after the section. Two-way repeated factors ANOVA was used. RESULTS: Trained group had a reduction in skinfolds and an increase in free fat mass (within and between-groups) and a large effect size for most anthropometric and body composition variables. Late systolic response was reduced from 122±1.1 (immediately post-exercise at the first week) to 112±1.0 at the end of plyometric training period. Diastolic reduction was seen two minutes after each session of exercise (from 68±1.1 to 62±1.2). HR was reduced in response to plyometric training (108 bpm to 97 bpm). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings strengthen previous studies that suggest that intense exercise has significant adaptive effects on BP and HR.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Pliométrico , Hipotensión Posejercicio , Composición Corporal , Niño , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad , Sobrepeso
11.
Braz Dent J ; 32(2): 27-36, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614058

RESUMEN

The objective of this 9-month clinical study is to assess the impact of one-stage full-mouth disinfection (FMD) on salivary nitrite levels and systemic biomarkers and its correlation with total subgingival bacterial load in obese and non-obese patients with periodontitis. In total, 94 patients (55 obese and 39 non-obese) were initially evaluated, seven were lost during follow-up, resulting in 87 individuals at the end of the study. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months post periodontal treatment by FMD. Salivary nitrite levels were determined using Griess reagent. Blood samples were collected to determine C-Reactive Protein (CRP), alkaline phosphatase and fasting blood glucose. Real-time PCR was used to determine the total subgingival bacterial load. FMD protocol resulted in increased salivary nitrite levels at 6- and 9-months post-treatment in the non-obese group (p<0.05). In obese individuals, FMD treatment led to an increase in salivary nitrite levels at 6 months (p<0.05); however, at 9 months, the nitrite levels returned to baseline levels. For both groups, the highest nitrite values were observed at 6 months. In addition, in both groups, FMD was associated with a decrease in biomarkers related to systemic inflammation and cardiovascular diseases, such as CRP (p<0.05) and alkaline phosphatase (p<0.05), and had no impact on the fasting blood glucose. This study demonstrates that obese patients with periodontitis present similar salivary nitrite levels when compared with non-obese individuals. FMD protocol resulted in increases in salivary nitrite levels and was associated with a positive impact on systemic biomarkers, regardless of obesity status.


Asunto(s)
Nitritos , Periodontitis , Biomarcadores , Desinfección , Humanos , Obesidad/complicaciones
12.
Ann Parasitol ; 67(2): 249-255, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595617

RESUMEN

Blastocystis is one of the most frequent protozoa in human faecal samples, however, little is known about its relation with obesity. The present study aimed to analyse Blastocystis infection and subtypes in three adult populations classified according to body mass index (BMI). Faecal samples from 346 individuals were classified according to BMI: control (124 cases), overweight (110 cases), and obese (112 cases). Nucleic acid extraction from the samples was followed by amplification of partial 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene of Blastocystis. The neighbourjoining method was used to construct a phylogenetic tree from evolutionary distance data. Clinical findings were compared between Blastocystis infected and non-infected cases. Blastocystis was detected in 52 (15%) of 346 individuals with PCR assay. Blastocystis was less frequent in obese group (8%) than both control group (18.2%) and overweight group (18.5%). Subtype distribution was as follows: ST3 (n=21; 43.8%), ST2 (n=15; 31.3%), ST1 (n=10; 20.8%) and ST7 (n=2; 4.2%). The overall nucleotide diversity of 18S ribosomal RNA gene was 0.049. None of the gastrointestinal symptoms and gender was not significantly related with the infection. Despite the cross sectional nature of the study including a specific population, it suggests a negative association between Blastocystis infection and obesity. In addition, the lack of significant relation further supports asymptomatic colonization of Blastocystis.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Adulto , Blastocystis/genética , Infecciones por Blastocystis/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , ADN Protozoario , Heces , Variación Genética , Humanos , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Filogenia , Turquia/epidemiología
13.
Clin Ter ; 172(5): 435-437, 2021 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625775

RESUMEN

Abstract: PCOS is one of the emerging health issues of women in their reproductive age with a range of associated signs and symptoms. In the present study, 250 PCOS subjects age ranged from 18 to 45 years and residing in the Chandigarh Capital Region (CCR) were selected from the OPD, PGIMER, Chandigarh, (North India). In the present study H+O phenotypic group (NIH criteria) was the most commonly occurring with the prevalence of 50.4% followed by complete PCO or classic PCOS phenotype (P+H+O) with 39.2% prevalence. The ovula-tory PCOS (P+H) and non-hyperandrogenic PCOS (P+O) demonstrated little prevalence of 6% and 4.4% respectively. Maximum overweight/obese PCOS women were recorded in the (H+O) phenotypic group (27.2%) followed by classic PCOS phenotype (20.4%), (P+H) phe-notype (4%) and lowest prevalence in P+O phenotype (1.2%), thereby indicating that hyperandrogenism and oligo-anovulation was common symptoms among overweight/obese PCOS women.


Asunto(s)
Hiperandrogenismo , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Hiperandrogenismo/epidemiología , Hiperandrogenismo/etiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Fenotipo , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/complicaciones , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
14.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(9): 9415-9426, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628867

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Exercise is generally recognized as beneficial to prevent obesity; however, it is not clear which indicator can better reflect the benefits, especially in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of exercise on body mass and fat indexes and to clarify the significance of different indexes in clinical use. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study involving 1,941 freshmen from 2014, followed-up biennially until 2018. Various body mass and fat indexes, including weight, height, waist and hip circumference and body fat percentage (BFP), were measured. Physical activity and other variables were collected by questionnaire. All study participants were divided into two groups according to the frequency and intensity of exercise. RESULTS: Compared with the low frequency and intensity exercise group, the high frequency and intensity exercise group had a lower increase in BFP during the 4-year follow-up, and no significant differences were observed in the changes of other indexes between the groups. Even after adjusting, the high frequency and intensity exercise group still exhibited a higher likelihood of reducing BFP. CONCLUSIONS: High frequency and intensity exercise provides benefits for reducing BFP. No other body mass or fat indexes showed any association. BFP could be a much more sensitive indicator to detect and control obesity in adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Adiposidad , Ejercicio Físico , Tejido Adiposo , Adolescente , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Obesidad , Estudios Prospectivos
15.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 123, 2021 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629054

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Obesity confers adverse effects to every system in the body including the central nervous system. Obesity is associated with both migraine and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). The mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and these headache diseases remain unclear. METHODS: We conducted a narrative review of the evidence in both humans and rodents, for the putative mechanisms underlying the link between obesity, migraine and IIH. RESULTS: Truncal adiposity, a key feature of obesity, is associated with increased migraine morbidity and disability through increased headache severity, frequency and more severe cutaneous allodynia. Obesity may also increase intracranial pressure and could contribute to headache morbidity in migraine and be causative in IIH headache. Weight loss can improve both migraine and IIH headache. Preclinical research highlights that obesity increases the sensitivity of the trigeminovascular system to noxious stimuli including inflammatory stimuli, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unelucidated. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights that at the epidemiological and clinical level, obesity increases morbidity in migraine and IIH headache, where weight loss can improve headache morbidity. However, further research is required to understand the molecular underpinnings of obesity related headache in order to generate novel treatments.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Migrañosos , Seudotumor Cerebral , Cefalea , Humanos , Presión Intracraneal , Trastornos Migrañosos/complicaciones , Trastornos Migrañosos/epidemiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Seudotumor Cerebral/complicaciones , Seudotumor Cerebral/epidemiología
16.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(2): 217-228, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479266

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Most of the Chilean population has overweight or obesity. The ACTION-IO survey identified the perceptions, attitudes, and barriers to effective obesity care in people with obesity (PwO) and healthcare professionals (HCPs). AIM: To report the results of the survey in Chile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An online survey was conducted in 11 countries. In Chile, eligible PwO were adults with a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2. Eligible HCPs were physicians involved in direct patient care. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 1,000 PwO and 200 HCPs in Chile. Seventy four percent of PwO and 95% of HCPs agreed that obesity was a chronic disease. Most PwO (79%) assumed responsibility for their own weight loss, while 47% of HCPs considered weight loss to be the sole responsibility of their patients. Both 82% of PwO and 97% of HCPs believed that lack of exercise was a key barrier to weight loss. Sixty six percent of PwO and 58% HCPs noted that the cost of weight management medications, programs, and services was another barrier. Compared with HCPs, more PwO felt that genetic factors prevented weight loss (26 and 44% respectively). Few HCPs (19%) thought that their patients were motivated to lose weight, while 55% of PwO reported being motivated. Most (70%) PwO had discussed their weight problem with their HCP in the past 5 years, and of those that had not, 89% want their HCP to start a discussion about weight. CONCLUSIONS: Chilean data reveal misconceptions among PwO and HCPs about obesity and highlights the need to improve education about its biologic background and clinical management.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad , Pérdida de Peso , Adulto , Chile/epidemiología , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/terapia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
Blood Press Monit ; 26(5): 357-363, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480473

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise is a cardiovascular risk factor associated to higher morbidity and mortality. Severely obese patients have an increased risk of exercise-induced hypertension (EIH). We aimed to assess the blood pressure response to exercise in patients with severe obesity who underwent bariatric surgery as well as the main determinants of this response. METHODS: We used data from the ACTIVE clinical trial, in which 60 severely obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements, abdominal and mid-thigh computed tomography scans and maximal exercise testing were performed before bariatric surgery, as well as 3 and 6 months post-surgery. EIH was defined as a maximal SBP ≥210 mmHg for men and ≥190 mmHg for women. RESULTS: At baseline, 62% of patients had EIH. At 6 months, we observed an EIH resolution rate of 39%. The main determinant of EIH resolution was sex. Actually, patients with EIH resolution were mostly women without resting hypertension and a lower amount of visceral adipose tissue. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that bariatric surgery is efficient to resolve EIH, particularly in women with initially a better anthropometric profile.


Asunto(s)
Cirugía Bariátrica , Hipertensión , Presión Sanguínea , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/cirugía
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 726967, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484128

RESUMEN

In March 2020, the WHO declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a global pandemic. Obesity was soon identified as a risk factor for poor prognosis, with an increased risk of intensive care admissions and mechanical ventilation, but also of adverse cardiovascular events. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue, chronic low-grade inflammation, and immune dysregulation with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes and overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, to implement appropriate therapeutic strategies, exact mechanisms must be clarified. The role of white visceral adipose tissue, increased in individuals with obesity, seems important, as a viral reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. After infection of host cells, the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines creates a setting conducive to the "cytokine storm" and macrophage activation syndrome associated with progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome. In obesity, systemic viral spread, entry, and prolonged viral shedding in already inflamed adipose tissue may spur immune responses and subsequent amplification of a cytokine cascade, causing worse outcomes. More precisely, visceral adipose tissue, more than subcutaneous fat, could predict intensive care admission; and lower density of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) could be associated with worse outcome. EAT, an ectopic adipose tissue that surrounds the myocardium, could fuel COVID-19-induced cardiac injury and myocarditis, and extensive pneumopathy, by strong expression of inflammatory mediators that could diffuse paracrinally through the vascular wall. The purpose of this review is to ascertain what mechanisms may be involved in unfavorable prognosis among COVID-19 patients with obesity, especially cardiovascular events, emphasizing the harmful role of excess ectopic adipose tissue, particularly EAT.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatías/metabolismo , Grasa Intraabdominal/metabolismo , Obesidad/metabolismo , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tejido Adiposo/patología , Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/inmunología , Cardiomiopatías/inmunología , Cardiomiopatías/patología , Cardiopatías/inmunología , Cardiopatías/metabolismo , Cardiopatías/patología , Humanos , Inflamación , Grasa Intraabdominal/patología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/inmunología , Obesidad/patología , Pericardio , Pronóstico , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidasas/metabolismo
19.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(4): 566-570, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495062

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether there is an association between the body mass index z-score and waist-to-height ratio of children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a school in Santo André, SP, between June and August 2019. Body mass index was measured for all participants, adopting the z-score cutoff of +2 recommended by the World Health Organization. The waist-to-height ratio was determined in children over two years of age and considered abnormal when ≥0.5. The qualitative variables are presented as absolute numbers and percentages. To compare qualitative data, we used the χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. Pearson's test was applied to assess the correlation between BMI and waist-to-height ratio. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The body mass index was calculated for 518 children and the waist-to-height ratio for 473 children. Regarding body mass index, 60.6% of the participants had normal weight, 3.1% were underweight, and 36.3% were overweight. overweight (24.7%) and obesity (22.7%) were more prevalent in adolescents. The waist-to-height ratio was abnormal in 50.5% of the sample. There was an increasing association between body mass index and waist-to-height ratio with age, according to the Pearson correlation coefficients for the age groups <5 years (r=0.459; p<0.001), 5 to 10 years (r=0.687; p<0.001) and >10 years (r=0.805; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: There was a significant correlation between body mass index and waist-to-height ratio. This association was higher in adolescents. The waist-to-height ratio is easy to apply and may be useful as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad , Sobrepeso , Adolescente , Estatura , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Delgadez , Circunferencia de la Cintura
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200884, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495204

RESUMEN

To assess the effect of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on the esophageal and intestinal morphology of western diet (WD)-obese rats and to characterize the stomach histopathology of WD rats submitted to VSG. Male Wistar rats received WD from 2-4 months of age, to induce obesity, before randomly submitting them to pseudo (WD-SHAM), VSG (WD-VSG) or RYGB (WD-RYGB) surgeries. Gastrointestinal histomorphometry was performed at 3-months post-surgery. The upper esophagus of VSG and RYGB rats increased luminal area, while reductions in the keratin layer of the mucosa and the tunica muscularis were observed only in the RYGB animals. In the lower esophagus, both surgeries increased keratin layer thickness, but reduced the mucosal mucus content, while RYGB increased the thickness of the tunica mucosa and muscularis. The glandular region of the stomach of WD-VSG rats exhibited hypotrophy, epithelial erosion, fibrosis and moderate inflammatory infiltration. VSG and RYGB increased the villi height in the ileum, and the thickness of the tunica muscularis in the jejunum and ileum of WD rats; furthermore, RYGB augmented the ileal villi height. Thus both approaches induced histomorphological alterations in the esophagus and intestine and VSG damaged the gastric mucosa, even over the long-term.


Asunto(s)
Derivación Gástrica , Animales , Dieta Occidental , Gastrectomía , Masculino , Obesidad/cirugía , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
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