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1.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167515

RESUMEN

Past public health crises (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, opioids, cholera, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lead, pollution, venereal disease, even coronavirus (COVID-19) have been met with interventions targeted both at the individual and all of society. While the healthcare community is very aware that the global pandemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has its origins in our Western ultraprocessed food diet, society has been slow to initiate any interventions other than public education, which has been ineffective, in part due to food industry interference. This article provides the rationale for such public health interventions, by compiling the evidence that added sugar, and by proxy the ultraprocessed food category, meets the four criteria set by the public health community as necessary and sufficient for regulation-abuse, toxicity, ubiquity, and externalities (How does your consumption affect me?). To their credit, some countries have recently heeded this science and have instituted sugar taxation policies to help ameliorate NCDs within their borders. This article also supplies scientific counters to food industry talking points, and sample intervention strategies, in order to guide both scientists and policy makers in instituting further appropriate public health measures to quell this pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva/prevención & control , Dieta , Azúcares de la Dieta/efectos adversos , Comida Rápida/efectos adversos , Industria de Alimentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Conducta Adictiva/etiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Conducta Alimentaria , Manipulación de Alimentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Obesidad/etiología , Obesidad/prevención & control , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Política Pública , Control Social Formal , Impuestos
2.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 110, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146300

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of school-based interventions to prevent obesity conducted in Latin America and provide suggestions for future prevention efforts in countries of the region. METHODS: Articles published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese between 2000 and 2017 were searched in four online databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, LILACS, and REDALYC). Inclusion criteria were: studies targeting school-aged children and adolescents (6-18 years old), focusing on preventing obesity in a Latin American country using at least one school-based component, reporting at least one obesity-related outcome, comprising controlled or before-and-after design, and including information on intervention components and/or process. RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Most effective interventions (n = 3) had moderate quality and included multi-component school-based programs to promote health education and parental involvement focused on healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. These studies also presented a better study designs, few limitations for execution, and a minimum duration of six months. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence-based prevention experiences are important guides for future strategies implemented in the region. Alongside gender differences, an adequate duration, and the combined use of quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods, evidence-based prevention should be considered to provide a clearer and deeper understanding of the true effects of school-based interventions.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Obesidad/prevención & control , Adolescente , Brasil , Niño , Humanos , América Latina , Servicios de Salud Escolar
3.
Br J Nurs ; 29(18): 1082-1083, 2020 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035084

RESUMEN

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses the Prime Minister's personal campaign to reduce the impact of COVID-19 by addressing rising levels of obesity in society.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Gobierno , Humanos , Pandemias , Políticas , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiología
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012415, 2020 09 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914461

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are increasing worldwide and are considered to be a major public health issue of the 21st century. Introducing taxation of the fat content in foods is considered a potentially powerful policy tool to reduce consumption of foods high in fat or saturated fat, or both. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of taxation of the fat content in food on consumption of total fat and saturated fat, energy intake, overweight, obesity, and other adverse health outcomes in the general population. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase, and 15 other databases and trial registers on 12 September 2019. We handsearched the reference lists of all records of included studies, searched websites of international organizations and institutions (14 October 2019), and contacted review advisory group members to identify planned, ongoing, or unpublished studies (26 February 2020). SELECTION CRITERIA: In line with Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) criteria, we included the following study types: randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomized controlled trials (cRCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (nRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, and interrupted time series studies. We included studies that evaluated the effects of taxes on the fat content in foods. Such a tax could be expressed as sales, excise, or special value added tax (VAT) on the final product or an intermediary product. Eligible interventions were taxation at any level, with no restriction on the duration or the implementation level (i.e. local, regional, national, or multinational). Eligible study populations were children (zero to 17 years) and adults (18 years or older) from any country and setting. We excluded studies that focused on specific subgroups only (e.g. people receiving pharmaceutical intervention; people undergoing a surgical intervention; ill people who are overweight or obese as a side effect, such as those with thyroiditis and depression; and people with chronic illness). Primary outcomes were total fat consumption, consumption of saturated fat, energy intake through fat, energy intake through saturated fat, total energy intake, and incidence/prevalence of overweight or obesity. We did not exclude studies based on country, setting, comparison, or population. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods for all phases of the review. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the criteria of Cochrane's 'Risk of bias' tool and the EPOC Group's guidance. Results of the review are summarized narratively and the certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. These steps were done by two review authors, independently. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 23,281 records from searching electronic databases and 1173 records from other sources, leading to a total of 24,454 records. Two studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Both included studies investigated the effect the Danish tax on saturated fat contained in selected food items between 2011 and 2012. Both studies used an interrupted time series design. Neither included study had a parallel control group from another geographic area. The included studies investigated an unbalanced panel of approximately 2000 households in Denmark and the sales data from a specific Danish supermarket chain (1293 stores). Therefore, the included studies did not address individual participants, and no restriction regarding age, sex, and socioeconomic characteristics were defined. We judged the overall risk of bias of the two included studies as unclear. For the outcome total consumption of fat, a reduction of 41.8 grams per week per person in a household (P < 0.001) was estimated. For the consumption of saturated fat, one study reported a reduction of 4.2% from minced beef sales, a reduction of 5.8% from cream sales, and an increase of 0.5% to sour cream sales (no measures of statistical precision were reported for these estimates). These estimates are based on a restricted number of food types and derived from sales data; they do not measure individual intake. Moreover, these estimates do not account for other relevant sources of fat intake (e.g. packaged or processed food) or other food outlets (e.g. restaurants or cafeterias); hence, we judged the evidence on the effect of taxation on total fat consumption or saturated fat consumption to be very uncertain. We did not identify evidence on the effect of the intervention on energy intake or the incidence or prevalence of overweight or obesity. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Given the very low quality of the evidence currently available, we are unable to reliably establish whether a tax on total fat or saturated fat is effective or ineffective in reducing consumption of total fat or saturated fat. There is currently no evidence on the effect of a tax on total fat or saturated fat on total energy intake or energy intake through saturated fat or total fat, or preventing the incidence or reducing the prevalence of overweight or obesity.


Asunto(s)
Grasas de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Obesidad/prevención & control , Impuestos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Dinamarca , Humanos , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Sobrepeso/prevención & control
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237380, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986698

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a measurement tool to capture local public health department (LHD) organizational characteristics that align with implementation of equity-oriented practice, which may be used to gauge progress in building public health structures and functions that address the needs of vulnerable populations and reduce health inequities. METHODS: We developed and tested a measurement tool, with practitioner input, based on an implementation science framework and informed by previous work defining public health essential services and practice recommendations for health equity. Measures assessed types of vulnerable populations served by the LHD, organizational climate, and four equity-oriented practice areas, including: assessment and planning, monitoring and analysis, leadership support, and obesity prevention. We also assessed opportunities for capacity building by identifying training needs of practitioners. Primary data were collected from Missouri local health department practitioners (n = 92, 80% response rate) via an online questionnaire, with a subset of the sample providing data for test-retest reliability. RESULTS: Measures of equity-oriented implementation climate indicated areas of variability with respect to strengths and gaps across LHDs. While implementation climate was strong with respect to perceived importance (86%), a substantial proportion of LHDs cited concern over other priorities conflicting with equity-oriented implementation (32%). Likewise, a strong internal push (67%) was often accompanied by limited external political (25%) and community support (40%). Implementation climate measures generally had good to excellent reliability and were significantly associated with areas of equity-oriented practice. Frequently identified (>70%) training needs included improving skills in applying frameworks, assessment methods, and evaluating collaborations around equity. CONCLUSION: We developed a theory-based, practitioner-informed questionnaire to assess capacity for equity-oriented practice and identify opportunities for capacity building in local public health departments to engage in effective change toward health equity.


Asunto(s)
Creación de Capacidad , Equidad en Salud , Gobierno Local , Obesidad/prevención & control , Administración en Salud Pública/métodos , Salud Pública/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Missouri , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992623

RESUMEN

The world is currently struggling to face the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), and many countries have imposed lockdowns and recommended quarantine to limit both the spread of the virus and overwhelming demands for medical care. Direct implications include the disruption of work routines, boredom, depression, increased calorie consumption, and other similar harmful effects. The present narrative review article briefly analyzes the preliminary effects of the quarantine lifestyle from the standpoint of dietary habits. In six different databases, we searched for original articles up to 10 August 2020, assessing eating habits among populations during the COVID-19 pandemic, and recorded any change in the intake of major food categories, as well as changes in body weight. The research strategy yielded 364 articles, from which we selected 12 articles that fitted our goal. Our preliminary findings revealed a sharp rise of carbohydrates sources consumption, especially those with a high glycemic index (i.e., homemade pizza, bread, cake, and pastries), as well as more frequent snacks. A high consumption of fruits and vegetables, and protein sources, particularly pulses, was also recorded, although there was no clear peak of increase in the latter. Data concerning the consumption of junk foods lacked consistency, while there was a decreased alcohol intake and fresh fish/seafood consumption. As a possible connection, people gained body weight. Therefore, in the realistic perspective of a continuing global health emergency situation, timely preventive measures are needed to counteract obesity-related behaviors in the long-term, so as to prevent further health complications.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Conducta Alimentaria , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Humanos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/prevención & control , Salud Pública
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239402, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997681

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that early life is critical for determining future obesity risk. A sharper policy focus on pregnancy and early childhood could help improve obesity prevention efforts. This study aimed to systematically identify and categorise policy levers used in England with potential to influence early life course (pregnancy, 0-5 years) and identify how these interface with energy balance behaviours. The objective is to identify gaps and where further policy actions could most effectively focus. METHODS: A behavioural science approach was taken using the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) model and Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) framework. The key determinants of energy balance in the early years were identified from the Foresight Systems Map. Policy actions were scoped systematically from available literature, including any health or non-health policies which could impact on energy balance behaviours. Foresight variables and policy actions were considered in terms of COM-B and the BCW to determine approaches likely to be effective for obesity prevention and treatment. Existing policies were overlaid across the map of key risk factors to identify gaps in obesity prevention and treatment provision. RESULTS: A wide range of policy actions were identified (n = 115) to address obesity-relevant risk factors. These were most commonly educational or guidelines relating to environmental restructuring (i.e. changing the physical or social context). Scope for strengthening policies relating to the food system (e.g. the market price of food) and psychological factors contributing to obesity were identified. Policies acted via all aspects of the COM-B model, but there was scope for improving policies to increase capability through skills acquisition and both reflective and automatic motivation. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial policy activity to address early years obesity but much is focused on education. Scope exists to strengthen actions relating to upstream policies which act on food systems and those targeting psychological factors contributing to obesity risk.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Obesidad/prevención & control , Políticas , Ciencias de la Conducta , Inglaterra , Humanos , Motivación , Obesidad/psicología
9.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1804700, 2020 12 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835634

RESUMEN

Initial observations showed that people with chronic noncommunicable diseases were at heightened risk of severe COVID-19 and adverse outcomes. Subsequently, data from various countries have revealed obesity as an independent and significant factor, with people who are overweight/have obesity significantly more likely to be hospitalized, require ICU treatment, and to die. Notably, this additional risk applies to younger people relative to the general COVID-19 risk profile. This paper sets out the evidence of greater risk of poor COVID outcomes for people who are overweight/have obesity, indication of reduced treatment and support for obesity self-management where it existed prior to COVID-19, and highlights the dearth of specific guidance and measures to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19 upon people with obesity. We identify the health, social and economic impacts that this specific vulnerability creates relative to COVID-19 outcomes. Reduced national and global pandemic resilience due to high obesity prevalence should spur governments and funders to provide urgent specific protection and support for people with overweight/obesity, and to commission rapid research to identify effective prevention and reduction measures. We set out priorities for action on obesity to begin compensating for years of underfunding and inadequate policy attention in the face of escalating obesity across countries of all income groups and world regions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Comorbilidad , Salud Global , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/prevención & control , Obesidad/terapia , Pandemias , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21136, 2020 Aug 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846753

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to conduct a systematic review to comprehensively evaluate the relationship between pistachio intake and obesity. METHODS: We searched 6 databases and acquired parameters from randomized controlled trials regarding obesity, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. A fixed-effect model was applied to the meta-analysis for the weighted mean difference (WMD) between a diet with pistachios and a control diet. RESULTS: Eleven trials including a total of 1593 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Compared to the group on a control diet, the pistachio diet group showed lower BMI values (WMD: -0.18 kg/m; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.26, -0.11 kg/m; I = 29.8%) and no differences in body weight (WMD: -0.22 kg; 95% CI: -0.50, 0.07 kg; I = 0.0%) or waist circumference (WMD: 0.76 cm; 95% CI: -0.11, 1.63 cm; I = 7.0%). CONCLUSION: A diet with pistachios reduced BMI and had no significant effects on body weight and waist circumference.


Asunto(s)
Adiposidad , Dieta , Nueces , Obesidad/prevención & control , Pistacia , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237720, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834011

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity are major public health challenges among reproductive-age women of lower- and middle-income countries (including Tanzania). In those settings, obesogenic factors (attributes that promote excessive body weight gain) are increasing in the context of an existing high burden of undernutrition. The present study investigated factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity among reproductive age women in Tanzania. METHODS: This study used 2015-16 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 11735). To account for the hierarchical nature of the data (i.e., reproductive age women nested within clusters), multilevel multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between individual-level (socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural) and community-level factors with underweight, overweight, and obesity. RESULTS: Reproductive age women who were informally employed (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64, 0.96), those who were currently married (RRR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.82) and those who used contraceptives (RRR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.90) were less likely to be underweight. Reproductive age women who attained secondary or higher education (RRR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.96), those who resided in wealthier households (RRR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.78, 3.03) and those who watched the television (RRR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.50) were more likely to be overweight. The risk of experiencing obesity was higher among reproductive age women who attained secondary or higher education (RRR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.61), those who were formally employed (RRR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.98), those who resided in wealthier households (RRR = 4.77; 95% CI: 3.03, 7.50), those who used alcohol (RRR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.82) and/or watched the television (RRR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.35, 2.13). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that relevant government jurisdictions need to identify, promote, and implement evidence-based interventions that can simultaneously address underweight and overweight/obesity among reproductive age women in Tanzania.


Asunto(s)
Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Salud Reproductiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Delgadez/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/organización & administración , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estado Nutricional/fisiología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Obesidad/prevención & control , Sobrepeso/fisiopatología , Sobrepeso/prevención & control , Prevalencia , Servicios Preventivos de Salud/organización & administración , Servicios Preventivos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Reproducción/fisiología , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Delgadez/fisiopatología , Delgadez/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236716, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745125

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess network-based weight loss interventions in the Chinese setting using agent-based simulation. METHODS: An agent-based model incorporating social, environmental and personal influence is developed to simulate the obesity epidemic through an interconnected social network among a population of 2197 individuals from the nationally representative survey. Model parameters are collected from literature and existing database. To ensure the robustness of our findings, the model is validated against empirical observations and sensitivity analyses are performed on calibrated parameters. RESULTS: When compared with the baseline model, significant weight difference is detected using paired samples t tests for network-based intervention strategies (p<0.05) but no difference is observed for the two conventional intervention strategies including choosing random or high-risk individuals (p>0.05). Targeting the most connected individuals minimizes the average population weight, average BMI, and generates a reduction of 2.70% and 1.38% in overweight and obesity prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: The simulations shows that targeting individuals on the basis of their social network attributes outperforms conventional targeting strategies. Future work needs to focus on how to further leverage social networks to curb obesity prevalence and enhance interventions for other chronic conditions using agent-based simulation.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad , Análisis de Sistemas , Pérdida de Peso , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Simulación por Computador , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Intervención basada en la Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/prevención & control , Sobrepeso , Red Social
17.
Am J Public Health ; 110(10): 1564-1566, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816547

RESUMEN

Objectives. To evaluate the statewide implementation of childhood fitness assessment and reporting in Georgia.Methods. We collected survey data from 1683 (919 valid responses from a random-digit-dialed survey and 764 valid responses from a Qualtrics panel) parents of public school students in Georgia in 2018.Results. Most parents reported that their child participated in fitness assessments at school, yet only 31% reported receiving results. If a child was identified as needing improvement, parents were significantly more likely to change the diet and exercise of both the child and the family.Conclusions. A state-level mandatory fitness assessment for children may be successful in state-level surveillance of fitness levels; parental awareness of the policy, receipt of the fitness assessment information, and action on receiving the screening information require more efforts in implementation.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Programas Obligatorios , Padres/psicología , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Instituciones Académicas , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Georgia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Obligatorios/legislación & jurisprudencia , Programas Obligatorios/organización & administración , Obesidad/prevención & control , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Life Sci ; 260: 118339, 2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841660

RESUMEN

AIMS: To design and screen a potent GLP-1/GIP/Gcg receptors triagonist with therapeutic potential in rodent animals with diabetes and obesity. MAIN METHODS: First, we obtained a 12-mer dual GIP/Gcg receptor agonist from a large combinatorial peptide library via high-throughput screening technique and then fused to the Exendin (9-39) to generate a potent GLP-1/GIP/Gcg triagonist. Further site fatty chain modification was performed to improve the druggability via enhancing in vivo stability and cyclic half-life. In vitro signaling and functional assays in cell lines expressing each receptor and in vivo efficacy evaluation in rodent model animals with hyperglycemia and obesity were all carefully performed. KEY FINDINGS: We screened and obtained a potent GLP-1/GIP/Gcg triagonist, termed XFL0, which promotes in vitro GLP-1, GIP, Gcg receptor activation comparable to native GLP-1, GIP and glucagon, respectively. Site-specific fatty acid modification significantly enhanced plasma stability of XFL0 and exhibited no obvious impact on receptor activation. The selected XFL0 conjugates termed XFL6, showed glucose-dependent insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance by acting on all GLP-1, GIP and Gcg receptors in gene-deficient mice of which the effects were all significantly greater than any single receptor agonist. After chronic treatment in rodent animals with diabetes and obesity, XFL6 potently decreased body weight and food intake, ameliorated the hyperglycemia and hemoglobin A1c levels as well as the lipid metabolism and diabetic nephropathy related disorders. SIGNIFICANCE: XFL6, as a novel GLP-1/GIP/Gcg receptor triagonist, held potential to deliver outstanding improvement in correcting hyperglycemia, obesity and diabetic nephropathy.


Asunto(s)
Nefropatías Diabéticas/prevención & control , Diseño de Fármacos , Polipéptido Inhibidor Gástrico/agonistas , Receptor del Péptido 1 Similar al Glucagón/agonistas , Glucagón/agonistas , Hiperglucemia/prevención & control , Obesidad/prevención & control , Animales , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatología , Nefropatías Diabéticas/etiología , Nefropatías Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatías Diabéticas/patología , Polipéptido Inhibidor Gástrico/fisiología , Glucagón/fisiología , Receptor del Péptido 1 Similar al Glucagón/fisiología , Hiperglucemia/etiología , Hiperglucemia/metabolismo , Hiperglucemia/patología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Noqueados , Obesidad/etiología , Obesidad/metabolismo , Obesidad/patología
19.
Life Sci ; 261: 118292, 2020 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822715

RESUMEN

AIMS: Probiotics and their metabolites (SCFA) can regulate energy homeostasis. The present study thus evaluates the synergistic effect of probiotic Enterococcus faecalis AG5 on HFD induced obesity and the role of propionic acid (PA) in apoptosis induction of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n = 24) were used to develop an HFD induced obesity model for 24 weeks. The effect of the orally administered probiotic AG5 (18th-24th weeks, 1 × 109 CFU/ml) was evaluated using physiological, biochemical, anthropometry, histopathological and serological analyses. Apoptosis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte was assessed using flow cytometry, protein expression of PPARγ, 5-LOX, NF-κB, p-AKT, caspase 10 and detection of caspase 3/7 by Immunofluorescence confirmed the apoptosis induced by PA. KEY FINDINGS: Probiotic AG5 significantly reduced body weight, BMI, serum cholesterol, triglycerides (p < 0.05) and improved HDL, insulin and leptin but lowered LDL and VLDL (p > 0.05). An inflammatory response was reduced as evident by TNF-α IHC. AG5 reduced adipocyte hypertrophy and fatty acid accumulation. Flow cytometry confirmed late apoptosis in PA-AG5 and standard PA treated 3T3-L1 cells. 5-LOX inhibition is associated with apoptosis induction, and increased caspase 1p 10 is related to cell death initiation. The study initially showed a low PPARγ activity inhibiting 5-LOX which may relate to adipose apoptosis. Finally caspase 3/7 detection using immunofluorescence proved the role of PA in adipocyte apoptosis. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study is a novel approach towards obesity mitigation involving adipocyte apoptosis. The role of SCFA in adipocyte apoptosis is very limited which can prove to be novel therapeutic approach in the future.


Asunto(s)
Enterococcus faecalis , Obesidad/prevención & control , Probióticos/administración & dosificación , Propionatos/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipocitos/metabolismo , Animales , Apoptosis/fisiología , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Citometría de Flujo , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente , Masculino , Ratones , Probióticos/metabolismo , Probióticos/farmacología , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236741, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730300

RESUMEN

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists such as dioxin have been associated with obesity and the development of diabetes. Whole-body Ahr knockout mice on high-fat diet (HFD) have been shown to resist obesity and hepatic steatosis. Tissue-specific knockout of Ahr in mature adipocytes via adiponectin-Cre exacerbates obesity while knockout in liver increases steatosis without having significant effects on obesity. Our previous studies demonstrated that treatment of subcutaneous preadipocytes with exogenous or endogenous AHR agonists disrupts maturation into functional adipocytes in vitro. Here, we used platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (Pdgfrα)-Cre mice, a Cre model previously established to knock out genes in preadipocyte lineages and other cell types, but not liver cells, to further define AHR's role in obesity. We demonstrate that Pdgfrα-Cre Ahr-floxed (Ahrfl/fl) knockout mice are protected from HFD-induced obesity compared to non-knockout Ahrfl/fl mice (control mice). The Pdgfrα-Cre Ahrfl/fl knockout mice were also protected from increased adiposity, enlargement of adipocyte size, and liver steatosis while on the HFD compared to control mice. On a regular control diet, knockout and non-knockout mice showed no differences in weight gain, indicating the protective phenotype arises only when animals are challenged by a HFD. At the cellular level, cultured cells from brown adipose tissue (BAT) of Pdgfrα-Cre Ahrfl/fl mice were more responsive than cells from controls to transcriptional activation of the thermogenic uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) gene by norepinephrine, suggesting an ability to burn more energy under certain conditions. Collectively, our results show that knockout of Ahr mediated by Pdgfrα-Cre is protective against diet-induced obesity and suggest a mechanism by which enhanced UCP1 activity within BAT might confer these effects.


Asunto(s)
Factores de Transcripción con Motivo Hélice-Asa-Hélice Básico/fisiología , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Hígado Graso/prevención & control , Integrasas/metabolismo , Obesidad/prevención & control , Receptor alfa de Factor de Crecimiento Derivado de Plaquetas/fisiología , Receptores de Hidrocarburo de Aril/fisiología , Adiposidad , Animales , Metabolismo Energético , Hígado Graso/etiología , Hígado Graso/patología , Femenino , Resistencia a la Insulina , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Noqueados , Obesidad/etiología , Obesidad/patología , Termogénesis
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