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6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(34): 1161-1165, 2020 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853186

RESUMEN

In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) set hepatitis elimination targets of 90% reduction in incidence and 65% reduction in mortality worldwide by 2030 (1). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection prevalences are high in Uzbekistan, which lacks funding for meeting WHO's targets. In the absence of large financial donor programs for eliminating HBV and HCV infections, insufficient funding is an important barrier to achieving those targets in Uzbekistan and other low- and middle-income countries. A pilot program using a catalytic funding model, including simplified test-and-treat strategies, was launched in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, in December 2019. Catalytic funding is a mechanism by which the total cost of a program is paid for by multiple funding sources but is begun with upfront capital that is considerably less than the total program cost. Ongoing costs, including those for testing and treatment, are covered by payments from 80% of the enrolled patients, who purchase medications at a small premium that subsidizes the 20% who cannot afford treatment and therefore receive free medication. The 1-year pilot program set a target of testing 250,000 adults for HBV and HCV infection and treating all patients who have active infection, including those who had a positive test result for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and those who had a positive test result for HCV core antigen. During the first 3 months of the program, 24,821 persons were tested for HBV and HCV infections. Among those tested, 1,084 (4.4%) had positive test results for HBsAg, and 1,075 (4.3%) had positive test results for HCV antibody (anti-HCV). Among those infected, 275 (25.4%) initiated treatment for HBV, and 163 (15.2%) initiated treatment for HCV, of whom 86.5% paid for medications and 13.5% received medications at no cost. Early results demonstrate willingness of patients to pay for treatment if costs are low, which can offset elimination costs. However, improvements across the continuum of care are needed to recover the upfront investment. Lessons learned from this program, including the effectiveness of using simplified test-and-treat guidelines, general practitioners in lieu of specialist physicians, and innovative financing to reduce costs, can guide similar initiatives in other countries and help curb the global epidemic of viral hepatitis, especially among low- and middle-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad/economía , Salud Global/economía , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Hepatitis C/prevención & control , Modelos Econométricos , Adulto , Femenino , Objetivos , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto , Prevalencia , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Uzbekistán/epidemiología , Organización Mundial de la Salud
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781751

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, people have reduced the frequency of going out, and need to engage in health behaviors at home. Home-based exercise has aroused people's attention. This paper aims to examine the influencing mechanism of health consciousness on home-based exercise during the COVID-19 pandemic. A questionnaire method was used to select 449 Chinese respondents on an online platform; the questionnaire includes a health consciousness scale, health life goal scale, perceived behavioral control scale, and the home-based exercise scale. A T-test was used to conduct differential analysis. The hierarchical regression analysis method was used to examine the relationship between health consciousness and home-based exercise, and the Hayes' SPSS PROCESS macro was used to test mediating effect. The results show that there are significant differences in home-based exercise with respect to gender, age, and marital status. Health consciousness has a significant positive effect on home-based exercise. Perceived behavioral control acts as the mediator between health consciousness and home-based exercise. Health consciousness can influence home-based exercise through health life goals and perceived behavioral control in turn. This paper takes a home-based exercise survey, and expands the theoretical research of home-based exercise. The findings suggest that people should pay attention to promoting the transformation of health consciousness into home-based exercise. It provides enlightenment for people to adopt health behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Estado de Conciencia , Femenino , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Adulto Joven
11.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 24(3): 353-365, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687778

RESUMEN

This paper presents a case study which aims to establish a relationship between the homogeneity of passing distribution between players of a team and goal attempts in the team sport of association football. We observed data from 10 competitive football matches, involving 10 different professional football teams of different performance levels, competing in the Portuguese League during the 2010/2011 season. Performance data were analysed using the Match Analysis Software Amisco. Shannon's entropy measure was used to quantify the homogeneity of passing distribution within each team. Results suggested the existence of a pattern between an increase in the homogeneity of passing distributions and the attempts to scoring goals in the sample of competitive matches studied. A homogeneous distribution of passes can moderately predict (approximately 45% of accuracy) when a goal attempt will occur within the following minute of an entropy assessment.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético , Procesos de Grupo , Fútbol , Entropía , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal , Estaciones del Año , Programas Informáticos
12.
Nature ; 583(7815): 242-248, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641817

RESUMEN

Enhanced silicate rock weathering (ERW), deployable with croplands, has potential use for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) removal (CDR), which is now necessary to mitigate anthropogenic climate change1. ERW also has possible co-benefits for improved food and soil security, and reduced ocean acidification2-4. Here we use an integrated performance modelling approach to make an initial techno-economic assessment for 2050, quantifying how CDR potential and costs vary among nations in relation to business-as-usual energy policies and policies consistent with limiting future warming to 2 degrees Celsius5. China, India, the USA and Brazil have great potential to help achieve average global CDR goals of 0.5 to 2 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year with extraction costs of approximately US$80-180 per tonne of CO2. These goals and costs are robust, regardless of future energy policies. Deployment within existing croplands offers opportunities to align agriculture and climate policy. However, success will depend upon overcoming political and social inertia to develop regulatory and incentive frameworks. We discuss the challenges and opportunities of ERW deployment, including the potential for excess industrial silicate materials (basalt mine overburden, concrete, and iron and steel slag) to obviate the need for new mining, as well as uncertainties in soil weathering rates and land-ocean transfer of weathered products.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Dióxido de Carbono/aislamiento & purificación , Productos Agrícolas , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Calentamiento Global/prevención & control , Objetivos , Silicatos/química , Atmósfera/química , Brasil , China , Política Ambiental/economía , Política Ambiental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Calentamiento Global/economía , India , Hierro/aislamiento & purificación , Minería , Política , Probabilidad , Silicatos/aislamiento & purificación , Acero/aislamiento & purificación , Temperatura , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos
13.
N C Med J ; 81(4): 242-248, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641457

RESUMEN

Advance care planning (ACP) is associated with benefits for seriously ill patients, caregivers, and clinicians. As ACP usage expands, there should be greater emphasis on supporting an ongoing communication process among patients, families, and clinicians, as well as removing barriers for advance directive document completion and retrieval.


Asunto(s)
Planificación Anticipada de Atención/organización & administración , Objetivos , Directivas Anticipadas , Cuidadores/psicología , Comunicación , Humanos , North Carolina , Relaciones Profesional-Familia , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234697, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603363

RESUMEN

Assisted HIV partner notification services provide a safe and effective way for people living with HIV (PLHIV) to inform their partners about the possibility of exposure and to offer them testing, treatment, and support. This study examined whether or not PLHIV in prison might be willing to participate in assisted HIV partner notification services and their reasons for and against disclosing their HIV-positive status to their partners. PLHIV (n = 150) recruited from Jakarta's two largest all-male prisons completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire collecting demographic and risk behavior data, and attitudes toward HIV disclosure and partner services. Among those who were sexually active and/or injecting drugs before incarceration, two-thirds (66.4%, 91/137) endorsed provider referral as an acceptable way to notify their sex partners, and nearly three quarters (72.4%, 89/123) endorsed provider referral to notify their drug-injecting partners. Only a quarter (25.1%) of participants reported that their main sex partner had ever received an HIV test. Participants with anticipated stigma were less likely to endorse provider referral for sex partners (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.96) and drug-injecting partners (aOR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.00). Relationship closeness was associated with higher odds of endorsing provider referral for drug-injecting partners (aOR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.25, 3.45). Protecting partners from infection and a moral duty to inform were main reasons to disclose, while stigma and privacy concerns were main reasons not to disclose. Most incarcerated PLHIV have at-risk partners in the community who they would be willing to notify if provided with assistance. Assisted partner notification for prison populations offers a promising public health approach to accelerate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of HIV infection in the community, particularly among women.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Prisioneros , Prisiones , Parejas Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Objetivos , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Indonesia , Masculino , Prisioneros/psicología , Derivación y Consulta , Asunción de Riesgos , Parejas Sexuales/psicología
19.
Exp Psychol ; 67(2): 99-111, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729400

RESUMEN

Instrumental learning is regulated by two memory systems: a relatively rigid but efficient habit system and a flexible but resource-demanding goal-directed system. Previous work has demonstrated that exposure to acute stress may shift the balance between these systems toward the habitual system. In the current study, we used a 2-day outcome devaluation paradigm with a 75% reward contingency rate and altered food reward categories to replicate and extend our previous findings. Participants learned neutral stimulus-response-reward associations on the first day. On the second day, rewards were devalued by eating to satiety. Subsequently, acute stress was induced in half of the participants using the Maastricht Acute Stress Test, while the other half engaged in a nonstressful control task. Finally, relative goal-directed versus habitual behavior was evaluated in a slips-of-action phase, where more slips-of-action indicate a shift toward the habitual system. Results showed that participants successfully acquired the stimulus-response-reward associations, that devaluation was effective, and that stressed participants displayed significant increases in cortisol and blood pressure. Stress led participants to commit more slips-of-action compared with nonstressed controls. The current study extends previous work, showing that the employed paradigm and outcome devaluation procedure are boundary conditions to the stress-induced shift in instrumental responding.


Asunto(s)
Condicionamiento Operante/fisiología , Objetivos , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
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