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1.
Am J Occup Ther ; 78(3)2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709675

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: A response shift (RS) is a phenomenon in which there is an individual perceptual gap between pre and post assessments. RS effects were not considered in the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) development process. OBJECTIVE: To detect the effects of RS on the COPM. DESIGN: Convergent mixed-methods research. SETTING: Subacute rehabilitation hospital in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen adult patients with a range of neurological and musculoskeletal conditions recruited from a subacute rehabilitation hospital. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: In the qualitative analysis, patients' perceptions regarding occupation identified by the COPM were compared between the initial assessment (Time 1 [T1]) and a reassessment (Time 2 [T2]). In the quantitative study, patients were asked to re-rate the occupations in which the RS had occurred, giving feedback on their perceptions at T1 (T2'). The difference between T2 and T2' was calculated to clarify the magnitude of the RS. RESULTS: Of the 19 patients, 18 had an RS in at least one occupation. The RS effects were classified into five categories: Replacing, Adding, Reducing, Unspecified, and Embodiment. Ninety occupations were extracted from all the patients, and 46 (51.1%) were affected by RS. The percentages of occupations for which the change in score due to RS exceeded the minimal clinically important difference (±2 points) was 26.1% (12 of 46) for COPM-Performance scores and 30.4% (14 of 46) for COPM-Satisfaction scores. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Diverse RS effects have been identified in the COPM, which also affect score interpretation. Plain-Language Summary: The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure has a potential measurement bias that is due to a response shift in which there is an individual perceptual gap between pre and post assessments. The results of this study reveal a need to establish more accurate measurement methods to reduce the impact of response shifts on COPM scores.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Ocupacional , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Anciano , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas/rehabilitación , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/rehabilitación , Japón , Canadá , Ocupaciones
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1364886, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741906

RESUMEN

Background: The strain on workers of the healthcare system and education sector increased psychological distress and burnout. This study aimed to distinguish the occupational group that is the most affected by occupational burnout and to reveal the scope of psychosocial risk factors among each occupational group. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that analyzed burnout syndrome among 1,046 participants of different occupational groups in association with psychosocial work environment factors in Lithuania. The anonymous questionnaire was composed of the standardized Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). To find out associations between psychosocial work environment factors and burnout dimensions, a multiple logistic regression model using the stepwise method was applied. Results: The burnout levels in all three dimensions (personal, work-related, and client-related burnout) were significantly higher in physicians' and nurses' groups compared with public health professionals, teachers, and managers (p < 0.05). The job demands were associated with the personal burnout subscale for all occupations, except public health specialists - each one-unit increase of this variable significantly increased the probability of personal burnout from 10 to 16%, respectively by the occupation. Co-worker support was found to have a buffering effect for all occupational groups, except managers - and significantly reduced personal burnout for physicians (OR = 0.80), nurses (OR = 0.75), public health specialists (OR = 0.75), and teachers (OR = 0.79). Conclusion: The burnout levels in all three dimensions differed between occupational groups: there were significantly higher in physicians' and nurses' groups compared with public health professionals, teachers, and managers. Considering the occupational preventive measures in the healthcare sector attention should be paid to the reduction of workload and ensuring good relations between co-workers.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Lituania/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Persona de Mediana Edad , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal de Salud/psicología , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 58: 13, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695442

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the distribution and association of sociodemographic and occupational factors with self-reported work accidents (WA) in a representative sample of the Brazilian population, with emphasis on occupational class, and to examine gender differences in this distribution. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study, using data from the 2019 National Health Survey (PNS), analyzed the responses of a sample of adults aged 18 or over. Factors associated with WA were investigated using binary logistic regression and hierarchical analysis using blocks (sociodemographic and occupational variables). The final model was adjusted by variables from all blocks, adopting a significance level of 5%. The values of odds ratios (OR) and respective confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS: Among the participants, 2.69% reported having suffered a WA, with a higher prevalence in men (3.37%; 95%CI 2.97-3.82%) than in women (1.86%; 95%CI 1.55-2.23%). The analysis identified that age group, night work, working hours, and exposure to occupational risks were associated with WA, with emphasis on gender differences. The class of manual workers, both qualified (ORwomen = 2.87; 95%CI 1.33-6.21 and ORmen = 2.46; 95%CI 1.37-4.40) and unskilled (ORwomen = 2.55; 95%CI 1.44-4.50 and ORmen = 3.70; 95%CI 1.95-7.03), had a higher chance of WA than the class of managers/professionals. CONCLUSION: Occupational factors contributed significantly to the increase in the probability of WA for men and women, with greater magnitude among those positioned in the lower strata of the occupational structure. The results obtained are clues for working out WA prevention actions.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Trabajo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiología , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Accidentes de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Factores Sexuales , Adolescente , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Ocupaciones/clasificación , Prevalencia , Factores Sociodemográficos , Autoinforme
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10703, 2024 05 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730233

RESUMEN

Research in psychology and medicine has linked mental health disorders, and particularly bipolar disorder (BD), to employment in creative professions. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms for this link, which could be due to biology (primarily through a person's genes) or environmental (through socioeconomic status). Using administrative data on mental health diagnoses and occupations for the population of Denmark, we find that people with BD are more likely to be musicians than the population, but less likely to hold other creative jobs. Yet, we also show that healthy siblings of people with BD are significantly more likely to work in creative professions. Notably, people from wealthy families are consistently more likely to work in creative professions, and access to family wealth amplifies the likelihood that siblings of people with BD pursue creative occupations. Nevertheless, family wealth explains only a small share of the correlation between BD and creative employment.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar , Creatividad , Empleo , Ocupaciones , Humanos , Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Masculino , Femenino , Dinamarca , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Familia , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven , Selección de Profesión
5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1231, 2024 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702701

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in type 2 diabetes (T2D) are well established in the literature. However, within the background of changing work contexts associated with digitalization and its effect on lifestyle and sedentary behavior, little is known on T2D prevalence and trends among different occupational groups. This study aims to examine occupational sector differences in T2D prevalence and trends thereof between 2012 and 2019. METHODS: The study was done on 1.683.644 employed individuals using data from the German statutory health insurance provider in Lower Saxony, the "Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse Niedersachsen" (AOKN). Predicted probabilities for T2D prevalence in four two-year periods between 2012 and 2019 were estimated based on logistic regression analyses for nine occupational sectors. Prevalence ratios were calculated to illustrate the effect of time period on the prevalence of T2D among the nine occupational sectors. Analyses were stratified by gender and two age groups. RESULTS: Results showed differences among occupational sectors in the predicted probabilities for T2D. The occupational sectors "Transport, logistics, protection and security" and "Health sector, social work, teaching & education" had the highest predicted probabilities, while those working in the sector "Agriculture" had by far the lowest predicted probabilities for T2D. Over all, there appeared to be a rising trend in T2D prevalence among younger employed individuals, with gender differences among occupational sectors. CONCLUSION: The study displayed different vulnerability levels among occupational sectors with respect to T2D prevalence overall and for its rising trend among the younger age group. Specific occupations within the vulnerable sectors need to be focused upon in further research to define specific target groups to which T2D prevention interventions should be tailored.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Alemania/epidemiología , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Prevalencia , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Seguro de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Adulto Joven , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Revisión de Utilización de Seguros
6.
Work ; 78(1): 181-193, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701124

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although many studies have investigated the physical and ergonomic risks of spine pain in specific occupation groups, the literature is lacking on occupation-based clinical and psychological presentation in patients with spine pain. OBJECTIVE: To analyze occupation-based variation in demographic, clinical, and psychological presentation in patients with spine pain. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed the clinical data of 71727 patients with spine pain visiting a chain of spine rehabilitation clinics. Demographic and clinical variables such as gender, age, affected site, symptom duration, clinical symptoms and presentation, pain intensity, disability, and STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT) risk were compared between 9 occupational groups. RESULTS: The service and sales workers (44%) and students (43.5%) groups had the highest percentage of patients who presented with central spine pain; military personnel had the highest percentage of patients who presented with unilateral radicular pain (51.5%); and the retired or unemployed group had the highest percentage of patients who presented with severe myotomal loss (grade≤3) (6%). Homemakers had significantly higher pain intensity and disability (p < 0.001) and had the highest percentage of patients who presented with severe pain (47%), severe and crippled disability (59.5%), and medium to high risk (59%) with SBT when compared to other occupational groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with spine pain showed variation in demographic, clinical, and psychological presentation based on their occupation. The findings of this study can be the basis for identifying risk factors for spine pain and helping plan preventive and treatment measures based on their occupation.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de Espalda , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , India/epidemiología , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dolor de Espalda/psicología , Dolor de Espalda/epidemiología , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Dimensión del Dolor/métodos
7.
Ann Epidemiol ; 94: 42-48, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642626

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Methods for assessing the structural mechanisms of health inequity are not well established. This study applies a phased approach to modeling racial, occupational, and rural disparities on the county level. METHODS: Rural counties with disparately high rates of COVID-19 incidence or mortality were randomly paired with in-state control counties with the same rural-urban continuum code. Analysis was restricted to the first six months of the pandemic to represent the baseline structural reserves for each county and reduce biases related to the disruption of these reserves over time. Conditional logistic regression was applied in two phases-first, to examine the demographic distribution of disparities and then, to examine the relationships between these disparities and county-level social and structural reserves. RESULTS: In over 200 rural county pairs (205 for incidence, 209 for mortality), disparities were associated with structural variables representing economic factors, healthcare infrastructure, and local industry. Modeling results were sensitive to assumptions about the relationships between race and other social and structural variables measured at the county level, particularly in models intended to reflect effect modification or mediation. CONCLUSIONS: Multivariable modeling of health disparities should reflect the social and structural mechanisms of inequity and anticipate interventions that can advance equity.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Población Rural , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/etnología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Masculino , Femenino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Grupos Raciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Inequidades en Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Incidencia , Adulto
8.
Am J Ind Med ; 67(6): 532-538, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583075

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Work-related asthma (WRA), a preventable occupational disease, can result in adverse health outcomes and employment disability, including decreased productivity, lost workdays, and job loss. Early identification of WRA cases and avoidance of further exposures is crucial for optimal management. OBJECTIVE: We estimate WRA prevalence among US workers by selected sociodemographic characteristics, industry, and occupation groups and assess the differences in adverse health outcomes, preventive care, and lost workdays between persons with WRA and those with non-WRA. METHODS: The 2020 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for working adults aged ≥18 years employed in the 12 months before the survey were analyzed. Prevalence, and adjusted prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the estimated 170 million US adults working in the past year, 13.0 million (7.6%) had asthma. Among workers with asthma, an estimated 896,000 (6.9%) had WRA. WRA prevalence was highest among males, workers aged ≥55 years, those with no health insurance, those living in the Midwest, and those employed in the accommodation, food, and other services industry, and in production, installation, transportation, and material moving occupations. Workers with WRA were significantly more likely to use preventive medication and rescue inhalers, and to experience adverse health outcomes and lost workdays than workers with non-WRA. CONCLUSION: Early identification of WRA cases, assessment of workplace exposures, and implementation of targeted interventions that consider the hierarchy of controls are critical to preventing future WRA cases and associated adverse health consequences.


Asunto(s)
Asma Ocupacional , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Asma Ocupacional/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Asma/epidemiología , Modelos Logísticos , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Industrias/estadística & datos numéricos
9.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(3): 459-463, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591278

RESUMEN

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between cultural intelligence and career and work adaptability among nursing students. METHODS: The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at Kilis 7 Aralik University Nursing Department in Turkey from April to May 2019, and comprised nursing students of either gender. Data was gathered using Cultural Intelligence Scale and Career and Work Adaptability Questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS24. RESULTS: Of the 277 subjects, 162(58.5%) were females and 115(41.5%) were males. The overall mean age was 21.21±1.81 years. The mean Cultural Intelligence Scale score was 95.17±18.16. The mean Career and Work Adaptability Questionnaire score was 115.69±19.38. There was a positive correlation between the total scores and subscale scores of both the scales (r=598, p<0.001). The student's father's occupation, desire to work overseas, feeling like a good fit for nursing, and feeling prepared for professional life significantly affected cultural intelligence (p<0.05). The student's father's occupation significantly affected career and work adaptability (p=0.001). Conclusion: There was a positive correlation between the total scores and subscale scores of Cultural Intelligence Scale and Career and Work Adaptability Questionnaire.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Enfermería , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Inteligencia , Emociones , Ocupaciones
10.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 31: e2024008, 2024.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597566

RESUMEN

This article investigates the first generation (1973-1977) of researchers trained in the Graduate Program in Sociology at the Instituto Universitário de Pesquisas do Rio de Janeiro (IUPERJ). While IUPERJ is known as the birthplace of modern Brazilian political science, sociology there is less well known. Using documentary resources, interviews, and the secondary literature, we take a nuanced look at this generation, which has been described as both excessively heterogeneous and less original in comparison to political science at IUPERJ. For them, theoretical and methodological specialization was seen as central to a political sociology that sought responses to the demands of a society at the crossroads between modernization and redemocratization.


Este artigo busca compreender a vocação científica consagrada pela primeira geração (1973-1977) de pesquisadores do Programa de Pós-graduação em Sociologia do Instituto Universitário de Pesquisas do Rio de Janeiro (Iuperj). Embora o Iuperj seja visto como berço da moderna ciência política brasileira, pouco se sabe sobre sua sociologia. Para tal, baseamo-nos em documentos, entrevistas e bibliografia secundária. Queremos nuançar diagnósticos sobre essa geração, ora vista como excessivamente heterogênea, ora como pouco original se comparada à ciência política iuperjiana. Na vocação daquela geração, o elogio à especialização teórico-metodológica era parte central de uma sociologia política que buscava dar respostas às demandas de uma sociedade na encruzilhada entre modernização e redemocratização.


Asunto(s)
Política , Sociología , Brasil , Ocupaciones
11.
Scand J Occup Ther ; 31(1): 2341779, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626736

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Young peoples' mental health challenges have increased in recent years to become an urgent public health issue. Research is required to gain a better understanding of how occupations influence young peoples' everyday lives and support their mental health. AIM: How do young people experience engaging in various occupations in their daily lives, and how do these experiences shape their mental health? METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 Norwegian young people aged 13-16 years. Verbatim transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four core themes emerged: 'doing' for balance and stability; self-discovery through doing; intentional doing to recharge and feel free; and reflecting on the consequences of doing social media. CONCLUSIONS: Young peoples' occupational experiences shape their mental health in several ways: they serve as coping strategies, as a means to experience joy and accomplishment, and as a source of routines and opportunities for relaxation. We suggest that health-promoting initiatives for young people would strongly benefit from the inclusion of an occupational perspective.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Ocupaciones , Humanos , Adolescente
12.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 506, 2024 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38685000

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Almost 200,000 tongue cancers were diagnosed worldwide in 2020. The aim of this study was to describe occupational risk variation in this malignancy. METHODS: The data are based on the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA) study containing 14.9 million people from the Nordic countries with 9020 tongue cancers diagnosed during 1961-2005. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of tongue cancer in each occupational category was calculated using national incidence rates as the reference. RESULTS: Among men, the incidence was statistically significantly elevated in waiters (SIR 4.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.13--5.92), beverage workers (SIR 3.42, 95% CI 2.02-5.40), cooks and stewards (SIR 2.55, 95% CI 1.82-3.48), seamen (SIR 1.66, 95% CI 1.36-2.00), journalists (SIR 1.85, 95% CI 1.18-2.75), artistic workers (SIR 2.05, 95% CI 1.54-2.66), hairdressers (SIR 2.17, 95% CI 1.39-3.22), and economically inactive persons (SIR 1.57, 95% CI 1.42-1.73). Among women, the SIR was statistically significantly elevated only in waitresses (SIR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.81). Statistically significant SIRs ≤ 0.63 were observed in male farmers, gardeners, forestry workers and teachers, and in female launderers. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may be related to consumption of alcohol and tobacco, but the effect of carcinogenic exposure from work cannot be excluded.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Profesionales , Ocupaciones , Neoplasias de la Lengua , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias de la Lengua/epidemiología , Femenino , Países Escandinavos y Nórdicos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Incidencia , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Factores de Riesgo , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Factores Sexuales , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos
13.
Endeavour ; 48(1): 100918, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565005

RESUMEN

Can love affect knowledge and knowledge affect love? John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor-Mill, Max and Marianne Weber, and Bertrand and Dora Russell had a definite vocation: they wanted to change the world. They questioned traditional gender arrangements through publications on equality, marriage, and education. They were liberal thinkers, advocating individual freedom and autonomy, vis à vis the constraints of state and society. Their partnership inspired their work, a living experiment conducted through their own unconventional relationship. Over time, their increasingly radical, avant-garde ideas on marriage complicated the ongoing negotiation over power and intimacy which typified their marriages. Building on the historiography of social science couples, and by means of an analysis of the micro-social dynamics of marriage as documented in the life writings of the Mills, the Webers, and the Russells, I analyse the connections between gender, intimacy, and creativity. These couples' experiences highlight the non-rational dimension of a most rational endeavour.


Asunto(s)
Amor , Matrimonio , Identidad de Género , Ocupaciones
14.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299292, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630666

RESUMEN

Recent advances in interdisciplinary archaeological research in Arabia have focused on the evolution and historical development of regional human populations as well as the diverse patterns of cultural change, migration, and adaptations to environmental fluctuations. Obtaining a comprehensive understanding of cultural developments such as the emergence and lifeways of Neolithic groups has been hindered by the limited preservation of stratified archaeological assemblages and organic remains, a common challenge in arid environments. Underground settings like caves and lava tubes, which are prevalent in Arabia but which have seen limited scientific exploration, offer promising opportunities for addressing these issues. Here, we report on an archaeological excavation and a related survey at and around Umm Jirsan lava tube in the Harrat Khaybar, north-western Saudi Arabia. Our results reveal repeated phases of human occupation of the site ranging from at least the Neolithic through to the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age. Pastoralist use of the lava tube and surrounding landscape is attested in rock art and faunal records, suggesting that Umm Jirsan was situated along a pastoral route linking key oases. Isotopic data indicates that herbivores primarily grazed on wild grasses and shrubs rather than being provided with fodder, while humans had a diet consistently high in protein but with increasing consumption of C3 plants through-time, perhaps related to the emergence of oasis agriculture. While underground and naturally sheltered localities are globally prominent in archaeology and Quaternary science, our work represents the first such combined records for Saudi Arabia and highlight the potential for interdisciplinary studies in caves and lava tubes.


Asunto(s)
Cuevas , Hominidae , Humanos , Animales , Arabia , Arabia Saudita , Arqueología/métodos , Ocupaciones
16.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e084689, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589254

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the influence of socioeconomic status, health literacy, and numeracy on treatment decisions and the occurrence of adverse events in patients with breast, lung, and prostate cancer within a Nordic healthcare setting. DESIGN: A follow-up to a cross-sectional, mixed-methods, single-centre study. SETTING: A Nordic, tertiary cancer clinic. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 244 participants with breast, lung and prostate cancer were initially identified, of which 138 first-line treatment participants were eligible for this study. First-line treatment participants (n=138) surpassed the expected cases (n=108). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable as this was an observational study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The study's primary endpoint was the rate of guideline adherence. The secondary endpoint involved assessing treatment toxicity in the form of adverse events. RESULTS: Guideline-adherent treatment was observed in 114 (82.6%) cases. First-line treatment selection appeared uninfluenced by participants' education, occupation, income or self-reported health literacy. A minority (3.6%) experienced difficulties following treatment instructions, primarily with oral cancer medications. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated lesser cancer health disparities regarding guideline adherence and treatment toxicity within the Nordic healthcare framework. A causal connection may not be established; however, the findings contribute to discourse on equitable cancer health provision.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Transversales , Atención a la Salud , Pulmón , Ocupaciones , Neoplasias de la Próstata/terapia , Femenino
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302180, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635568

RESUMEN

Based on the behavioral theory of the firm, we research how performance feedback influences the formation of CEOs' passion. We articulate that previous performance directly increases CEOs' passion. Specifically, positive affective outcomes (performance above aspiration-level) advance CEOs' positive feelings and motivation toward the domains of success (obsessive passion). For instance, when a firm accomplishes performance objectives, such as reaching sales goals, CEOs' positive feelings toward developing current products would be boosted. Moreover, negative affective outcomes (performance below aspiration-level) would also positively impact CEOs' passion since the CEOs would endeavor to reduce the difference between performance and their aspiration-level. As such, performance feedback is a critical antecedent of CEOs' obsessive passion. In addition, we apply human capital as a moderator between performance feedback and CEOs' obsessive passion. Results based on multiphase survey data from 189 CEOs of Korean small- and medium-sized enterprises indicate that both positive and negative performance feedback positively increase CEOs' obsessive passion. Moreover, human capital negatively moderates the relationship between positive performance feedback and CEOs' obsessive passion and positively moderates the relationship between negative performance feedback and CEOs' obsessive passion.


Asunto(s)
Emociones , Motivación , Humanos , Retroalimentación , Logro , Ocupaciones
18.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299621, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635582

RESUMEN

Science can offer solutions to a wide range of societal problems. Key to capitalizing on such solutions is the public's trust and willingness to grant influence to scientists in shaping policy. However, previous research on determinants of trust is limited and does not factor in the diversity of scientific occupations. The present study (N = 2,780; U.S. participants) investigated how four well-established dimensions of social evaluations (competence, assertiveness, morality, warmth) shape trust in 45 types of scientists (from agronomists to zoologists). Trust in most scientists was relatively high but varied considerably across occupations. Perceptions of morality and competence emerged as the most important antecedents of trust, in turn predicting the willingness to grant scientists influence in managing societal problems. Importantly, the contribution of morality (but not competence) varied across occupations: Morality was most strongly associated with trust in scientists who work on contentious and polarized issues (e.g., climatologists). Therefore, the diversity of scientific occupations must be taken into account to more precisely map trust, which is important for understanding when scientific solutions find their way to policy.


Asunto(s)
Ciencia , Confianza , Humanos , Políticas , Ocupaciones , Principios Morales
19.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301001, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635783

RESUMEN

The segmentation of commuters into either blue or white-collar workers remains is still common in urban transport models. Internationally, models have started to use more elaborate segmentations, more reflective of changes in labour markets, such as increased female participation. Finding appropriate labour market segmentations for commute trip modelling remains a challenge. This paper harnesses a data-driven approach using unsupervised clustering-applied to 2017-20 South East Queensland Travel Survey (SEQTS) data. Commuter types are grouped by occupational, industry, and socio-demographic variables (i.e., gender, age, household size, household vehicle ownership and worker skill score). The results show that at a large number of clusters (i.e., k = 8) a highly distinct set of commuter types can be observed. But model run times tend to require a much smaller number of market segments. When only three clusters are formed (k = 3) a market segmentation emerges with one female-dominated type ('pink collar'), one male-dominated type ('blue collar') and one with both genders almost equally involved ('white collar'). There are nuances as to which workers are included in each segment, and differences in travel behaviours across the three types. 'Pink collar' workers are mostly comprised of female clerical and administrative workers, community and personal service workers and sales workers. They have the shortest median commutes for both private motorised and active transport modes. The approach and methods should assist transport planners to derive more accurate and robust market segmentations for use in large urban transport models, and, better predict the value of alternative transport projects and policies for all types of commuters.


Asunto(s)
Empleo , Ocupaciones , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Industrias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Personal Administrativo
20.
Am J Occup Ther ; 78(3)2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640087

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Stroke survivors experience changes in participation level, satisfaction with participation, and participation balance, making it necessary to have a validated tool for their assessment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Satisfaction With Daily Occupations and Occupational Balance (SDO-OB) in stroke survivors. DESIGN: Psychometric study. SETTING: National multicenter study (rehabilitation centers, and hospitals). PARTICIPANTS: One hundred forty stroke survivors with and without a primary caregiver. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Participants completed the SDO-OB, the five-level version of the EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L), and the Activity Card Sort (ACS). Internal consistency, convergent validity, known-groups validity, and floor and ceiling effects were assessed. Intraobserver reliability was assessed 1 wk apart. RESULTS: The internal consistency was acceptable; Cronbach's α = .80, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.75, 0.85]. A moderate correlation was found between the SDO-OB summed participation level and summed participation satisfaction (ρ = .53). Both SDO-OB summed scores correlated with ACS scores (0.25 < ρ < .61). However, only summed participation satisfaction scores correlated with the emotional component of the EQ-5D-5L (ρ = .32). The SDO-OB discriminated between groups with and without a caregiver (p = .001) and had no floor or ceiling effects (<7%). Good intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were obtained for summed participation level (ICC = .91; 95% CI [.85, .94]) and summed participation satisfaction (ICC = .86; 95% CI [.78, .92]). Standard error of measurement and minimum detectable change were 0.7 and 1.9 points, respectively, for summed participation level and 4.5 and 12.4, respectively, for summed participation satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish version of the SDO-OB presented good psychometric properties, making it a suitable instrument to address participation level, participation satisfaction, and participation balance in stroke survivors. Plain-Language Summary: After a stroke, survivors experience changes in their participation in daily activities and how satisfied they are with them. This study examined whether a tool called Satisfaction With Daily Occupations and Occupational Balance (SDO-OB) could provide reliable information about this. We looked at 140 stroke survivors from different places in Spain to see whether they had someone caring for them, how healthy they were, and how their participation in daily activities changed after stroke. We found that the SDO-OB is helpful for understanding a stroke survivor's situation and can identify areas needing intervention and track changes caused by intervention plans.


Asunto(s)
Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Satisfacción Personal , Calidad de Vida , Sobrevivientes , Ocupaciones
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