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3.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9336

RESUMEN

A obesidade é uma doença crônica caracterizada pelo acúmulo de gordura corporal. No Brasil, os índices de indivíduos com excesso de peso têm saltado significativamente, passando a ser uma questão de saúde pública.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad/prevención & control , Obesidad/complicaciones , Conducta Alimentaria , Factores Sociales , Documentarios Cinematográficos , Conducta Sedentaria
4.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(6): 819-828, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751340

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adiposity and education are two independent risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, there is limited evidence whether both education and adiposity are associated with T2D in an additive manner in the Chilean population. AIM: To investigate the joint association between adiposity and education with T2D in the Chilean adult population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of data of the Chilean National Health Survey 2016-2017, which included 5,033 participants with a mean age of 43 years, (51% women). Poisson regression analyses with robust standard error were used to investigate the joint association of the education level and general and central adiposity with T2D. The results were reported as Prevalence Ratio and their 95% confidence intervals (PR, 95% CI). RESULTS: Obesity was associated with a higher probability of having T2D in men than in women, however central adiposity was associated with a higher probability of having T2D in women than in men. Compared with men who had higher education (> 12 years) and had normal body weight, those with the same educational level and who were obese had 2.3-times higher probability of having T2D (PR: 2.35 [95% CI: 1.02; 5.39]). For women, having a low education and being obese was associated with 4.4-times higher probability of having T2D compared to those with higher education and normal body mass index (BMI) (PR: 4.47 [95% IC: 2.12; 9.24]). Similar results were observed when waist circumference was used as a marker of obesity rather than BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Women and men with higher BMI and low education had a higher risk of T2D. However, this risk was higher in women than in men.


Asunto(s)
Adiposidad , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Circunferencia de la Cintura
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 732913, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737743

RESUMEN

Obesity prevails worldwide to an increasing effect. For example, up to 42% of American adults are considered obese. Obese individuals are prone to a variety of complications of metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Recent meta-analyses of clinical studies in patient cohorts in the ongoing coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic indicate that the presence of obesity and relevant disorders is linked to a more severe prognosis of COVID-19. Given the significance of obesity in COVID-19 progression, we provide a review of host metabolic and immune responses in the immunometabolic dysregulation exaggerated by obesity and the viral infection that develops into a severe course of COVID-19. Moreover, sequela studies of individuals 6 months after having COVID-19 show a higher risk of metabolic comorbidities including obesity, diabetes, and kidney disease. These collectively implicate an inter-systemic dimension to understanding the association between obesity and COVID-19 and suggest an interdisciplinary intervention for relief of obesity-COVID-19 complications beyond the phase of acute infection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/metabolismo , Obesidad/inmunología , Obesidad/metabolismo , COVID-19/complicaciones , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Humanos , Inmunidad , Enfermedades Metabólicas/inmunología , Enfermedades Metabólicas/metabolismo , Obesidad/complicaciones , Pronóstico , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27506, 2021 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731134

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that obesity might be associated with chronic periodontitis (CP); however, no clear conclusions have been reached so far. In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to investigate the association between obesity and CP by using a large population-based dataset in Taiwan.A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2010 (LHID2010) derived from the National Health Insurance Research database in Taiwan, from 2000 to 2013. Obesity and non-obesity groups were matched with sex, age, urbanization level, socioeconomic status, and the related comorbidities by using the propensity score method at a 1:2 ratio.An obese cohort (n = 4140) and a non-obese cohort (n = 8280) were included in this study, with an average age of 41.7 ±â€Š13.8 years and 42.0 ±â€Š14.0 years, respectively. The risk of CP for the patients with obesity was 1.12-fold compared with those without obesity (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.25). In the subgroup analysis according to age and sex, the hazard ratio of CP were 1.98 (95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.22) in the subgroup of age equal to or older than 65 years. The risk of CP showed no difference between obesity and non-obesity groups in both sex.This population-based cohort study demonstrated that obesity was associated with the development of CP in Taiwan.


Asunto(s)
Periodontitis Crónica/diagnóstico , Periodontitis Crónica/etiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Enfermedad Crónica , Periodontitis Crónica/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/epidemiología , Puntaje de Propensión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Clase Social , Taiwán/epidemiología
7.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep ; 23(12): 26, 2021 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735631

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to those with advanced age and co-morbidities such as heart disease or cancer, obese individuals have also had very high rates of hospitalization, critical illness, need for ventilator support, as well as mortality. A number of factors associated with obesity have led to devastating consequences as these two pandemics have interacted. RECENT FINDINGS: Obese individuals through a combination of structural and cellular level changes have greater risk of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and respiratory disease, which are themselves risk-factors for acquiring COVID-19 disease. These structural changes also result in increased intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressure as well as a restrictive lung physiology that leads to reduction in total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, and increase in airway hyper-reactivity. Adipose tissue is also impacted in obese individuals leading to local as well as systemic inflammation, which can contribute to increased release of free fatty acids and systemic insulin resistance. Additionally, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and dipeptidyl peptidase 4, which act as receptors for SARS-CoV-2 are also significantly increased in obese individuals. The present manuscript reviews these structural, immune, and molecular changes associated with obesity that make obese individuals more vulnerable to acquiring severe COVID-19 and more challenging to manage associated complications.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Inflamación , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Ceska Gynekol ; 86(5): 343-348, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736334

RESUMEN

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common pathological condition in women. Conservative treatment is used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Conservative treatment options include increased physical activity and diet. The main aim of the article is to discuss the therapeutic treatment of influencing PCOS from a nutritional point of view. PCOS is associated with several comorbidities, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus II, and increased cardiovascular risk. Several therapeutic diets can be used in the treatment of PCOS, such as the DASH diet, the low-carbohydrate diet, and a diet based on a low glycemic index. A change in eating habits is associated with improvement in PCOS symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Intolerancia a la Glucosa , Resistencia a la Insulina , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico , Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/terapia , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/complicaciones , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/terapia
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 801, 2021 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774104

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Flavonoids, a group of natural compounds, have garnered a great deal of attention in the management of NAFLD because of their profitable effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress which are the pivotal pathophysiological pathways in NAFLD. Naringenin is a citrus-derived flavonoid with a broad spectrum of potential biological effects including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which may exert protective effects against NAFLD. The present clinical trial aims to examine the efficacy of naringenin supplementation on plasma adiponectin and neurogulin-4 (NRG-4) concentrations, metabolic parameters, and liver function indices in overweight/obese patients with NAFLD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study that will investigate the impacts of naringenin supplementation in overweight/obese patients with NAFLD. Liver ultrasonography will be applied to diagnose NAFLD. Forty-four eligible overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD will be selected and randomly assigned to receive naringenin capsules or identical placebo (each capsule contains 100 mg of naringenin or cellulose), twice daily for 4 weeks. Participants will be asked to remain on their usual diet and physical activity. Safety of naringenin supplementation was confirmed by the study pharmacist. The primary outcome of this study is changes in adiponectin circulating levels. The secondary outcomes include changes in NRG-4 levels, liver function indices, metabolic parameters, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, and hematological parameters. Statistical analysis will be conducted using the SPSS software (version 25), and P value less than 0.05 will be regarded as statistically significant. DISCUSSION: We hypothesize that naringenin administration may be useful for treating NAFLD by modulating energy balance, glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation through different mechanisms. The current trial will exhibit the effects of naringenin, whether negative or positive, on NAFLD status. ETHICAL ASPECTS: The current trial received approval from the Medical Ethics Committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (IR.TUMS.MEDICNE.REC.1399.439). TRIAL REGISTRATION: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT201311250155336N12 . Registered on 6 June 2020.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Método Doble Ciego , Flavanonas , Humanos , Irán , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/tratamiento farmacológico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
12.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(12): 1455-1458, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794287

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of obesity on percutaneous thrombectomy (PT) results for the management of lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Cardiology, Avcilar Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, between August 2020 and January 2021. METHODOLOGY: Patients who underwent PT for lower limb DVT were included. Patients' demographic characteristics, operative parameters, and postoperative outcomes were recorded in prospective manner. Patients were divided into two groups, as patients with body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m2 (Group 1) and patients with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (Group 2). The two groups were compared according to patient demographic properties, intraoperative results, and postoperative outcomes. RESULTS: Eventually, 62 patients were enrolled into the non-obese group and 30 patients had BMI ≥30 Kg/m2. Comparison of the groups demonstrated that the mean operation time and the mean fluoroscopy time were significantly higher in obese patients (121.5 min vs. 134.5, p = 0.017 and 19.8 min vs. 25.9 min, p = 0.006, respectively). In addition, the mean hospitalisation period and the mean ICU stay were significantly longer in patients with ≥30 kg/m2 (p = 0.025 and p = 0.007). Postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) score in the first hour was significantly higher in obese patients (2.4 vs. 3.0, p = 0.008). The presence of obesity did not have a significant effect on success and complication rates following PT (p = 0.368 and p = 0.646). CONCLUSION: Obesity prolonged operation time and fluoroscopy time during PT. Additionally, obesity was associated with significantly longer hospitalisation period, and ICU stay, and higher VAS score in the first hour following PT. Key Words: Complication, Deep vein thrombosis, Obesity, Percutaneous thrombectomy, Success, VAS score.


Asunto(s)
Trombosis de la Vena , Humanos , Extremidad Inferior/cirugía , Obesidad/complicaciones , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Trombectomía , Resultado del Tratamiento
13.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 431, 2021 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794374

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to explore the independent association of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 88 overweight/obese adults who underwent anthropometric measurements [BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)], hepatic steatosis assessment (FibroScan) and thyroid-related hormones tests was conducted from 2018 to 2020 in Xiamen, China. RESULTS: Subjects with increasing tertiles of FT3 showed significantly higher levels of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) ((295.4 ± 44.1, 290.1 ± 68.2 and 331.7 ± 43.6 (dB/m) for tertile 1-3, respectively, p = 0.007) and fatty liver index (FLI) score (47.7 (33.9-60.8), 61.5 (45.1-88.9) and 90.5 (84.5-94.8), respectively, p < 0.001). FT3 significantly and positively correlated with obesity index (BMI, WC, and WHtR), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and hepatic steatosis (CAP and FLI). Multivariable linear regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounding factors showed FT3 was independently associated with BMI (regression coefficient (ß (95%CI): 0.024 (0.004-0.043), p = 0.020), HOMA-IR (ß (95%CI): 0.091 (0.007-0.174), p = 0.034), CAP (ß (95%CI): 25.45 (2.59-48.31), p = 0.030) and FLI (ß (95%CI): 0.121 (0.049-0.194), p = 0.001). Neither FT4 nor TSH was significantly associated with any indicators of obesity, insulin resistance or hepatic steatosis. CONCLUSIONS: Increased FT3, but not FT4 or TSH, was independently associated with higher risks of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in euthyroid overweight/obese Chinese adults. Trial registration Registration is not applicable for our study.


Asunto(s)
Hígado Graso , Resistencia a la Insulina , Adulto , China , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Obesidad/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Glándula Tiroides , Hormonas Tiroideas , Tirotropina , Tiroxina , Triyodotironina
14.
Maturitas ; 154: 46-54, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736579

RESUMEN

Obesity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are major public health problems worldwide. However, the association between body mass index (BMI) and CKD is inconclusive in Asians. In this meta-analysis, eight population-based studies, from China, India, Russia (Asian), Singapore and South Korea, provided individual-level data (n=50037). CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. BMI was analyzed both as a continuous variable and in three categories: <25kg/m2, normal; 25-29.9kg/m2, overweight; and ≥30kg/m2, obese. The association between BMI and CKD was evaluated in each study using multivariable logistic regression models and individual estimates were pooled using random-effect meta-analysis to obtain the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Associations were also evaluated in subgroups of age, gender, smoking, diabetes, and hypertension status. Of 50037 adults, 4258 (8.5%) had CKD. 13328 (26.6%) individuals were overweight while 4440 (8.9%) were obese. The prevalence of any CKD ranged from 3.5% to 29.1% across studies. In pooled analysis, both overweight and obesity were associated with increased odds of CKD, with pooled OR (95% CI) of 1.15 (1.03-1.29) and 1.23 (1.06-1.42), respectively. In subgroup analyses, significant associations between BMI and CKD were observed in adult males, non-smokers, and those with diabetes and arterial hypertension (all p<0.05). When evaluated as a continuous variable, BMI was not significantly associated with CKD. If confirmed in longitudinal studies, these results may have clinical implications in risk stratification and preventive measures, given that obesity and CKD are two major chronic diseases with substantial public health burden worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/etnología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/etiología , Factores de Riesgo
15.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 56(4): 553-563, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749894

RESUMEN

Many psychiatric disorders are associated with obesity and include mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, binge eating disorders, trauma, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. According to National Obesity Observatory, there is evidence that both obesity and mental health disorders take up a significant portion of the global burden of disease. The bidirectional nature of obesity and mental illness indicates the importance of screening all persons being treated for either obesity or mental illnesses be screened for the other. Failure to do so may decrease the effectiveness of treatment for each one individually.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/complicaciones , Trastornos del Humor/complicaciones , Obesidad/complicaciones , Estigma Social , Factores de Edad , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/complicaciones , Humanos , Psicotrópicos/efectos adversos , Factores Sexuales
16.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 56(4): 609-617, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749899

RESUMEN

Women who are obese are at risk for conditions that are different from those experienced by men. Some of these conditions are gender based; others are socially determined. In societies where appearance and being thin are valued and promoted in the media, advertising, literature, and other areas, women who are obese are subject to biases and stereotyping that impact them socially, financially, and academically. Obesity should be assessed and managed in the same way as other chronic disorders with patient-centered care, respect, and support from the health care team. Clinicians must approach the subject of weight with sensitivity.


Asunto(s)
Parto Obstétrico , Obesidad/complicaciones , Atención Dirigida al Paciente , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/fisiopatología , Estigma Social , Índice de Masa Corporal , Parto Obstétrico/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos
18.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc ; 55(5): 435-438, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730531

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical usefulness of the Ottawa Ankle Rules (OAR) in overweight and obese patients compared to the general population. METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional study, 935 adult patients (453 female, 482 male; mean age = 57.2 ± 20.9) admitted to the emergency department following an acute ankle injury (<3 days) secondary to low energy-trauma were included. All the patients were examined based on a standardized protocol, including age, Body-Mass Index (BMI), OAR, and presence of ankle fracture. As accuracy indicators, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of OAR were calculated. RESULTS: Of all patients, 790 (84.5%) were normal weighted, 107 (11.5%) were overweight, and 38 (4%) were obese. While OAR was negative in 58.8% of patients, 41.2% of patients met OAR. The sensitivity of OAR in the normal weighted population was significantly higher than obese and overweight groups (P < 0.01). The specificity of OAR in the normal weighted population was significantly lower than overweight and obese groups (P < 0.01). The accuracy of OAR in the overweight group was 82.7% and significantly higher compared with the normal weighted population (62.8%) (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: We do not recommend OAR as a screening tool to be used safely in patients with higher BMI because of its lower sensitivity in this population. In this specific patient population, these rules should be implemented carefully, and radiography should be evaluated meticulously not to miss a fracture. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, Cross Sectional Study.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas de Tobillo , Traumatismos del Tobillo , Fracturas Óseas , Adulto , Anciano , Tobillo , Fracturas de Tobillo/diagnóstico por imagen , Traumatismos del Tobillo/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Transversales , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
19.
Surg Clin North Am ; 101(6): 981-993, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774276

RESUMEN

Smoking and obesity are commonly encountered problems in the elective, perioperative setting. This article reviews the risks posed by smoking and diabetes and explores way to mitigate such risks. Other means of perioperative optimization are also discussed in an effort to describe perioperative strategies that can improve patient outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Complicaciones de la Diabetes , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos , Obesidad , Fumar , Comorbilidad , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/complicaciones , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos/efectos adversos , Humanos , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/terapia , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/prevención & control , Cuidados Preoperatorios , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar
20.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 1): 2039-2043, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725273

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To determine the influence of obesity on cutaneous microcirculation in patients with different stages of obesity and without cardio-vascular pathologies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The 67 eligible patients with obesity were enrolled into the main group in this research. 20 healthy patients with normal body weight were included in the control group in this study. The mean age and gender were similar among the groups. Each patient underwent a clinical evaluation during the consultation, biological tests, electrocardiogram, Laser Doppler flowmetry. RESULTS: Results: There was a significant decrease in IM and σ in patients with class II obesity and class III obesity compared with control group. IV was decreased in all groups, but the significant differences were recorded only among patients with obesity and not among overweight patients. During wavelet analysis a significant decrease of the AmaxE was detected in all 4 groups (by 14,7%, 37,7%, 52,4%, 57,4% respectively, P < 0,05). The most significant changes were recorded in the heart spectrum (AmaxC). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Overweight patients and patients with obesity without cardio-vascular pathology have initial manifestations of microcirculatory disorders, which deteriorate with an increase of BMI. Changes in microcirculation in patients with obesity characterized by the significant decrease of microvessels perfusion, decreasing endothelial and increasing heart specter modulations. Only high BMI was found to be associated with impaired microcirculation endothelial function (AmaxE B=0.446, 95% CI [0,15, 0,92]) according to the results of regression analysis.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad , Piel , Humanos , Flujometría por Láser-Doppler , Microcirculación , Microvasos , Obesidad/complicaciones
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