Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20.762
Filtrar
1.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(4 (Supple-4)): S49-S56, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712409

RESUMEN

Sustainable Developmental Goals (SDGs) were introduced by the United Nations to ensure the sustainable progress of mankind through various domains. Pakistan, a low-middle-income country, faces many challenges in achieving SDGs. Artificial Intelligence is a rapidly evolving technology presenting significant importance in achieving SDGs. Therefore, this narrative review aimed to evaluate the artificial intelligence technologies that have been utilized globally and nationally which can be implemented in Pakistan focusing on Goal 3 (Good Health and Well-being) of SDGs. AI has been utilized primarily in high-income countries aiming to improve healthcare, thereby progressing towards achieving different targets of Goal 3 of SDGs. Pakistan lacks such initiatives with modest to no improvement across different SDGs. Therefore, Pakistan can adapt initiatives undertaken by resourceful countries to achieve its own SDGs.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Desarrollo Sostenible , Pakistán , Humanos , Objetivos
3.
Cairo; World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean; 2024-05.
en Inglés | WHO IRIS | ID: who-376750

RESUMEN

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development includes a vision of healthy lives and well-being for all at all ages. This major report provides an update on progress towards the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region. It presents regional trends between 2010 and 2022 for 50 health-related SDG indicators using available data from WHO and estimates from other United Nations agencies. The report reveals some successes at the country level amid a marked slowdown regionally with setbacks across indicators on health health risks and determinants and access to services. We are at the halfway point for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: to reverse current trends and ensure the health and well-being of our population we must take bold steps now.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Sostenible , Objetivos , Pobreza , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Trastornos Nutricionales , Hambre , Promoción de la Salud , Agricultura , Educación , Equidad de Género , Abastecimiento de Agua , Saneamiento , Derecho al Trabajo , Desarrollo Económico , Justicia Social , Región Mediterránea
4.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 23(5): 192-198, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709945

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Sport psychology is the scientific study and application of psychological principles to enhance performance and well-being in sport, exercise, and physical activity. It has numerous applications to sports medicine, as psychological factors are associated with sport injury risk, recovery, successful return to play, and overall health. This article addresses how sport psychology is important to sports medicine and what applied sport psychologists do. We discuss several psychological principles and practices relevant to individual performance and well-being, including goal setting, communication, arousal and performance, imagery/mental rehearsal, attention management, managing psychological distress, and behavioral health. We also discuss principles and practices of sport psychology relevant to team performance, including stages of team development, goal setting, communication, arousal and performance, and behavioral health. Sport psychology and applied sport psychology practitioners can be valued assets to sports medicine teams in supporting individual and team performance and injury recovery.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas , Psicología del Deporte , Medicina Deportiva , Humanos , Traumatismos en Atletas/terapia , Traumatismos en Atletas/psicología , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Objetivos , Comunicación , Nivel de Alerta , Atención , Volver al Deporte
5.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(3): e2984, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706159

RESUMEN

This study examined whether goal-directed treatment leads to improved treatment outcomes for patients with a primary mood or anxiety disorder and whether beneficial outcomes are achieved sooner compared to treatment as usual. In a quasi-experimental controlled study with a nested design, 17 therapists received training in goal-directed treatment and treated 105 patients with anxiety or mood disorders using principles of goal-directed treatment. Treatment results on a generic self-report instrument were compared with two control groups: a historical control group consisting of 16 of the 17 participating therapists, who provided treatment as usual to 97 patients before having received training in goal-directed treatment, and a parallel control group consisting of various therapists, who provided treatment as usual to 105 patients. Symptom reduction on a self-report measure was compared using multilevel analysis. A survival analysis was performed to assess whether a satisfactory end state had been reached sooner after goal-directed treatment. The results of this study show that goal-directed treatment only led to a significantly better overall treatment outcome compared to the parallel treatment as usual group. Furthermore, goal-directed treatment was significantly shorter than both treatment as usual groups. In conclusion, this research suggest that goal-directed treatment led to a similar or better treatment outcome in a shorter amount of time.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad , Objetivos , Trastornos del Humor , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Trastornos de Ansiedad/terapia , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Trastornos del Humor/terapia , Trastornos del Humor/psicología , Adulto , Resultado del Tratamiento , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicoterapia/métodos
6.
Behav Brain Sci ; 47: e68, 2024 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738364

RESUMEN

Natural selection is slow, so behavioral goals must be based on patterns of reward. Addictions are rewarded in the same way as adaptive choice, so they can be distinguished only by their time course. In addition, the reward process is more plastic than is generally recognized, so abstract goals are shaped by the "legibility" of their proxies.


Asunto(s)
Recompensa , Humanos , Conducta de Elección , Factores de Tiempo , Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Objetivos
7.
Behav Brain Sci ; 47: e72, 2024 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738370

RESUMEN

Proxies should not be classified as failures or successes because, in most cases, they are impossible translations of abstract, polysemous goals to supposedly univocal concrete measures. The "success" or "failure" of a proxy does not depend on its actual accuracy as a valid indicator of goal attainment, but on a social system's willingness to maintain an illusion of its accomplishment.


Asunto(s)
Objetivos , Humanos
8.
Behav Brain Sci ; 47: e71, 2024 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738366

RESUMEN

Decision-making heuristics rely on proxies so the elements of heuristics appear to map well to the elements of proxies identified by John et al. However, unlike proxy failure, heuristics do not fail because of feedback. This may be because for successful heuristics the goals of regulators and agents are aligned, but this is not the case for proxy failure.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Objetivos , Heurística , Humanos
9.
Addict Biol ; 29(5): e13393, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706098

RESUMEN

Opioid addiction is a relapsing disorder marked by uncontrolled drug use and reduced interest in normally rewarding activities. The current study investigated the impact of spontaneous withdrawal from chronic morphine exposure on emotional, motivational and cognitive processes involved in regulating the pursuit and consumption of food rewards in male rats. In Experiment 1, rats experiencing acute morphine withdrawal lost weight and displayed somatic signs of drug dependence. However, hedonically driven sucrose consumption was significantly elevated, suggesting intact and potentially heightened reward processing. In Experiment 2, rats undergoing acute morphine withdrawal displayed reduced motivation when performing an effortful response for palatable food reward. Subsequent reward devaluation testing revealed that acute withdrawal disrupted their ability to exert flexible goal-directed control over reward seeking. Specifically, morphine-withdrawn rats were impaired in using current reward value to select actions both when relying on prior action-outcome learning and when given direct feedback about the consequences of their actions. In Experiment 3, rats tested after prolonged morphine withdrawal displayed heightened rather than diminished motivation for food rewards and retained their ability to engage in flexible goal-directed action selection. However, brief re-exposure to morphine was sufficient to impair motivation and disrupt goal-directed action selection, though in this case, rats were only impaired in using reward value to select actions in the presence of morphine-paired context cues and in the absence of response-contingent feedback. We suggest that these opioid-withdrawal induced deficits in motivation and goal-directed control may contribute to addiction by interfering with the pursuit of adaptive alternatives to drug use.


Asunto(s)
Objetivos , Morfina , Motivación , Recompensa , Síndrome de Abstinencia a Sustancias , Animales , Síndrome de Abstinencia a Sustancias/psicología , Motivación/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Morfina/farmacología , Ratas , Dependencia de Morfina/psicología , Narcóticos/farmacología , Condicionamiento Operante/efectos de los fármacos
11.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301414, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578773

RESUMEN

The prioritization of research topics in the health domain is a critical step toward channelling efforts and resources into areas that have received less attention. The objective of this study is to evaluate the implementation of research priorities determined at the national level within Iran for the period spanning five years between 2009 and 2013. We extracted the required data from the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) website. Then we conducted a matching process between the titles of trials registered in the IRCT until December 3rd, 2013, and the list of national health research priorities in the domains of communicable and non-communicable diseases. The latter was compiled and regulated by the Research and Technology Deputy of the Ministry of Health since 2008. Out of the total 5,049 clinical trials registered in IRCT, 92.3% were carried out within the domain of non-communicable diseases, while 6.1% pertained to the field of communicable diseases and the remaining 1.3% in other fields. 56.4% of the clinical trials conducted in the field of communicable diseases and 32.8% of those conducted in the field of non-communicable diseases were consistent with the research priorities determined in these two fields. During the five-year period of the prioritization goal, there was no significant improvement in adherence to the list of priorities compared to the previous five-year period. Furthermore, certain priorities were neglected within both areas during these periods. It is possible to evaluate the effectiveness of research prioritization using the data obtained from the registration centers of clinical trials. Our study has revealed that the list of priorities has not garnered adequate attention from the research community within the country. Hence, remedial measures are imperative to ensure the priorities are given more attention after publication.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Humanos , Irán , Objetivos , Datos de Salud Recolectados Rutinariamente , Sistema de Registros
12.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(4)2024 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38668597

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The rehabilitation medical team is responsible for the therapeutic management of post-stroke patients and, therefore, for the complex therapeutic approach of spasticity. Considering the generous arsenal at our disposal in terms of both pharmacological treatment, through the possibility of administering botulinum toxin to combat spasticity, and in terms of accurate assessment through developed functional scales such as the GAS (Goal Attainment Scale), one of our purposes is to monitor the parameters that influence the achievement of functional goals set by patients together with the medical team in order to render the patients as close as possible to achieving their proposed functional goals, thus enhancing their quality of life. By assessing and establishing statistical and clinical correlations between the GAS and quantifiable parameters related to the affected post-stroke upper limb, namely degree of spasticity, motor control, pain level and evolution of pain under treatment with BoNT-A (abobotulinum toxin A), and patients' overall response to BoNT-A treatment, we aim to quantify the improvement of the therapeutic management of post-stroke patients with spasticity and develop a more personalized and effective approach to their disability and impairment. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: The analysis concluded that there were two independent predictors of the Achieved GAS-T score (the study's endpoint parameter) motor control at any level of the upper limb and number of prior BoNT-A injections. The number of prior BoNT-A injections was an independent predictor of Achieved GAS-T score improvement but had no significant influence over Baseline GAS-T score. Enhancement in proximal and intermediate motor control showed a GAS score improvement of 3.3 points and a 0.93-point GAS score improvement for wrist motor control progress. From a separate viewpoint, patients with motor deficit on the left side have shown significantly greater improvement in Changed GAS-T scores by 2.5 points compared to patients with deficits on the right side; however, we note as a study limitation the fact that there was no statistical analysis over the dominant cerebral hemisphere of each patient. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in the Achieved GAS-T score means better achievement of patients' goals. Thus, after the BoNT- A intervention, at follow-up evaluation, GAS was found to be directly correlated with improvement in motor control of the affected upper limb. Mobility of the corresponding limb was enhanced by pain decrease during p-ROM (passive range of motion) and by amelioration of spasticity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an observational, non-randomized clinical study on 52 stroke patients, a representative sample of patients with post-stroke spasticity and disability from our neurological rehabilitation clinic, who have been treated and undergone a specific rehabilitation program in our tertiary diagnostic and treatment medical center, including BoNT-A focal treatment for spasticity in the affected upper limb. The primary objective of the study was to assess the influence of abobotulinum toxin A treatment on the Goal Attainment Scale. Secondary objectives of the study included the assessment of BoNT-A treatment efficacy on spasticity with the MAS (Modified Ashworth Scale), pain with the NRS (Numerical Rating Scale), and joint passive range of motion (p-ROM), identifying demographic, clinical, and pharmacological factors that influence the response to BoNT-A treatment, as well as to conduct a descriptive and exploratory analysis of the studied variables.


Asunto(s)
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Espasticidad Muscular , Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Espasticidad Muscular/tratamiento farmacológico , Espasticidad Muscular/etiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/tratamiento farmacológico , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Masculino , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular/métodos , Anciano , Resultado del Tratamiento , Fármacos Neuromusculares/uso terapéutico , Extremidad Superior , Objetivos , Calidad de Vida , Adulto
13.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 86(4): 1120-1147, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627277

RESUMEN

Visually searching for a frequently changing target is assumed to be guided by flexible working memory representations of specific features necessary to discriminate targets from distractors. Here, we tested if these representations allow selective suppression or always facilitate perception based on search goals. Participants searched for a target (i.e., a horizontal bar) defined by one of two different negative features (e.g., not red vs. not blue; Experiment 1) or a positive (e.g., blue) versus a negative feature (Experiments 2 and 3). A prompt informed participants about the target identity, and search tasks alternated or repeated randomly. We used different peripheral singleton cues presented at the same (valid condition) or a different (invalid condition) position as the target to examine if negative features were suppressed depending on current instructions. In all experiments, cues with negative features elicited slower search times in valid than invalid trials, indicating suppression. Additionally, suppression of negative color cues tended to be selective when participants searched for the target by different negative features but generalized to negative and non-matching cue colors when switching between positive and negative search criteria was required. Nevertheless, when the same color - red - was used in positive and negative search tasks, red cues captured attention or were suppressed depending on whether red was positive or negative (Experiment 3). Our results suggest that working memory representations flexibly trigger suppression or attentional capture contingent on a task-relevant feature's functional meaning during visual search, but top-down suppression operates at different levels of specificity depending on current task demands.


Asunto(s)
Atención , Percepción de Color , Señales (Psicología) , Objetivos , Memoria a Corto Plazo , Orientación , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos , Tiempo de Reacción , Humanos , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos/fisiología , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Inhibición Psicológica , Discriminación en Psicología
14.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3196, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609363

RESUMEN

The dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) is a key brain region for the expression of spatial memories, such as navigating towards a learned reward location. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a prominent projection target of dHPC and implicated in value-based action selection. Yet, the contents of the dHPC→NAc information stream and their acute role in behavior remain largely unknown. Here, we found that optogenetic stimulation of the dHPC→NAc pathway while mice navigated towards a learned reward location was both necessary and sufficient for spatial memory-related appetitive behaviors. To understand the task-relevant coding properties of individual NAc-projecting hippocampal neurons (dHPC→NAc), we used in vivo dual-color two-photon imaging. In contrast to other dHPC neurons, the dHPC→NAc subpopulation contained more place cells, with enriched spatial tuning properties. This subpopulation also showed enhanced coding of non-spatial task-relevant behaviors such as deceleration and appetitive licking. A generalized linear model revealed enhanced conjunctive coding in dHPC→NAc neurons which improved the identification of the reward zone. We propose that dHPC routes specific reward-related spatial and behavioral state information to guide NAc action selection.


Asunto(s)
Objetivos , Hipocampo , Éteres Fosfolípidos , Animales , Ratones , Conducta Apetitiva , Memoria Espacial
15.
Palliat Med ; 38(4): 457-470, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38634232

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Advance care planning in dementia includes supporting the person and their family to consider important goals of care. International research reports the importance of psycho-social-spiritual aspects towards end of life. AIM: To develop a multidimensional international palliative care goals model in dementia for use in practice. DESIGN: International Delphi study integrating consensus and evidence from a meta-qualitative study. The Delphi panel rated statements about the model on a 5-point agreement scale. The criteria for consensus were pre-specified. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen researchers from eight countries developed an initial model, and 169 candidate panellists were invited to the international online Delphi study. RESULTS: Panellists (107; response 63.3%) resided in 33 countries. The model comprised four main care goals: (1) Comfort ensured; (2) Control over function maintained; (3) Identity protected and personhood respected and (4) Coping with grief and loss-person and caregiver supported. The model reflects how needs and care goals change over time with the progression of dementia, concluding with bereavement support. The first version of the model achieved a consensus after which it was slightly refined based on feedback. We did not achieve a consensus on adding a goal of life prolongation, and on use of the model by people with dementia and family themselves. CONCLUSION: A new palliative care goals model for people with dementia and their families includes relationship aspects for use by professionals and achieved a consensus among a panel with diverse cultural background. The position of life prolongation in relation to palliative care goals needs further research.


Asunto(s)
Planificación Anticipada de Atención , Demencia , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Consenso , Objetivos , Técnica Delphi
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9119, 2024 04 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643224

RESUMEN

In everyday life, we constantly make decisions about actions to be performed subsequently. Research on motor decision making has provided empirical evidence for an influence of decision uncertainty on movement execution in young adults. Further, decision uncertainty was suggested to be increased in older adults due to limited cognitive resources for the integration of information and the prediction of the decision outcomes. However, the influence of cognitive aging on decision uncertainty during motor decision making and movement execution has not been investigated, yet. Thus, in the current study, we presented young and older adults with a motor decision making task, in which participants had to decide on pointing towards one out of five potential targets under varying cognitive demands. Statistical analyses revealed stronger decreases in correctly deciding upon the pointing target, i.e. task performance, from low to higher cognitive demand in older as compared to young adults. Decision confidence also decreased more strongly in older adults with increasing cognitive demand, however, only when collapsing across correct and incorrect decision trials, but not when considering correct decision trials, only. Further, older adults executed reaching movements with longer reaction times and increased path length, though the latter, again, not when considering correct decision trials, only. Last, reaction time and variability in movement execution were both affected by cognitive demand. The outcomes of this study provide a differentiated picture of the distinct and joint effects of aging and cognitive demand during motor decision making.


Asunto(s)
Objetivos , Desempeño Psicomotor , Adulto Joven , Humanos , Anciano , Incertidumbre , Tiempo de Reacción , Movimiento , Cognición , Toma de Decisiones
17.
Implement Sci ; 19(1): 32, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627741

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although the importance of context in implementation science is not disputed, knowledge about the actual impact of external context variables on implementation processes remains rather fragmented. Current frameworks, models, and studies merely describe macro-level barriers and facilitators, without acknowledging their dynamic character and how they impact and steer implementation. Including organizational theories in implementation frameworks could be a way of tackling this problem. In this study, we therefore investigate how organizational theories can contribute to our understanding of the ways in which external context variables shape implementation processes. We use the implementation process of goal-oriented primary care in Belgium as a case. METHODS: A qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured interviews was conducted with actors from a variety of primary care organizations. Data was collected and analyzed with an iterative approach. We assessed the potential of four organizational theories to enrich our understanding of the impact of external context variables on implementation processes. The organizational theories assessed are as follows: institutional theory, resource dependency theory, network theory, and contingency theory. Data analysis was based on a combination of inductive and deductive thematic analysis techniques using NVivo 12. RESULTS: Institutional theory helps to understand mechanisms that steer and facilitate the implementation of goal-oriented care through regulatory and policy measures. For example, the Flemish government issued policy for facilitating more integrated, person-centered care by means of newly created institutions, incentives, expectations, and other regulatory factors. The three other organizational theories describe both counteracting or reinforcing mechanisms. The financial system hampers interprofessional collaboration, which is key for GOC. Networks between primary care providers and health and/or social care organizations on the one hand facilitate GOC, while on the other hand, technology to support interprofessional collaboration is lacking. Contingent variables such as the aging population and increasing workload and complexity within primary care create circumstances in which GOC is presented as a possible answer. CONCLUSIONS: Insights and propositions that derive from organizational theories can be utilized to expand our knowledge on how external context variables affect implementation processes. These insights can be combined with or integrated into existing implementation frameworks and models to increase their explanatory power.


Asunto(s)
Objetivos , Motivación , Humanos , Anciano , Investigación Cualitativa , Tecnología , Atención Dirigida al Paciente
20.
N Engl J Med ; 390(15): 1356-1357, 2024 Apr 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38624029
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...