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1.
Georgian Med News ; (306): 52-57, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130646

RESUMEN

Analysis of the literature data evidenced that in recent decades, increased consumption of SSD and energy drinks has raised concerns among professionals, as it contributes to an increase in total calorie intake, leading to overweight and obesity in the young population, as well as damage to tooth tissues due to the exposure of highly cariogenic/erosive ingredients of these drinks. According to many authors there are a number of factors conditioning the influence of energy drinks on oral health or the risk of overweight and obesity including the duration, amount and frequency of consumption. Currently, these factors still remain practically unexplored. In addition, it is evident that intensive preventive measures are required to prevent development of tooth decay, including limiting the consumption of sweets and sugar sweetened drinks, as well as regular dental care with fluoride-containing toothpastes and a balanced diet.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad , Sobrepeso , Bebidas Azucaradas , Ingestión de Energía , Alimentos , Humanos , Obesidad/epidemiología
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 136, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193951

RESUMEN

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging health threat outbreak. It may cause severe viral pneumonia with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome requiring critical care. Aim: to describe clinical features and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: it was a retrospective study carried out in the medical ICU of Farhat Hached teaching hospital between March 11 and May 7, 2020. All consecutive patients with RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 were included. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were collected by reviewing medical records. Results: during the study period, 10 critically ill patients with COVID-19 were enrolled. Mean age, 51.8±6.3 years; 8(80%), male. The most common comorbidities were; diabetes mellitus, 6(60%), obesity 2(20%), chronic kidney disease 2(20%) and hypertension 1(10%). Mean SAPS II, 23.2±1.8. The mean arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen ratio at admission was 136.2±79.7. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation was used in 4(40%) patients and 7(70%) received invasive mechanical ventilation. Tidal volume and PEEP were set respectively within the median [IQR] of, 5.7[5.6-6.3]ml/Kg and 10.7[6.5-11.7]cm H2O. Plateau pressure was monitored in the median [IQR] of 27.9 [25.9-28.5] cm H2O. Four patients received hydroxychloroquine alone and five hydroxychloroquine associated with an antiviral. Five patients developed respectively hyperactive (n=2), hypoactive (n=2) and mixed delirium (n=1). Mortality rate was at 70%. Conclusion: this study demonstrated a particular profile of COVID-19 in the critically ill as a severe presentation in aged males with comorbidities presenting with an ARDS-like and neurological impairment with poor prognosis. The only survivals seem to have benefited from noninvasive ventilatory support.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crítica/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Delirio/etiología , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Hospitales de Enseñanza/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Pronóstico , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Respiración Artificial/estadística & datos numéricos , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Puntuación Fisiológica Simplificada Aguda , Túnez/epidemiología
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166098

RESUMEN

Objective: To report the clinical characteristics and transmission rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a community inpatient long-term care psychiatric rehabilitation facility designed for persons with serious mental illness to provide insight into transmission and symptom patterns and emerging testing protocols, as well as medical complications and prognosis. Methods: This study examined a cohort of 54 residents of a long-term care psychiatric rehabilitation program from March to April 2020. Baseline demographics, clinical diagnoses, and vital signs were examined to look for statistical differences between positive versus negative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) groups. During the early phase of the pandemic, the facility closely followed the local shelter-in-place order (starting March 19, 2020) and symptom-based testing. Results: Of the residents, the primary psychiatric diagnoses were schizoaffective disorder: 28 (51.9%), schizophrenia: 21 (38.9%), bipolar I disorder: 3 (5.5%), and unspecified psychotic disorder: 2 (3.7%). Forty (74%) of 54 residents tested positive for SARS-COV-2, with a doubling time of 3.9 days. There were no statistical differences between the positive SARS-COV-2 versus negative groups for age or race/ethnicity. Psychiatric and medical conditions were not significantly associated with contracting SARS-COV-2, with the exception of obesity (n = 17 [43%] positive vs n = 12 [86%] negative, P = .01). Medical monitoring of vital signs and symptoms did not lead to earlier detection. All of the residents completely recovered, with the last resident no longer showing any symptoms 24 days from the index case. Conclusion: Research is needed to determine optimal strategies for long-term care mental health settings that incorporate frequent testing and personal protective equipment use to prevent rapid transmission of SARS-COV-2.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Trastornos Psicóticos/rehabilitación , Centros de Rehabilitación , Esquizofrenia/rehabilitación , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Americanos Asiáticos , Betacoronavirus , Trastorno Bipolar/epidemiología , Trastorno Bipolar/rehabilitación , California/epidemiología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Reflujo Gastroesofágico/epidemiología , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiología , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipotiroidismo/epidemiología , Control de Infecciones , Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Rehabilitación Psiquiátrica , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Trastornos Psicóticos/epidemiología , Recreación , Rehabilitación Vocacional , Esquizofrenia/epidemiología , Fumar/epidemiología , Visitas a Pacientes
4.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(S1): 146-152, 2020.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211438

RESUMEN

Obesity is associated with a huge number of well-known comorbidities. Nowadays, it represents a higher risk of severe COVID-19 infection, which may lead to the requirement of a mechanical ventilation in intensive care units and premature death. The increase in relative risk of poor prognosis in presence of obesity is particularly high in patients at a younger age. The underlying mechanisms are multiple: alteration of the respiratory performance, presence of frequent comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension or obstructive sleep apnea), finally inadequate and excessive immunological responses, with massive liberation of cytokines (especially interkeukin-1 and interleukin-6). Thus, COVID-19 may challenge the so-called «obesity paradox¼ in intensive care units among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome where obesity is commonly reported as associated with a better prognosis. In the special case of COVID-19, a condition where obviously obesity aggravates the prognosis, hypothetical mechanisms remain to be well-defined and deserve further validation.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Humanos , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología
5.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 166, 2020 10 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079259

RESUMEN

In our study investigating the prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) in community-dwelling older adults and possible factors responsible for falls, we have found that prevalence of OSO is 10.7%. OSO does not significantly increase the odds of falling, whereas lower handgrip strength, ALMi and gait speed were independent factors associated with falls. PURPOSES: The purposes of the study were (a) to determine the prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) in community-dwelling older adults and (b) to investigate the association between falls and possible factors in individuals with and without OSO. METHODS: Medical records of patients aged ≥ 65 years were retrospectively reviewed. Individuals were diagnosed with OSO based on their T-score assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry, handgrip strength, appendicular lean mass index (ALMi), gait speed and body fat percentile. Comorbidities, history of falls, depressive state, medications and anthropometric measures were also noted. RESULTS: A sample of 460 individuals were assessed (337 females; 123 males) and 49 patients were diagnosed with OSO. There was no statistically significant difference in falls between the two groups (OR: 0.768, 95% CI: 0.409-1.440, p: 0.41) and the presence of OSO was not significantly associated with increased odds of falling (OR: 1.755, 95% CI: 0.547-5.628, p: 0.344). Handgrip strength (OR: 0.931, 95% CI: 0.893-0.971, p: 0.001), ALMi (OR: 0.799, 95% CI: 0.708-0.901, p < 0.0001) and gait speed (OR: 0.529, 95% CI: 0.283-0.988, p: 0.046) were independently associated with falls in overall group, whereas interaction analysis did not reveal any significant moderator effect of OSO vs. non-OSO in the associations between risk factors and falls. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of OSO was 10.7%. OSO was not associated with elevated odds of falling, whereas lower handgrip strength, ALMi and gait speed were independent factors associated with falls. Further prospective research is needed to clarify the effect of OSO on odds of falling, in consideration with possible risk factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND DATE: NCT04288401 /26.02.2020.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad/fisiopatología , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Fuerza de la Mano/fisiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Osteoporosis Posmenopáusica/epidemiología , Osteoporosis/epidemiología , Sarcopenia/epidemiología , Absorciometría de Fotón/métodos , Anciano , Antropometría/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Masculino , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Osteoporosis/fisiopatología , Equilibrio Postural/fisiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sarcopenia/fisiopatología
6.
JAMA ; 324(14): 1429-1438, 2020 10 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048153

RESUMEN

Importance: The prevalence of leading risk factors for morbidity and mortality in the US significantly varies across regions, states, and neighborhoods, but the extent these differences are associated with a person's place of residence vs the characteristics of the people who live in different places remains unclear. Objective: To estimate the degree to which geographic differences in leading risk factors are associated with a person's place of residence by comparing trends in health outcomes among individuals who moved to different areas or did not move. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study estimated the association between the differences in the prevalence of uncontrolled chronic conditions across movers' destination and origin zip codes and changes in individuals' likelihood of uncontrolled chronic conditions after moving, adjusting for person-specific fixed effects, the duration of time since the move, and secular trends among movers and those who did not move. Electronic health records from the Veterans Health Administration were analyzed. The primary analysis included 5 342 207 individuals with at least 1 Veterans Health Administration outpatient encounter between 2008 and 2018 who moved zip codes exactly once or never moved. Exposures: The difference in the prevalence of uncontrolled chronic conditions between a person's origin zip code and destination zip code (excluding the individual mover's outcomes). Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic blood pressure level >140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure level >90 mm Hg), uncontrolled diabetes (hemoglobin A1c level >8%), obesity (body mass index >30), and depressive symptoms (2-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥2) per quarter-year during the 3 years before and the 3 years after individuals moved. Results: The study population included 5 342 207 individuals (mean age, 57.6 [SD, 17.4] years, 93.9% men, 72.5% White individuals, and 12.7% Black individuals), of whom 1 095 608 moved exactly once and 4 246 599 never moved during the study period. Among the movers, the change after moving in the prevalence of uncontrolled blood pressure was 27.5% (95% CI, 23.8%-31.3%) of the between-area difference in the prevalence of uncontrolled blood pressure. Similarly, the change after moving in the prevalence of uncontrolled diabetes was 5.0% (95% CI, 2.7%-7.2%) of the between-area difference in the prevalence of uncontrolled diabetes; the change after moving in the prevalence of obesity was 3.1% (95% CI, 2.0%-4.2%) of the between-area difference in the prevalence of obesity; and the change after moving in the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 15.2% (95% CI, 13.1%-17.2%) of the between-area difference in the prevalence of depressive symptoms. Conclusions and Relevance: In this retrospective cohort study of individuals receiving care at Veterans Health Administration facilities, geographic differences in prevalence were associated with a substantial percentage of the change in individuals' likelihood of poor blood pressure control or depressive symptoms, and a smaller percentage of the change in individuals' likelihood of poor diabetes control and obesity. Further research is needed to understand the source of these associations with a person's place of residence.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Migración Humana/estadística & datos numéricos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crónica/etnología , Trastorno Depresivo/etnología , Diabetes Mellitus/etnología , Registros Electrónicos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Geografía Médica , Migración Humana/tendencias , Humanos , Hipertensión/etnología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/etnología , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Incertidumbre , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/etnología , Servicios de Salud para Veteranos/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 252(2): 159-168, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041315

RESUMEN

The double burden of malnutrition is the coexistence of two different conditions, mainly reflected as excess or deficit in weight. Anemia is a specific nutritional deficit not always included in the double burden assessment. We reviewed overweight and/or obesity (OW/OB) and anemia studies from Latin-American Children over the last ten years up to 2019. Two authors evaluated the MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and LILACS databases. A scale of ten questions was used to assess the risk of bias in prevalence studies. Fourteen studies were selected. The population studies' size ranged from 147 to 20,342 children with different socio-economic backgrounds, such as urban, peri-urban and rural settings, socio-economic status, schooling, population (ethnic minorities and indigenous), and environmental differences (sea level or high altitude). The prevalence of OW/OB ranged from 4.9% to 42%. The prevalence of anemia was from 3.4% to 67%. The double burden, including OW/OB and anemia, ranged from 0.7% to 67%. A higher prevalence of excess weight and anemia was found in rural and high altitude above sea level environments, extreme poverty, low education level, and indigenous communities. These heterogeneous data, before the 2020 (COVID-19 pandemic), reflect the vast inequities between countries and within each country. Food insecurity linked to poverty and the induced change in eating habits and lifestyles threaten optimal child nutrition in ongoing and future scenarios. The existence of OW/OB and anemia and their simultaneous coexistence in the community, home, and individual levels, indicates that interventions should be comprehensive to face the double burden of malnutrition.


Asunto(s)
Anemia/epidemiología , Costo de Enfermedad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Geografía , Humanos , Lactante , América Latina , Prevalencia , Publicaciones
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2025197, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084902

RESUMEN

Importance: Black patients are overrepresented in the number of COVID-19 infections, hospitalizations, and deaths in the US. Reasons for this disparity may be due to underlying comorbidities or sociodemographic factors that require further exploration. Objective: To systematically determine patient characteristics associated with racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used comparative groups of patients tested or treated for COVID-19 at the University of Michigan from March 10, 2020, to April 22, 2020, with an outcome update through July 28, 2020. A group of randomly selected untested individuals were included for comparison. Examined factors included race/ethnicity, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, comorbidities, body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), and residential-level socioeconomic characteristics. Exposure: In-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, commercial antibody tests, nasopharynx or oropharynx PCR deployed by the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services and reverse transcription-PCR tests performed in external labs. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were being tested for COVID-19, having test results positive for COVID-19 or being diagnosed with COVID-19, being hospitalized for COVID-19, requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission for COVID-19, and COVID-19-related mortality (including inpatient and outpatient). Medical comorbidities were defined from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes and were aggregated into a comorbidity score. Associations with COVID-19 outcomes were examined using odds ratios (ORs). Results: Of 5698 patients tested for COVID-19 (mean [SD] age, 47.4 [20.9] years; 2167 [38.0%] men; mean [SD] BMI, 30.0 [8.0]), most were non-Hispanic White (3740 patients [65.6%]) or non-Hispanic Black (1058 patients [18.6%]). The comparison group included 7168 individuals who were not tested (mean [SD] age, 43.1 [24.1] years; 3257 [45.4%] men; mean [SD] BMI, 28.5 [7.1]). Among 1139 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 492 (43.2%) were White and 442 (38.8%) were Black; 523 (45.9%) were hospitalized, 283 (24.7%) were admitted to the ICU, and 88 (7.7%) died. Adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and comorbidity score, Black patients were more likely to be hospitalized compared with White patients (OR, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.15-2.58]; P = .009). In addition to older age, male sex, and obesity, living in densely populated areas was associated with increased risk of hospitalization (OR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.01-1.19]; P = .02). In the overall population, higher risk of hospitalization was also observed in patients with preexisting type 2 diabetes (OR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.25-2.64]; P = .02) and kidney disease (OR, 2.87 [95% CI, 1.87-4.42]; P < .001). Compared with White patients, obesity was associated with higher risk of having test results positive for COVID-19 among Black patients (White: OR, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.01-1.84]; P = .04. Black: OR, 3.11 [95% CI, 1.64-5.90]; P < .001; P for interaction = .02). Having any cancer was associated with higher risk of positive COVID-19 test results for Black patients (OR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.19-2.78]; P = .005) but not White patients (OR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.84-1.40]; P = .53; P for interaction = .04). Overall comorbidity burden was associated with higher risk of hospitalization in White patients (OR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.11-1.53]; P = .001) but not in Black patients (OR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.83-1.17]; P = .88; P for interaction = .02), as was type 2 diabetes (White: OR, 2.59 [95% CI, 1.49-4.48]; P < .001; Black: OR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.66-2.06]; P = .59; P for interaction = .046). No statistically significant racial differences were found in ICU admission and mortality based on adjusted analysis. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that preexisting type 2 diabetes or kidney diseases and living in high-population density areas were associated with higher risk for COVID-19 hospitalization. Associations of risk factors with COVID-19 outcomes differed by race.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Hospitalización , Neumonía Viral/etnología , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Enfermedades Renales/epidemiología , Masculino , Michigan/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Oportunidad Relativa , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Neumonía Viral/virología , Densidad de Población , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(10): 1356-1367, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047691

RESUMEN

Background: Neglectful feeding and physical activity (PA) practices by parents are associated with development of adulthood obesity. The Arab world has reported an alarming increase of adulthood obesity and childhood neglect by parents, yet have not studied the association between the two variables. Aims: The objectives of this study were to evaluate two parental negligence parameters (feeding style and social activity) associated with adulthood obesity and to identify the level of parental negligence on a customized parent neglect scale. Methods: In total 450 adult subjects 18-30 were screened for body mass index (BMI) values. 240 subjects fulfilling the criteria for the study were divided into two groups normal weight (N Gp) (n = 150) and overweight/obese (Ov/Ob Gp) (n = 90) groups. A questionnaire was formulated through a dual moderator focus group discussion, which was then tested in a prepilot and a pilot study (qualitative) to determine its validity (content and criterion) and reliability (repeated measurement) before distributing to the parents of both groups. Physical activity and screen time were also recorded for the subjects and their parents. Chi square test for association/difference between two categorical variables and Pearsons correlation coefficient for BMI correlation were employed. Results: Parenting parameters like maternal age, consanguineous marriage, breastfeeding duration, formula food introduction, and maternal smoking were significantly different between studied groups. Higher physical inactivity was observed among parents (father/mother 53%) and subjects (80%). The higher amount of screen time (73% ≥ 60-100 h/week) was found in the Ov/Ob Gp that significantly differed with the other group. Maternal BMI was positively related to the subjects BMI. Parents of obese subjects were found negligent in feeding style and very negligent for social activity on a parent neglect scale as compared to the parents of the normal weight subjects. Conclusion: Parents are responsible for developing healthy eating habits and competitive social behavior among their children. Parents need to practice the same to influence changes in their children during their early childhood, as well as when their children grow into adults. Negligent parenting in the studied parameters were found to increase the risk of developing adulthood obesity and should be considered as a potential marker for adult obesity.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Ejercicio Físico , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Padres/psicología , Conducta Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Lactancia Materna , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/etnología , Preescolar , Dieta Saludable , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Madres/psicología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5296-5299, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019179

RESUMEN

Obesity is currently affecting very large portions of the global population. Effective prevention and treatment starts at the early age and requires objective knowledge of population-level behavior on the region/neighborhood scale. To this end, we present a system for extracting and collecting behavioral information on the individual-level objectively and automatically. The behavioral information is related to physical activity, types of visited places, and transportation mode used between them. The system employs indicator-extraction algorithms from the literature which we evaluate on publicly available datasets. The system has been developed and integrated in the context of the EU-funded BigO project that aims at preventing obesity in young populations.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Obesidad , Humanos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22442, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019428

RESUMEN

Delivery methods during childbirth and their related gut microbiota profiles have important impacts on health later in life, they can contribute to the development of diseases such as obesity, whose highest prevalence rate is found among the Mexican child population. Coincidentally, Mexico has one of the highest global average annual rate increase in cesarean births (C-section). Since Mexico leads the world in childhood obesity, studying the relationship between childbirth delivery methods and gut microbiota profiles in this vulnerable population may be used to identify early risk factors for obesity in other developed and developing countries. The objective of this study is to determine the association between child delivery method and gut microbiota profiles in healthy Mexican newborns.Fecal samples of 57 term infants who participated in a randomized clinical trial in 2013 to study the safety of Agave fructans in newborns, were used in this study. DNA samples were extracted and used to characterize the microbiota composition using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The samples were further divided based on childbirth delivery method, as well as early diet. Gut microbiota profiles were determined and analyzed using cluster analysis followed by multiple correspondence analysis.An unusual high abundance of Proteobacteria was found in the gut microbiota of all Mexican infants studied, regardless of delivery method. Feces from infants born by C-section had low levels of Bacteroidetes, high levels of Firmicutes, especially Clostridium and Enterococcus, and a strikingly high ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F:B). Profiles enriched in Bacteroidetes and low F:B ratios, were strongly associated with vaginal delivery.The profile of gut microbiota associated with feces from Mexican infants born by C-section, may be added to the list of boosting factors for the worrying obesity epidemic in Mexico.


Asunto(s)
Cesárea/estadística & datos numéricos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidad/epidemiología , Cesárea/efectos adversos , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240034, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064722

RESUMEN

The influence of the health-related behavior of one spouse on that of the other is an important research question with public policy reprecussions. Yet, we are unaware of any previous study, which considered endogeneity problems between couples. Moreover, only a few studies considered ethnic origin differences among couples. Based on the 2016 wave of the Israeli longitudinal survey, we observe the cross-sectional correlation between the married couples' BMI, age, and accumulated wealth. The BMI (= [Formula: see text]) is a conventional measure of obesity, where BMI≥25 is considered overweight. Using a 3SLS methodology (in an effort to correct the endogeneity problem associated with BMI couples), the analysis tests the mutual obesity hypothesis among married couples. This hypothesis states that the BMI of the male influences that of a female and vice versa. Results indicate that on the one hand, a one-percent BMI increase among Arab Israeli males is associated with a projected 0.969 percent BMI increase among Arab Israeli females (p = 0.017); and in the case that an Arab Israeli male suffers from overweight, the projected probability of his Arab Israeli female counterpart to suffer from overweight as well rises (p = 0.050). On the other hand, one cannot reject the null hypothesis that projected BMI of the Arab Israeli male is unaffected by that of his Arab Israeli female counterpart (p = 0.907 and p = 0.853). As for the Jewish Israeli population, in the case that the 3SLS methodology is employed, so that the endogeneity problem among couples is considered, a one-percent BMI increase among Jewish Israeli females is associated with a projected 0.639 percent BMI increase among Jewish Israeli males (p = 0.091). Unlike Arab Israeli couples, no support is found to indicate the influence in the other direction, namely, the BMI of the male influences that of the female spouse. Research findings may thus be of relevance to public health and policy planners. Two limitations of this research lie in: 1) the self-reported BMI (which might be different from the measured BMI); and 2) missing confounders, such as regional dummies, which are not available in the dataset.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Obesidad/epidemiología , Adulto , Árabes , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiología , Judíos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Matrimonio , Sobrepeso/epidemiología
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239921, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108379

RESUMEN

Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood affects later blood pressure and precursors of atherosclerosis, but its influence on arterial stiffness is unexplored. This study determines whether exposure to improved nutrition during early life influences Augmentation index (AI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in mid-adulthood. We included 1221 adults (37-54y) who participated in a cluster-randomized nutritional supplementation trial of a protein-energy beverage (Atole), conducted between 1969-1977 in Guatemala. The comparison group received Fresco, a low-calorie protein-free beverage. In 2015-17, we measured anthropometry (weight, height, and waist-to-height ratio); AI and PWV (using carotid-femoral tonometry); blood pressure; fasting plasma glucose and serum lipids; and sociodemographic characteristics. Based on patterns of exposure, we characterized participants as fully, partially or unexposed to the intervention from conception to their second birthday (the 'first 1000 days'). We fit pooled and sex-specific models using intention-to-treat, difference-in-difference regression analysis to test whether exposure to the supplement in the first 1000 days was associated with AI and PWV in adulthood adjusting for basal and current sociodemographic variables and current life-style and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Prevalence of obesity in men and women was 39.6% and 19.6%, and prevalence of hypertension was 44.0% and 36.0%, respectively. Women had higher AI (34.4±9.6%) compared to men (23.0± 9.8%), but had similar PWV (7.60±1.13 m/s and 7.60±1.31, respectively). AI did not differ significantly across intervention groups. PWV was lower in individuals with full exposure to the supplement during the first 1000 days (-0.39m/s, 95% CI -0.87, 0.09; p = 0.1) compared to unexposed individuals. This difference was similar after adjusting for cardio-metabolic risk factors (-0.45m/s; 95%C-0.93, 0.01; p = 0.06). Exposure to improved nutrition during the first 1000 days was marginally associated with lower PWV, but not with AI.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Preescolar , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Guatemala/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estado Nutricional , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
18.
Clin Obes ; 10(6): e12416, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009706

RESUMEN

This study aim to assess changes in obesity and activity patterns among youths in China during the COVID-19 lockdown. We used the COVID-19 Impact on lifestyle change survey (COINLICS), a national retrospective survey distributed via social media platforms in early May 2020 where more than 10 000 youth participants in China have voluntarily reported their basic sociodemographic information, weight status, and routine lifestyles in the months before and during COVID-19 lockdown. The extended IOTF and WHO standards were used to define overweight and obesity of the participants. We used paired t-tests or χ2 tests and non-parametric methods to evaluate the significance of differences in weight-related outcomes and lifestyles across education levels, between sexes, and before and during COVID-19 lockdown. The mean body mass index of all participating youths has significantly increased (21.8-22.6) and in all education subgroups during COVID-19 lockdown. Increases also occurred in the prevalence of overweight/obesity (21.3%-25.1%, P < .001) and obesity (10.5% to 12.9%, P < .001) in overall youths, especially in high school and undergraduate students. Their activity patterns had also significantly changed, including the decreased frequency of engaging in active transport, moderate-/vigorous-intensity housework, leisure-time moderate-/vigorous-intensity physical activity, and leisure-time walking, and the increased sedentary, sleeping, and screen time. Our findings would inform policy-makers and clinical practitioners of these changes in time, for better policy making and clinical practice. School administrators should also be informed of these changes, so in-class and/or extracurricular physical activity programs could be designed to counteract them.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Estilo de Vida , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Masa Corporal , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tiempo de Pantalla , Conducta Sedentaria , Sueño , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22883, 2020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126337

RESUMEN

People living in the same area are more likely to experience similar socioeconomic characteristics, which leads to cluster effect and influences the generalizability of data regarding metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, previous studies did not consider or adjust for the cluster effect of living circumstances. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MetS and associated lifestyle factors in Chinese adults 18 to 80 years of age, using multi-level generalized estimation equation (GEE).The participants came from a large-scale cross-sectional population survey. A total of 28,062 participants underwent all the blood tests. Participants meeting at least 3 of the 5 diagnostic criteria were defined as having MetS. Multi-level GEE was used to evaluate the relationship between MetS and lifestyle covariates to control the cluster effect of living circumstances. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of each relationship.A total of 65.70% of the participants had at least 1 clinical feature of MetS, and 2926 were diagnosed with MetS (prevalence 14.03%). 32.74%, 18.93%, 10.25%, 3.25%, and 0.53% of the participants had 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 components, respectively. The prevalence of MetS in men (12.31%) was lower than in women (15.57%). After controlling for the cluster effect of living circumstances, many demographic and lifestyle characteristics were associated with MetS. Overweight (OR = 1.670, 95%CI: 1.600-1.743), obesity (OR = 2.287, 95% CI: 2.136-2.449), current alcohol consumption (OR = 1.053, 95% CI: 1.020-1.086), physical labor (OR=1.070, 95% CI: 1.040-1.101), a high-salt diet (OR=1.040, 95% CI: 1.009-1.071), hyperuricemia (OR=1.264, 95% CI: 1.215-1.316), short sleep duration (OR=1.032, 95% CI: 1.009-1.055), and a family history of cardiovascular disease (OR=1.065, 95% CI: 1.019-1.113), or cerebrovascular disease (OR=1.055, 95% CI: 1.007-1.104) increased the risk of MetS. The risk of MetS increased 6.9% (OR = 1.069, 95% CI: 1.053-1.085) with each 5% increase in body fat percentage.MetS has become a serious public health challenge in China. Many lifestyle factors have been found to be closely associated with MetS, including obesity, a high-salt diet, alcohol consumption, and short sleep duration. Therefore, changes in lifestyle are very important for adults to reduce the prevalence of MetS.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólico , Obesidad/epidemiología , Servicios Preventivos de Salud , Condiciones Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , China/epidemiología , Análisis por Conglomerados , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/sangre , Síndrome Metabólico/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Síndrome Metabólico/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Datos de Salud Generados por el Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0232810, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125366

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: We analyzed the nationwide longitudinal data to explore body mass index (BMI) growth trajectories and the time of adiposity rebound (AR). METHODS: Personal data of 84,005 subjects born between 2008 and 2012 were obtained from infant health check-ups which were performed at 5, 11, 21, 33, 45, 57, and 69 months. BMI trajectories of each subject were made according to sex and the timing of AR, which was defined as the lowest BMI occurred. Subjects were divided according to birth weight and AR timing as follows: very low birth weight (VLBW), 0.5 kg ≤ Bwt ≤ 1.5 kg; low birth weight (LBW), 1.5 kg < Bwt ≤ 2.5 kg; non-LBW, 2.5 kg < Bwt ≤ 5.0 kg; very early AR, before 45 months; early AR, at 57 months; and moderate-to-late AR, not until 69 months. MAIN RESULTS: Median time point of minimum BMI was 45 months, and the prevalence rates of very early, early, and moderate-to-late AR were 63.0%, 16.6%, and 20.4%, respectively. BMI at the age of 57 months showed a strong correlation with AR timing after controlling for birth weight (P < 0.001). Sugar-sweetened beverage intake at 21 months (P = 0.02) and no-exercise habit at 57 months (P < 0.001) showed correlations with early AR. When VLBW and LBW subjects were analyzed, BMI at 57 months and breastfeeding at 11 months were correlated with rapid weight gain during the first 5 months (both P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Based on this first longitudinal study, the majority of children showed AR before 57 months and the degree of obesity at the age of 57 months had a close correlation with early AR or rapid weight gain during infancy.


Asunto(s)
Adiposidad , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso al Nacer , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil , Preescolar , Bases de Datos Factuales , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Obesidad/epidemiología , República de Corea/epidemiología , Aumento de Peso
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