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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(720-1): 59-62, 2021 Jan 13.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443833

RESUMEN

The management of obesity comprises lifestyle changes targeting nutrient content, eating behavior and regular physical activity. Medication (orlistat, liraglutide) and bariatric surgery can later be used, but they require a clear indication and a close follow-up. Studies in chronobiology are now exploring the metabolic benefits of intermittent fasting, which restricts food intake and calorie-containing beverages to a certain window of the 24h cycle, or to certain days of the week/month, thus reinstating the alternance between anabolism and catabolism. However, the current scientific evidence is limited by the sample size and duration of the studies. It is therefore too early for a blanket strategy based on intermittent fasting in all patients with metabolic disorders.


Asunto(s)
Restricción Calórica/métodos , Ayuno/fisiología , Enfermedades Metabólicas/dietoterapia , Programas de Reducción de Peso/métodos , Humanos , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Pérdida de Peso
3.
Postepy Biochem ; 66(3): 270-286, 2020 09 30.
Artículo en Polaco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315315

RESUMEN

Ketogenic diet is a high fat and very low-carbohydrate nutritional approach that induces increased production of ketone bodies, which serve as an alternative to glucose energetic substrates. Since almost a century ketogenic diet has been used in the therapy of refractory epilepsy, especially in children. Because of the pleiotropic effect of ketogenic diet on physiology, including inflammation, oxidative stress, energy balance and signaling pathways, in recent years scientists have been intensively exploring the use of it in the treatment of other diseases. In the present article current clinical studies regarding the possibility of using the ketogenic diet in the treatment of obesity, diabetes, neurological disorders and cancer has been reviewed alongside with potential mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effect of ketogenic diet in these diseases. The metabolic processes engaged in nutritional ketosis and practicals aspects of ketogenic dieting have been also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/dietoterapia , Dieta Cetogénica , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/dietoterapia , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Humanos , Cuerpos Cetónicos/metabolismo , Cetosis
4.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003331, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941436

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the effect on mortality of a higher body mass index (BMI) can be compensated for by adherence to a healthy diet and whether the effect on mortality by a low adherence to a healthy diet can be compensated for by a normal weight. We aimed to evaluate the associations of BMI combined with adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our longitudinal cohort design included the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC) and the Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM) (1997-2017), with a total of 79,003 women (44%) and men (56%) and a mean baseline age of 61 years. BMI was categorized into normal weight (20-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obesity (30+ kg/m2). Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet was assessed by means of the modified Mediterranean-like diet (mMED) score, ranging from 0 to 8; mMED was classified into 3 categories (0 to <4, 4 to <6, and 6-8 score points), forming a total of 9 BMI × mMED combinations. We identified mortality by use of national Swedish registers. Cox proportional hazard models with time-updated information on exposure and covariates were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our HRs were adjusted for age, baseline educational level, marital status, leisure time physical exercise, walking/cycling, height, energy intake, smoking habits, baseline Charlson's weighted comorbidity index, and baseline diabetes mellitus. During up to 21 years of follow-up, 30,389 (38%) participants died, corresponding to 22 deaths per 1,000 person-years. We found the lowest HR of all-cause mortality among overweight individuals with high mMED (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.90, 0.98) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. Using the same reference, obese individuals with high mMED did not experience significantly higher all-cause mortality (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.96-1.11). In contrast, compared with those with normal weight and high mMED, individuals with a low mMED had a high mortality despite a normal BMI (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.48-1.74). We found similar estimates among women and men. For CVD mortality (12,064 deaths) the findings were broadly similar, though obese individuals with high mMED retained a modestly increased risk of CVD death (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.16-1.44) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. A main limitation of the present study is the observational design with self-reported lifestyle information with risk of residual or unmeasured confounding (e.g., genetic liability), and no causal inferences can be made based on this study alone. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that diet quality modifies the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in women and men. A healthy diet may, however, not completely counter higher CVD mortality related to obesity.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Dieta Mediterránea/psicología , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Causas de Muerte , Estudios de Cohortes , Dieta Saludable , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar , Suecia
5.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(5): 421-426, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955747

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine longer-term (18-month) sustainability of a six-month physical activity and nutrition intervention for 50-69-year-olds with or at risk of metabolic syndrome residing in a rural Australian community. METHODS: Participants (n=151) were followed-up at 12 and 18 months post-intervention. Changes in nutrition behaviours (fat and fibre barometer); physical activity behaviours (IPAQ); anthropometry (waist-hip ratio, weight, BMI), blood pressure, blood parameters (triglycerides, glucose, LDL-, HDL-, non-HDL, total-cholesterol) were analysed using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Across three time points (6, 12 and 18 months) marginal decrease was observed for waist circumference (p=0.001), a modest increase was observed for diastolic blood pressure (p=0.010) and other outcome measures remained stable. CONCLUSION: Maintenance and ongoing improvement of health behaviours in the longer-term is challenging. Future studies must look for ways to embed interventions into communities so they are sustainable and investigate new approaches to reduce the risk of chronic disease. Implications for public health: Metabolic syndrome is a major health issue in Australia and worldwide. Early identification and management are required to prevent the progression to chronic disease. This 18-month follow-up showed that outcomes measures remained relatively stable; however, there is a need to investigate opportunities for embedded community interventions to support long-term health behaviour change.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Servicios de Atención de Salud a Domicilio/organización & administración , Síndrome Metabólico/prevención & control , Obesidad/prevención & control , Anciano , Antropometría , Australia , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estudios Prospectivos , Población Rural , Factores de Tiempo
6.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003332, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960883

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Whether a healthy lifestyle impacts longevity in the presence of multimorbidity is unclear. We investigated the associations between healthy lifestyle and life expectancy in people with and without multimorbidity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 480,940 middle-aged adults (median age of 58 years [range 38-73], 46% male, 95% white) were analysed in the UK Biobank; this longitudinal study collected data between 2006 and 2010, and participants were followed up until 2016. We extracted 36 chronic conditions and defined multimorbidity as 2 or more conditions. Four lifestyle factors, based on national guidelines, were used: leisure-time physical activity, smoking, diet, and alcohol consumption. A combined weighted score was developed and grouped participants into 4 categories: very unhealthy, unhealthy, healthy, and very healthy. Survival models were applied to predict life expectancy, adjusting for ethnicity, working status, deprivation, body mass index, and sedentary time. A total of 93,746 (19.5%) participants had multimorbidity. During a mean follow-up of 7 (range 2-9) years, 11,006 deaths occurred. At 45 years, in men with multimorbidity an unhealthy score was associated with a gain of 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.3 to 3.3; P = 0.102) additional life years compared to very unhealthy score, though the association was not significant, whilst a healthy score was significantly associated with a gain of 4.5 (3.3 to 5.7; P < 0.001) life years and a very healthy score with 6.3 (5.0 to 7.7; P < 0.001) years. Corresponding estimates in women were 3.5 (95% CI 0.7 to 6.3; P = 0.016), 6.4 (4.8 to 7.9; P < 0.001), and 7.6 (6.0 to 9.2; P < 0.001) years. Results were consistent in those without multimorbidity and in several sensitivity analyses. For individual lifestyle factors, no current smoking was associated with the largest survival benefit. The main limitations were that we could not explore the consistency of our results using a more restrictive definition of multimorbidity including only cardiometabolic conditions, and participants were not representative of the UK as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis of data from the UK Biobank, we found that regardless of the presence of multimorbidity, engaging in a healthier lifestyle was associated with up to 6.3 years longer life for men and 7.6 years for women; however, not all lifestyle risk factors equally correlated with life expectancy, with smoking being significantly worse than others.


Asunto(s)
Estilo de Vida Saludable/fisiología , Esperanza de Vida/tendencias , Multimorbilidad/tendencias , Anciano , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Índice de Masa Corporal , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Causas de Muerte , Enfermedad Crónica/mortalidad , Estudios de Cohortes , Dieta , Dieta Saludable , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar , Reino Unido
7.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(7): 446-453, ago.-sept. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-194701

RESUMEN

ANTECEDENTES: Los receptores CB2R han sido etiquetados como los receptores endocanabinoides periféricos por excelencia, y regulan diferentes procesos inflamatorios. Las variantes del gen CB2R podrían desempeñar un papel en los cambios metabólicos después de la pérdida de peso con diferentes intervenciones. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de la variante genética (rs3123554) del gen CB2R en los cambios antropométricos y bioquímicos después de la pérdida de peso, secundaria a una dieta hipocalórica alta proteína/baja en hidratos de carbono vs. una dieta hipocalórica estándar durante 9 meses. DISEÑO: Doscientos sesenta y ocho sujetos obesos fueron asignados al azar a una de 2 dietas durante 9 meses, dieta HP (dieta hipocalórica alta en proteínas y baja en hidratos de carbono) y dieta S (dieta hipocalórica estándar en proteínas). Se evaluaron parámetros bioquímicos y antropométricos al basal, a los 3 y a los 9 meses. RESULTADOS: Un total de 94 pacientes (35,1%) tenían el genotipo GG y 174 (64,9%) sujetos tenían los genotipos siguientes; GA (115 pacientes, 42,9%) o AA (59 sujetos de estudio, 18,0%) (segundo grupo). Después de ambas dietas y en ambos genotipos, el índice de masa corporal (IMC), la masa grasa, el peso, la circunferencia de la cintura y la presión arterial sistólica mejoraron sin diferencias entre ambas dietas. Antes y después de ambas dietas hipocalóricas, el peso corporal, el IMC, la masa grasa y la circunferencia de la cintura fueron mayores en los portadores del alelo A. Después de ambas dietas (HP y S), la glucosa, los niveles de insulina, HOMA-IR, los triglicéridos, el colesterol total y el colesterol-LDL disminuyeron en portadores de alelos no A. Estos parámetros se mantuvieron sin cambios en los portadores de alelos A. Los niveles de leptina disminuyeron después de las dietas HP y S en ambos genotipos. CONCLUSIÓN: Los no portadores del alelo A mostraron una mejor respuesta del colesterol total, colesterol LDL, triglicéridos, glucosa, HOMA-IR y niveles de insulina que los portadores A con ambas dietas hipocalóricas y con la misma pérdida de peso


BACKGROUND: CB2R receptors has been referred to as the peripheral cannabinoid receptor isoform, and regulate inflammatory response in various settings. CB2R gene variants could play a role on metabolic changes after weight loss with different interventions. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the genetic variant (rs3123554) of the CB2R gene on anthropometric and biochemical changes after weight loss secondary to a high protein/low carbohydrate diet vs. a standard low-calorie diet during 9 months. DESIGN: 268 obese subjects were randomly allocated to one of two diets for 9 months, Diet HP (high protein-low carbohydrate low-calorie diet) and Diet S (standard protein low-calorie diet). Biochemical and anthropometric parameters were measured at baseline and at 3 and 9 months. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients (35.1%) had genotype GG and 174 (64.9%) subjects had the following genotypes; GA (115 patients, 42.9%) or AA (59 study subjects, 18.0%) (second group). After both diets, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, weight, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure improved in both genotypes with no difference between diets. Before and after both low-calorie diets, body weight, BMI, fat mass, and waist circumference were higher in A allele carriers than in non-A allele carriers. After both diets (HP and S), levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol decreased in non-A allele carriers. These parameters remained unchanged in A allele carriers. Leptin levels decreased after HP and S diets in both genotypes. CONCLUSION: Non-A allele carriers showed a better response of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, HOMA-IR, and insulin levels than allele A carriers with both low-calorie diets and with the same weight loss


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dieta Reductora/métodos , Receptor Cannabinoide CB2/genética , Carbohidratos de la Dieta , Antropometría/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Pérdida de Peso/genética , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Estudios Prospectivos , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Leptina/uso terapéutico , Alelos , Obesidad/genética , Obesidad/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 145: 111701, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858131

RESUMEN

Obesity and its related metabolic disorders, as well as infectious diseases like covid-19, are important health risks nowadays. It was recently documented that long-term fasting improves metabolic health and enhanced the total antioxidant capacity. The present study investigated the influence of a 10-day fasting on markers of the redox status in 109 subjects. Reducing power, 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical cation(ABTS) radical scavenging capacity, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity increased significantly, and indicated an increase of circulating antioxidant levels. No differences were detected in superoxide scavenging capacity, protein carbonyls, and superoxide dismutase when measured at baseline and after 10 days of fasting. These findings were concomitant to a decrease in blood glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides as well as an increase in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio. In addition, the well-being index as well as the subjective energy levels increased, documenting a good tolerability. There was an interplay between redox and metabolic parameters since lipid peroxidation baseline levels (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]) affected the ability of long-term fasting to normalize lipid levels. A machine learning model showed that a combination of antioxidant parameters measured at baseline predicted the efficiency of the fasting regimen to decrease LDL levels. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that long-term fasting enhanced the endogenous production of antioxidant molecules, that act protectively against free radicals, and in parallel improved the metabolic health status. Our results suggest that the outcome of long-term fasting strategies could be depending on the baseline values of the antioxidative and metabolic status of subjects.


Asunto(s)
Ayuno/metabolismo , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/metabolismo , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Estrés Oxidativo/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Biomarcadores/sangre , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/fisiología , Peroxidación de Lípido/fisiología , Aprendizaje Automático , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/sangre , Obesidad/metabolismo , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
9.
N Engl J Med ; 383(8): 721-732, 2020 08 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813948

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that in people with type 2 diabetes, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has therapeutic effects on metabolic function that are independent of weight loss. METHODS: We evaluated metabolic regulators of glucose homeostasis before and after matched (approximately 18%) weight loss induced by gastric bypass (surgery group) or diet alone (diet group) in 22 patients with obesity and diabetes. The primary outcome was the change in hepatic insulin sensitivity, assessed by infusion of insulin at low rates (stages 1 and 2 of a 3-stage hyperinsulinemic euglycemic pancreatic clamp). Secondary outcomes were changes in muscle insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and 24-hour plasma glucose and insulin profiles. RESULTS: Weight loss was associated with increases in mean suppression of glucose production from baseline, by 7.04 µmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.74 to 9.33) in the diet group and by 7.02 µmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute (95% CI, 3.21 to 10.84) in the surgery group during clamp stage 1, and by 5.39 (95% CI, 2.44 to 8.34) and 5.37 (95% CI, 2.41 to 8.33) µmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute in the two groups, respectively, during clamp stage 2; there were no significant differences between the groups. Weight loss was associated with increased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, from 30.5±15.9 to 61.6±13.0 µmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute in the diet group and from 29.4±12.6 to 54.5±10.4 µmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute in the surgery group; there was no significant difference between the groups. Weight loss increased beta-cell function (insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity) by 1.83 units (95% CI, 1.22 to 2.44) in the diet group and by 1.11 units (95% CI, 0.08 to 2.15) in the surgery group, with no significant difference between the groups, and it decreased the areas under the curve for 24-hour plasma glucose and insulin levels in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups. No major complications occurred in either group. CONCLUSIONS: In this study involving patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, the metabolic benefits of gastric bypass surgery and diet were similar and were apparently related to weight loss itself, with no evident clinically important effects independent of weight loss. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02207777.).


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Derivación Gástrica , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Obesidad/cirugía , Pérdida de Peso/fisiología , Adulto , Glucemia/análisis , Glucemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirugía , Femenino , Técnica de Clampeo de la Glucosa , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistencia a la Insulina/fisiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Estudios Prospectivos , Inducción de Remisión
10.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(9): 1500-1511, 2020 08 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620337

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Consumption of soy foods has been associated with protection against cardiometabolic disease, but the mechanisms are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that habitual soy food consumption associates with gut microbiome composition, metabolite production, and the interaction between diet, microbiota and metabolites. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed dietary soy intake, plasma and stool metabolites, and gut microbiome data from two independent cross-sectional samples of healthy US individuals (N = 75 lean or overweight, and N = 29 obese). Habitual soy intake associated with several circulating metabolites. There was a significant interaction between soy intake and gut microbiome composition, as defined by gut enterotype, on metabolites in plasma and stool. Soy consumption associated with reduced systolic blood pressure, but only in a subset of individuals defined by their gut microbiome enterotype, suggesting that responsiveness to soy may be dependent on microbiome composition. Soy intake was associated with differences in specific microbial taxa, including two taxa mapping to genus Dialister and Prevotella which appeared to be suppressed by high soy intake We identified context-dependent effects of these taxa, where presence of Prevotella was associated with higher blood pressure and a worse cardiometabolic profile, but only in the absence of Dialister. CONCLUSIONS: The gut microbiome is an important intermediate in the interplay between dietary soy intake and systemic metabolism. Consumption of soy foods may shape the microbiome by suppressing specific taxa, and may protect against hypertension only in individuals with soy-responsive microbiota. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY: NCT02010359 at clinicaltrials.gov.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea , Metabolismo Energético , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiología , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Alimentos de Soja , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Heces/química , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolómica , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/sangre , Obesidad/microbiología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Pennsylvania , Ribotipificación , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
11.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(6): 374-382, jun.-jul. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-193362

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of ADIPOQ gene rs266729 variants on weight loss after a dietary intervention are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of the ADIPOQ gene rs266729 variant n weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors, and adiponectin levels after two hypocaloric diets with different dietary fatty profiles. DESIGN: A population of 362 obese patients was enrolled in a randomized clinical trial with two diets (Diet M, monounsaturated fat-enriched diet, and Diet P, polyunsaturated-fat enriched diet). Anthropometric measurements, an assessment of nutritional intake, and biochemical tests were performed at baseline and after 12 weeks. RESULTS: Weight loss was similar with both diets. After Diet M, only subjects with CC genotype showed significant improvements in total cholesterol (CC vs. CG ± GG) -9.0 ±1.1 mU/L vs. -4.5 ± 2.4 mg/dL, p = 0.01), LDL cholesterol (-6.0 ± 1.1 mg/dL vs. -3.0 ± 0.9 mg/dL, p = 0.03), glucose (-4.7 ± 1.1 mg/dL vs. -0.6 ± 0.5 mg/dL, p = 0.01), and insulin levels (-2.6 ±1.0 mU/L vs. -0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L, p = 0.02) and in HOMA-IR (-0.5 ± 0.2 units vs. -0.2 ± 0.4 units, p = 0.03). The same improvement was reported after Diet P in all parameters, including total cholesterol (CC vs. CG±GG) (-8.0 ± 1.2mU/L vs. -2.1 ± 1.4 mg/dL, p = 0.02), LDL cholesterol (-7.3 ± 1.2 mg/dL vs. -2.1 ± 0.8 mg/dL, p = 0.02), glucose (-3.2 ± 0.1mg/dL vs. -0.2 ± 0.5 mg/dL, p = 0.01), and insulin levels (-2.5 ± 1.0 mU/L vs. -1 ± 0.6 mU/L, p = 0.02) and HOMA-IR (-0.5 ± 0.1 units vs. −0.3 ± 0.4 units, p = 0.02). Only subjects with CC genotype showed significant increases in adiponectin levels after both diets: (Diet M: 10.3 ± 2.0 ng/dL vs. Diet P: 9.3 ± 2.9 ng/dL, p = 0.43). CONCLUSION: The CC genotype of ADIPOQ gene rs266729 variant is associated to increased adiponectin levels and decreases in LDL cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels after weight loss


ANTECEDENTES: El papel de las variantes del gen ADIPOQ en la pérdida de peso después de una intervención dietética sigue sin estar claro. OBJETIVO: Nuestro objetivo fue analizar los efectos de la variante rs266729 del gen ADIPOQ sobre la pérdida de peso, los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y los niveles de adiponectina después de 2 dietas hipocalóricas con diferentes perfiles de grasas en la dieta. DISEÑO: Una población de 362 pacientes obesos se incluyeron en un ensayo clínico aleatorizado con 2 dietas (dieta M: dieta enriquecida con grasas monoinsaturadas y dieta P: dieta enriquecida con grasas poliinsaturadas). Antes y tras 12 semanas, se realizó una evaluación antropométrica, evaluación de la ingesta nutricional y un análisis bioquímico. RESULTADOS: La pérdida de peso fue similar con ambas dietas. Después de la dieta M, solo los sujetos con genotipo CC mostraron una mejoría significativa en el colesterol total (CC vs. CG±GG) (-9,0 ± 1,1 mU/l vs. - 4,5 ± 2,4 mg/dl; p = 0,01), colesterol LDL (-6,0 ± 1,1 mg/dl vs. - 3,0 ± 0,9 mg/dl; p = 0,03), glucosa (-4,7 ± 1,1 mg/dl vs. -0,6 ± 0,5 mg/dl; p = 0,01), niveles de insulina (-2,6 ± 1,0 mU/l vs. -0,7± 0,3 mU/l; p = 0,02) y HOMA-IR (- 0,5 ± 0,2 unidades vs. -0,2 ± 0,4 unidades; p = 0,03). La misma mejora en todos los parámetros se informó después de la dieta P; niveles de colesterol total (CC vs. CG ± GG) (-8,0 ± 1,2 mU/l vs. -2,1 ± 1,4 mg/dl; p = 0,02), colesterol LDL (-7,3 ± 1,2 mg/dl vs. -2,1 ±0,8 mg/dl; p = 0,02), glucosa (-3,2 ± 0,1 mg/dl vs. -0,2 ± 0,5 mg/dl; p = 0,01), niveles de insulina (-2,5 ±1,0 mU/l vs. -1 ±0,6 mU/l; p = 0,02) y HOMA-IR (-0,5 ± 0,1 unidades vs. -0,3 ± 0,4 unidades; p = 0,02). Solo los sujetos con genotipo CC mostraron un aumento significativo de los niveles de adiponectina después de ambas dietas: (dieta M: 10,3 ± 2,0 ng/dl vs. dieta P: 9,3 ± 2,9 ng/dl; p = 0,43). CONCLUSIÓN: El genotipo CC de la variante rs266729 del gen ADIPOQ se asocia con aumentos en los niveles de adiponectina y disminución del colesterol LDL, glucosa, insulina y HOMA-IR tras la pérdida de peso


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Ácidos Grasos/sangre , Adiponectina/genética , Dieta Reductora/métodos , Pérdida de Peso , Grasas de la Dieta/uso terapéutico , Adiponectina/sangre , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Antropometría , LDL-Colesterol , Genotipo , Estudios Prospectivos , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Receptores de Adipoquina/sangre , Análisis de Varianza
12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(7): 1235-1244, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475085

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare two energy-restricted, nutrient-dense diets at the upper or lower ends of the dietary fat recommendation range (lower fat [20% energy from fat] versus moderate fat [35%]) on weight loss using behavioral theory-based nutrition education. METHODS: A total of 101 premenopausal women with overweight or obesity were randomized to an energy-restricted lower-fat or moderate-fat diet for 1 year. Interventions included 28 behavioral theory-based nutrition education sessions plus weekly exercise sessions. RESULTS: Both treatment groups experienced weight loss (-5.0 kg for lower fat and -4.3 kg for moderate fat; P < 0.0001), but there was no difference in weight loss or fat intake between groups. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased (-3. 4 mg/dL and -3.8 mg/dL; P < 0.05), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased (1.9 mg/dL; P < 0.05) in both groups at 12 months. Diet quality, assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, increased significantly at 4 months versus baseline (70.8 [0.9] vs. 77.8 [1.0]) and was maintained through 12 months. Higher Healthy Eating Index scores were associated with greater weight loss at 4 months (r = -0.2; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the context of a well-resourced, free-living weight-loss intervention, total fat intake did not change; however, theory-based nutrition education underpinned by food-based recommendations resulted in caloric deficits, improvements in diet quality, and weight loss that was sustained for 1 year.


Asunto(s)
Mantenimiento del Peso Corporal/fisiología , Estilo de Vida , Política Nutricional , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Pérdida de Peso , Adulto , Restricción Calórica , Dieta con Restricción de Grasas , Dieta Saludable , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Obesidad/terapia
13.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520932372, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597335

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an independent risk factor for many diseases. Many studies have investigated the benefits of losing weight as well as the best methods for weight loss. This research evaluated the impact of various weight loss programs on health enhancement among overweight women aged 40-60 years. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study that analyzed data from 145 overweight women in weight loss programs. Each woman joined one of four programs: 8 weeks of exercise plus diet (exe + nutr), 8 weeks of diet only (nutrition), 8 weeks of exercise only, or a control group. Women completed a psychological questionnaire and also underwent anthropometric tests, blood pressure checks, a predicted maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) test on an ergometer bicycle, a one-leg balance test, straight leg test, and a sit and reach test, both before and after the program. Participants also provided a blood sample. RESULTS: All of the measured variables improved in the exe + nutr and nutrition programs when compared with the control group; the exe + nutr group improved the most: body mass index, -1.3 kg/m2; body fat, -2.9%; lean body mass, +1.1; VO2 max, +4.8; body image, +1.02; and p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: The hypothesis-generating findings showed that weight loss programs improved anthropometric, biochemical, physiological, physical, and psychological variables in women aged 40-60 years. The program that included diet restriction with exercise, guidance, and regular counseling showed the best results.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Reductora , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Sobrepeso/fisiopatología , Pérdida de Peso/fisiología , Programas de Reducción de Peso/normas , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Israel , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Estudios Retrospectivos
14.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 443-449, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-193850

RESUMEN

ANTECEDENTES: los hábitos alimentarios y los patrones de actividad física (AF) juegan un papel crucial en el desarrollo integral de niños y adolescentes. OBJETIVO: comparar según frecuencia de AF (es decir, 0, 1, 2, 3 o 4 veces/semana) y estatus corporal (es decir, normopeso, sobrepeso y obesidad) la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea (DM), la insatisfacción por la imagen corporal y la condición física relacionada con la salud (CF), y, como segundo objetivo, determinar la asociación entre estas variables. MÉTODOS: participaron 481 escolares, 166 mujeres y 315 hombres, de entre 8 y 15 años (12,10 ± 1,10 años) pertenecientes a escuelas públicas de la ciudad de Temuco (Chile). Se clasificaron en 3 grupos según la frecuencia de AF: grupo 1, no realiza AF; grupo 2, AF 1-2 veces/semana, y grupo 3: AF 3-4 veces/semana. Se midió la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria (CRF), el salto de longitud a pies juntos (SJT), la fuerza prensil, la adherencia a la DM y la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal. RESULTADOS: los escolares con más días de AF/semana reportaron mayor adherencia a la DM (p = 0,020), VO2MAX (p < 0,001) y mayor SJT (p < 0,001). Asimismo, los escolares con normopeso presentaron más adherencia a la DM (p < 0,001) y menor grado de insatisfacción con la imagen corporal (p < 0,001). Se aprecia una asociación positiva entre la AF y la CRF (B; 1,28, p < 01001). El género presentó asociación con la insatisfacción de la imagen corporal (B; 25,51, p = 01019). CONCLUSIÓN: los escolares con mayor frecuencia de AF/semana presentaron mayor adherencia a la DM y mejor CF relacionada a la salud


BACKGROUND: dietary habits and physical activity (PA) patterns play a crucial role in the integral development of children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: to compare according PA frequency (i.e., 0,1,2,3 or 4 times / week) and weight status (i.e., normal weight, overweight and obesity), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), body image dissatisfaction and the physical fitness related to health, and as second objective to determine the association between these variables. METHODS: 481 schoolchildren, 166 women and 315 men aged between 8 and 15 years (12.10 ± 1.10 years) belonging to public schools of Temuco, Chile participated. They were classified in three groups according PA frequency: group 1, without PA; group 2, PA 1-2 times/week, and group 3, PA 3-4 times/week. Cardio respiratory fitness (CRF), standing jump long test (SJT), handgrip strength, adherence to MD and body image dissatisfaction were measured. RESULTS: Schoolchildren with more days of PA / week reported higher adherence to MD (p = 0.020), VO2max (p < 0.001) and SJT (p < 0.001) than peers. Likewise, schoolchildren with normal weight show more adherence to MD (P <0.001) and lower body image dissatisfaction (p < 0.001). There is a positive association between PA with VO2MAX (B, 1.28, p < 0.001). The gender presented association with body image dissatisfaction (B, 25.51, p = 0.019). CONCLUSION: the schoolchildren with greater frequency of PA/week, presenting greater adherence to MD and better physical fitness related to health


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Conducta Alimentaria , Imagen Corporal , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Dieta Mediterránea , Chile , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Destreza Motora , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Estudios Transversales , Antropometría
15.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 456-464, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-193852

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: obesity is a chronic disease associated with inadequate eating habits and reduced levels of physical activity. Because of obesity, the risk for comorbidities is increased, especially for cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, and increased pro-inflammatory factors. The aim of the present investigation was to analyze potential correlations between pro/anti-inflammatory adipokines, glycemic index, and other markers of diet quality using a metabolic profile in women undergoing interdisciplinary weight loss therapy. METHODS: thirty-two women with obesity were enrolled in a 12-week program of interdisciplinary therapy combining a clinical, nutritional, and physical exercise approach. Body composition, quality of diet, metabolic profile, and pro/anti-inflammatory adipokines were analyzed. RESULTS: the therapy showed to be effective in reducing body weight (from 93.16 ± 16.96 to 88.36 ± 16.23; p = 0.0000001), body mass index (from 34.01 ± 4.00 to 32.29 ± 3.96; p = 0.0000001), and body fat (from 38.25 ± 5.05 to 36.13 ± 5; p = 0.0000001). There was also an improvement in lipid profile, including total cholesterol (from 196.16 ± 34.78 to 183.53 ± 43.15; p = 0.001), non-HDL-cholesterol (from 142 ± 30.05 to 1333.69 ± 35.41; p = 0.01), VLDL-cholesterol (from 27.13 ± 12.4 to 22.06 ± 8.55; p = 0.002), triglycerides (from 135.88 ± 61.21 to 110.75 ± 43.09; p = 0.002) and glucose metabolism, including glucose (from 97.13 ± 10.43 to 92.6 ± 6.6; p = 0.004), and insulin (from 13.05 ± 5.54 to 11.29 ± 4.85; p = 0.03). As for food intake, there was a decrease in calorie consumption (from 1991.45 ± 677.78 to 1468.88 ± 390.56; p = 0.002), carbohydrates (from 50.37 ± 6 to 47.04 ± 8.67; p = 0.04), lipids (from 31.83 ± 5.53 to 30.37 ± 7.04; p = 0.3), and glycemic load (from 80.53 ± 39.88 to 54.79 ± 23.69; p = 0.02), and an increased consumption of proteins (from 18.3 ± 2.39 to 22.89 ± 4.9; p = 0.002). Positive correlations were demonstrated between insulin concentration and waist circumference (r = 0.82; p = 0.003); leptin and body fat and abdominal circumference (r = 0.74; p = 0.01); and LDL-cholesterol fraction and total cholesterol consumption (r = 0.69; p = 0.027). Negative correlations were demonstrated between leptin and monosaturated fat consumption (r = -0.71; p = 0.02); and adiponectin and liver enzyme GGT levels (r = -0.65; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: interdisciplinary therapy had positive effects on inflammatory state, mediated by leptin, adiponectin, and quality of diet. Our findings suggest the effectiveness and clinical relevance of the interdisciplinary clinical therapy applied for obesity


INTRODUCCIÓN: la obesidad es una enfermedad crónica asociada con hábitos alimentarios inadecuados y niveles reducidos de actividad física. Debido a la obesidad, el riesgo de comorbilidad aumenta, especialmente el de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, la resistencia a la insulina y el aumento de los factores proinflamatorios. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue analizar las posibles correlaciones entre las adipocinas pro/antiinflamatorias, el índice glucémico y otros marcadores de calidad de la dieta con el perfil metabólico en mujeres sometidas a terapia interdisciplinaria para perder peso. MÉTODOS: treinta y dos mujeres con obesidad participaron en 12 semanas de terapia interdisciplinaria en la que se combinaron los enfoques clínico, nutricional y de ejercicio físico. Se analizaron la composición corporal, la calidad de la dieta, el perfil metabólico y las adipocinas pro/antiinflamatorias. RESULTADOS: la terapia demostró ser efectiva para reducir el peso corporal (de 93,16 ± 16,96 a 88,36 ± 16,23; p = 0,0000001), el índice de masa corporal (de 34,01 ± 4,00 a 32,29 ± 3,96; p = 0,0000001) y la grasa corporal (de 38,25 ± 5,05 a 36,13 ± 5,00; p = 0,0000001). También hubo una mejora del perfil lipídico, incluidos el colesterol total (de 196,16 ± 34,78 a 183,53 ± 43,15; p = 0,001), el colesterol no HDL (de 142,00 ± 30,05 a 1333,69 ± 35,41; p = 0,01), el VLDL-colesterol (de 27,13 ± 12,4 a 22,06 ± 8,55; p = 0,002), y el metabolismo de la glucosa, incluyendo la glucosa (de 97,13 ± 10,43 a 92,6 ± 6,6; p = 0,004) y la insulina (de 13,05 ± 5,54 a 11,29 ± 4,85; p = 0,03). En cuanto a la ingesta de alimentos, hubo disminución en el consumo de calorías (de 1991,45 ± 677,78 a 1468,88 ± 390,56; p = 0,002), carbohidratos (de 50,37 ± 6,00 a 47,04 ± 8,67; p = 0,04), lípidos (de 31,83 ± 5,53 a 30,37 ± 7,04; p = 0,3) y carga glucémica (de 80,53 ± 39,88 a 54,79 ± 23,69; p = 0,02), y aumento del consumo de proteínas (de 18,3 ± 2,39 a 22,89 ± 4,90; p = 0,002). Se demostraron correlaciones positivas entre la concentración de insulina y la circunferencia de la cintura (r = 0,82; p = 0,003); la leptina, la grasa corporal y la circunferencia abdominal (r = 0,74; p = 0,01), y la fracción de colesterol LDL y el consumo total de colesterol (r = 0,69; p = 0,027). Se demostraron correlaciones negativas entre la leptina y el consumo de grasa monosaturada (r = -0,71; p = 0,02), y la adiponectina y la enzima hepática GGT (r = -0,65; p = 0,04). CONCLUSIONES: la terapia interdisciplinaria tuvo efectos positivos sobre el estado inflamatorio, mediado por la leptina, la adiponectina, y la calidad de la dieta. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren la efectividad y la relevancia clínica de la terapia clínica interdisciplinaria aplicada a la obesidad


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Leptina/administración & dosificación , Adiponectina/administración & dosificación , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Adipoquinas/administración & dosificación , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Conducta Alimentaria , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Peso Corporal , Índice de Masa Corporal , Composición Corporal/fisiología
16.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 465-473, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-193853

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: the composition of snack foods likely influences the overall effect that snacking has on metabolism and obesity. The objective of the current study was to assess the responses to two different snacks, one of them supplemented with wakame and carobs, on cardiovascular risk factors, satiety, and subsequent food intake in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: forty patients were randomized in a clinical trial (NCT03420989, clinicaltrial.gov) to group I (enriched snack, n = 16) or group II (control snack, n = 16). At baseline and after 8 weeks biochemical parameters, dietary intakes, and nutritional status were assessed. The subjects also rated their feelings of satiety/hunger with a test meal. RESULTS: no differences were detected in anthropometric parameters between both snacks. Changes in other parameters were detected in patients with enriched snacks, with a significant decrease in LDL-cholesterol by 7.4 % (intervention snack, -8.9 ± 2.3 mg/dL vs control snack, -0.9 ± 3.3 mg/dL; p = 0.03), in total cholesterol by 5.8 % (intervention snack, -10.4 ± 2.9 mg/dL vs control snack, -1.4 ± 3.2 mg/dL; p = 0.02), and in resistin level by 15.9 % (intervention snack, -1.0 ± 0.2 mg/dL vs control snack, -0.1 ± 0.3 mg/dL: p = 0.03). After the test meal, satiety scores (after 20 min and 40 min) were higher than fasting levels in both groups. The same results were obtained with the 100-mm, 5-point visual satiety scale. CONCLUSION: our study indicates that a wakame- and carob-enriched snack induces a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and resistin levels when compared to a control snack, without effects on food consumption, other cardiovascular parameters, or anthropometric parameters


INTRODUCCIÓN: la composición de los "snacks" probablemente influya en el efecto que produce su consumo sobre los marcadores metabólicos y la obesidad. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las respuestas a dos snacks, uno de ellos suplementado con wakame y algarroba, sobre factores de riesgo cardiovascular, saciedad y posterior ingesta de alimentos, en sujetos obesos con síndrome metabólico. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: se aleatorizaron 40 pacientes en el ensayo clínico NCT03420989 (clinicaltrial.gov) para participar en el grupo I (snack enriquecido, n = 16) o el grupo II (snack de control, n = 16). Antes y después de 8 semanas se determinaron los parámetros bioquímicos, las ingestas dietéticas y el estado nutricional. A los sujetos también se les evaluó la saciedad y el apetito con una comida de prueba. RESULTADOS: no se detectaron diferencias en los parámetros antropométricos con ambos snacks. Se detectaron cambios en los parámetros bioquímicos de los pacientes que recibieron snacks enriquecidos, con una disminución significativa del colesterol-LDL del 7,4 % (snack de intervención, -8,9 ± 2,3 mg/dl vs. snack de control, -0,9 ± 3,3 mg/dl; p = 0,03), del colesterol total del 5,8 % (snack de intervención, -10,4 ± 2,9 mg/dl vs. snack de control, -1,4 ± 3,2 mg/dl; p = 0,02) y de los niveles de resistina del 15,9 % (snack de intervención, -1,0 ± 0,2 mg/dl vs. snack de control, -0,1 ± 0,3 mg/dl; p = 0,03). Después de la comida de prueba, las puntuaciones de saciedad (a los 20 min y 40 min) fueron más altas que el nivel de ayuno en ambos grupos. Los resultados fueron similares con la escala de saciedad visual de 5 puntos y 100 mm. CONCLUSIÓN: nuestro estudio muestra que un snack enriquecido con wakame y algarroba produce una disminución significativa de los niveles de colesterol total, colesterol-LDL y resistina frente a un snack de control, sin efectos sobre el consumo de alimentos, otros parámetros cardiovasculares y los parámetros antropométricos


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Bocadillos/fisiología , Ingestión de Energía/fisiología , Undaria , Método Doble Ciego , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Síndrome Metabólico/dietoterapia , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Antropometría , Receptores de Adipoquina/administración & dosificación , Undaria/química , Galactanos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico
17.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1907-1914, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421231

RESUMEN

Different chain lengths diacylglycerols (DAG) (long- and medium-chain) were synthesized from peanut and coconut oils. The effects of DAG with different chain lengths on body fat, blood lipids, and lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the liver and adipose tissue of C57BL/6J mice were investigated. Compared to peanut and coconut oils containing triacylglycerol (TAG), DAG-rich oils can significantly reduce the body weight, kidney weight, serum triglyceride (TG) content, hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS), and Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) enzyme levels (p < 0.05) in C57BL/6J mice. Therefore, the effect of coconut oil DAG on improving body fat metabolism was probably due to the impact of DAG. Meanwhile, the body weight and serum TG content in coconut oil DAG group were lower than those in peanut oil DAG group. In addition, the spleen weight, hepatic ACC, and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) enzymes in coconut oil DAG group (0.07 ± 0.01 g, 2.08 ± 0.42 ng/mg pro, and 18.44 ± 5.23 ng/mg pro, respectively) were significantly lower than those in peanut oil DAG group. Although coconut oil DAG and peanut oil DAG have different fatty acid compositions, their effects on lipid metabolism showed no significant changes. Coconut oil DAG (peanut oil DAG) showed the improved lipid metabolism than that of coconut oil (peanut oil), which was probably due to the effect of DAG. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Peanut and coconut oils are common edible oils. The oil containing DAG synthesized decreased the body weight and lipid accumulation in mice. Coconut oil is rich in medium-chain fatty acids, while peanut oil mainly consists of long-chain fatty acids. Due to the different contents of fatty acids, the synthesized structural lipids have different effects on lipid metabolism. Medium-chain triglycerides were considered as agents to alleviate obesity.


Asunto(s)
Aceite de Coco/metabolismo , Diglicéridos/metabolismo , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Aceite de Cacahuete/metabolismo , Triglicéridos/metabolismo , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animales , Aceite de Coco/química , Ácido Graso Sintasas/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Lipoproteína Lipasa/metabolismo , Hígado/enzimología , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Obesidad/metabolismo , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Aceite de Cacahuete/química
18.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(6): 984-995, 2020 06 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402585

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The effect of pasta consumption within a low-energy Mediterranean diet on body weight regulation has been scarcely explored. This paper investigates the effect of two Mediterranean diets, which differed for lower or higher pasta intake, on body weight change in individuals with obesity. METHODS & RESULTS: Forty-nine volunteers finished a quasi-experimental 6-month two-parallel group dietary intervention. Participants were assigned to a low-energy high pasta (HP) or to a low-energy low Pasta (LP) group on the basis of their pasta intake (HP ≥ 5 or LP ≤ 3 times/week). Anthropometrics, blood pressure and heart rate were measured every month. Weight maintenance was checked at month 12. Body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis, BIA), food intake (24-h recall plus a 7-day carbohydrate record) and the perceived quality of life (36-item short-form health survey, SF-36) were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Blood samples were collected at baseline and month 6 to assess glucose and lipid metabolism. After 6-month intervention, body weight reduction was -10 ± 8% and -7 ± 4% in HP and LP diet, respectively, and it remained similar at month 12. Both dietary interventions improved anthropometric parameters, body composition, glucose and lipid metabolism, but no significant differences were observed between treatment groups. No differences were observed for blood pressure and heart rate between treatments and among times. HP diet significantly improved perception of quality of life for the physical component. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of pasta consumption frequency, low-energy Mediterranean diets were successful in improving anthropometrics, physiological parameters and dietary habits after a 6-month weight-loss intervention. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03341650.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Baja en Carbohidratos , Dieta Mediterránea , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Pérdida de Peso , Adulto , Composición Corporal , Dieta Baja en Carbohidratos/efectos adversos , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados no Aleatorios como Asunto , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232605, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379797

RESUMEN

Obesity is a constantly increasing health problem worldwide. It is associated with a systemic low-grade inflammation, which contributes to the development of metabolic disorders and comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. Diet has an important role in the prevention of obesity and its adverse health effects; as a part of healthy diet, polyphenol-rich berries, such as lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) have been proposed to have health-promoting effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of lingonberry supplementation on high-fat diet induced metabolic and inflammatory changes in a mouse model of obesity. Thirty male C57BL/6N mice were divided into three groups (n = 10/group) to receive low-fat (LF), high-fat (HF) and lingonberry-supplemented high-fat (HF+LGB) diet for six weeks. Low-fat and high-fat diet contained 10% and 46% of energy from fat, respectively. Lingonberry supplementation prevented the high-fat diet induced adverse changes in blood cholesterol and glucose levels and had a moderate effect on the weight and visceral fat gain, which were 26% and 25% lower, respectively, in the lingonberry group than in the high-fat diet control group. Interestingly, lingonberry supplementation also restrained the high-fat diet induced increases in the circulating levels of the proinflammatory adipocytokine leptin (by 36%) and the inflammatory acute phase reactant serum amyloid A (SAA; by 85%). Similar beneficial effects were discovered in the hepatic expression of the inflammatory factors CXCL-14, S100A10 and SAA by lingonberry supplementation. In conclusion, the present results indicate that lingonberry supplementation significantly prevents high-fat diet induced metabolic and inflammatory changes in a murine model of obesity. The results encourage evaluation of lingonberries as a part of healthy diet against obesity and its comorbidities.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Frutas , Inflamación/dietoterapia , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Animales , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Vaccinium vitis-Idaea/metabolismo
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