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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130358

RESUMEN

Hepatitis B is a severe public health problem. The main world health centers have discussed it due to its pandemic proportion, high pathogenicity and infectivity. This study aimed to determine the immunization profile of dental surgeons - against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the Public Health System (PHS) through the detection of anti-HBsAg antibodies by immunochromatography and associations with dental surgeons' social and educational profile, factors related to professional knowledge and practices. This is a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of vaccination and immune status to HBV in dentists of Sao Paulo State PHS. Data collection occurred in three stages: questionnaire application, analysis of adhesion to the vaccination protocol and anti-HBsAg tests. Statistical analysis used the Bivariate Analysis and the Binary Logistic Regression. From the total of 219 interviewees, 74.9% reported having received three doses of the vaccine, but 35.6% were not immune to HBV. The dependent variable was associated with years in the public service (years) (OR [Odds Ratio]=1.04; 95% CI 1.00-1.08); knowledge on the subject (OR=6.93; 95% CI 1.39-34.40); incorrect answer concerning the etiological agent of the disease (OR=2.60; 95% CI 1.30-5.22); ignorance on the number of vaccine doses that have been administered (OR=3.43; 95% CI 1.14-10.30); and less than three doses of the vaccine in the immunization schedule (OR=8.76; 95% CI 3.50-21.91). A considerable portion of professionals non-immune to the HBV were found. We concluded that knowledge, years of practice and completion of the vaccination schedule (three doses) affected dental surgeons' immune status to HBV.


Asunto(s)
Odontólogos/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas contra Hepatitis B/administración & dosificación , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Exposición Profesional , Adulto , Cromatografía de Afinidad , Competencia Clínica , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Pública , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
2.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(1): 29-34, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159526

RESUMEN

In this questionnaire study, the attitude of dentists and students regarding the provision of oral care to palliative patients was investigated. The extent to which they would like to be involved in the care for this patient group was also investigated. The results showed that both research groups had relatively little affinity with palliative patients. In general, however, they do consider oral care to be important for this group and believe a dentist can play a role in the quality of life. About one third of both research groups, nevertheless, preferred not to be involved in the provision of oral care often. Besides, when it comes to providing oral care in nursing homes or at patients' homes, approximately one third of the respondents were not very willing or not willing at all to make house calls. Dentists and students are aware of the importance of oral care in the palliative stage of life, but they do not (yet) want to be responsible for the oral care themselves.


Asunto(s)
Casas de Salud , Calidad de Vida , Odontólogos , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(1): 51-56, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159529

RESUMEN

Coinciding with an increasing tendency of professionals to cross national borders, there is also an increasing need to harmonise curricula. In dentistry in Europe, this tendency is undiminished. By defining international curriculum requirements for dentists, international harmonisation can be strengthened. In the Netherlands, too, harmonisation with European standards has taken place in establishing final achievement levels for dentistry curricula, as defined in a national framework. In a working environment where oral health professionals are confronted with rapid change, for example, in the division of responsibilities, future caregivers should have an optimal educational preparation for their competences, skills and expertise.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Educación en Odontología , Curriculum , Odontólogos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Países Bajos
4.
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 21(1): 29-34, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183525

RESUMEN

AIM: This survey assessed Finnish dentists' treatment decisions and choices of restorative materials in selected paediatric dental patient cases, with special emphasis on stainless steel crowns (SSCs). METHODS: A questionnaire with patient descriptions and tooth photographs was e-mailed to members of Finnish Dental Society (n=3,747). The respondents were asked to choose their preferred treatment in cases describing 1) extensive occlusal carious lesion in a primary molar of a cooperative child; 2) an identical lesion, treated under dental general anaesthesia (DGA); and 3) a symptomatic first permanent molar with enamel hypomineralisation (consistent with Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization, MIH) and post-eruptive breakdown. Only responses from dentist treating children were included (final n=765). RESULTS: The majority (47.3%) would have preferred restoration of the extensive primary tooth caries in a normal setting using resin-modified glassionomer cement, and 4.3% by using SSC. The preference of SSC as treatment choice increased to 25.4% upon implementation of DGA. The majority would treat the symptomatic permanent MIH molar with a resin composite restoration (45.0%), while 10.5% suggested SSC. Compared to general dentists, paediatric dentists had a stronger preference for SSCs. CONCLUSIONS: Although the respondents emphasised patient cooperation, but also tooth prognosis and material strength behind their treatment decisions, SSC was an uncommon choice.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Pautas de la Práctica en Odontología , Niño , Restauración Dental Permanente , Odontólogos , Finlandia , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 21(1): 74-79, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183534

RESUMEN

AIM: Choosing a paediatric dentist is an important decision for parents. The mechanisms of this selection have hardly been studied. This study assesses the factors influencing parents' decision choosing a specialised paediatric dentist for their child. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire consisting of 30 items that could potentially be relevant to decision-making was sent nationwide in Germany to paediatric dentists to be given to the parents of new patients (n=450). Eighty-nine out of 102 returned questionnaires (response rate=22.7%) were evaluated. RESULTS: Parent's and children's experience in previous dental visits played an "important" or "very important" role in choosing a paediatric dentist (78.8% and 62.2%, respectively). The most frequently mentioned recommendation for the paediatric dentist was by friends and acquaintances (86.5%). Recommendations from other dentists were often included in the decision making (60.7%), while specialist journals or Internet portals were less important for the respondents (15% and 19%, respectively). Most of the parents used Internet search engines and the practice website to obtain information. CONCLUSION: Previous negative experience with general dentists was the main reason for visiting a specialised paediatric dentist. Recommendations came mostly from the close social environment and the qualifications were the most important feature for choosing a paediatric dentist.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Padres , Niño , Conducta Infantil , Toma de Decisiones , Odontólogos , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
J Dent Educ ; 84(3): 290-300, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176340

RESUMEN

Minimally invasive dentistry (MID) is receiving increased attention. Resin infiltration (RI) is one micro-invasive technique for treating initial caries by sealing white spot lesions on tooth surfaces. The aims of this study were to assess pediatric dentists' RI-related educational experiences, attitudes, and professional behavior and to determine if their educational experiences were significantly related to their professional attitudes and behavior regarding RI. This cross-sectional study used an online survey to collect data from members of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) in March-April 2017. Of the 2,367 AAPD members invited to participate, 43 emails could not be delivered, and 273 surveys were completed, for a response rate of 11.8%. While only 9% of the 273 respondents reported that their classroom-based dental education had informed them about RI and only 1% that it had prepared them well to use RI with pediatric patients, higher percentages said they had been informed/prepared well by their classroom-based (24%) and clinical residency education (12%). The majority wanted to learn more about RI (71%) and would like to take a related CE course (59%). The respondents' average RI-related attitudes were positive (on five-point scale with 1=worst attitude: Mean=3.84). Regarding use of RI, 28% of respondents said they used RI sometimes and 4% often/very often, with 64% considering implementing RI in their clinics. Graduation year did not correlate with RI attitudes and use. However, the more education about RI the respondents had received during their residency (r=0.20; p<0.01) and in professional development after graduation (r=0.34; p<0.001), the more they used RI in their own work. This study found that the pediatric dentists' RI-related education was positively correlated with their professional behavior. Increasing predoctoral, resident, and continuing professional education about RI should therefore be considered.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Educación en Odontología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Odontólogos , Humanos , Odontología Pediátrica , Pautas de la Práctica en Odontología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; 41(3): 149-153; quiz 154, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125167

RESUMEN

In recent years, studies have revealed a possible link between periodontitis and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Chronic periodontitis is characterized by the destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth through complex cascades of inflammatory responses, and OSA seems to share common pathways, acting synergistically. This review article summarizes the literature on the potential association between a chronic oral infection such as periodontitis and OSA and discusses how clinicians can benefit their patients by understanding the commonalities and interplay that may exist between these two disorders.


Asunto(s)
Periodontitis Crónica , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño , Odontólogos , Humanos
8.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e011, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130361

RESUMEN

Telehealth has been applied in the Unified Health System (SUS) as a tool for qualifying professionals and improving the healthcare provided to the population served by the system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of teleconsultations on the qualifications of the clinical approach of the oral health teams involved in primary health care (PHC) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul under the Telehealth Brazil Networks Programme. The sample population of the study was composed of 285 dentists and 132 oral health assistants belonging to the Family Health Teams. A chi-square test was used to investigate possible associations between the absolute number of teleconsultations performed and several independent variables, namely, gender, age, dental specialty, time since graduation, time working in the Family Health Strategy (FHS), employment status, type of training institution, familiarity with information technology, and work satisfaction at the health facility. The level of significance was p < 0.05. Use of the oral health teleconsultation service led to a reduction of more than 45% in the number of referrals to other levels of care. However, no significant association was found between the number of teleconsultations and the independent variables analysed. The use of teleconsultations proved to be a powerful tool for professional training, for increasing the effectiveness of PHC, and for improving the oral healthcare provided.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Odontología/estadística & datos numéricos , Odontólogos/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Telemedicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Atención Odontológica/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud Dental/normas , Personal de Odontología/educación , Odontólogos/educación , Educación a Distancia/métodos , Educación a Distancia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Bucal , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Valores de Referencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Telemedicina/métodos , Factores de Tiempo
9.
Dent Clin North Am ; 64(2): 379-399, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111276

RESUMEN

Burning mouth syndrome/glossodynia and trigeminal neuropathic conditions can have serious negative impact on a patient's overall quality of life. These conditions are often hard to diagnose and even harder to fully treat and manage, but it is important for dentists/oral and maxillofacial surgeons to be aware of these conditions and modalities of their treatment. Often the only method for arriving at the proper diagnosis is for patients to undergo traditional approaches for treatment of presenting signs and symptoms, and it is the unexpected failure of interventional therapies that leads ultimately to a proper diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Boca Ardiente , Glosalgia , Neuralgia , Odontólogos , Humanos , Calidad de Vida
10.
Int J Oral Sci ; 12(1): 9, 2020 03 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127517

RESUMEN

A novel ß-coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused severe and even fetal pneumonia explored in a seafood market of Wuhan city, Hubei province, China, and rapidly spread to other provinces of China and other countries. The 2019-nCoV was different from SARS-CoV, but shared the same host receptor the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The natural host of 2019-nCoV may be the bat Rhinolophus affinis as 2019-nCoV showed 96.2% of whole-genome identity to BatCoV RaTG13. The person-to-person transmission routes of 2019-nCoV included direct transmission, such as cough, sneeze, droplet inhalation transmission, and contact transmission, such as the contact with oral, nasal, and eye mucous membranes. 2019-nCoV can also be transmitted through the saliva, and the fetal-oral routes may also be a potential person-to-person transmission route. The participants in dental practice expose to tremendous risk of 2019-nCoV infection due to the face-to-face communication and the exposure to saliva, blood, and other body fluids, and the handling of sharp instruments. Dental professionals play great roles in preventing the transmission of 2019-nCoV. Here we recommend the infection control measures during dental practice to block the person-to-person transmission routes in dental clinics and hospitals.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Clínicas Odontológicas , Odontólogos , Control de Infecciones , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , China , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Atención Odontológica/normas , Clínicas Odontológicas/normas , Brotes de Enfermedades , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
12.
Community Dent Health ; 37(1): 5-11, 2020 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031338

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Analyse the dentist to population ratio relative to socio-economic profile to identify areas of workforce shortages and inform the policy direction of workforce recruitment strategies and public dental service planning. METHODS: The suburb, state and postcode of dentists listed on the public access register of the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency were geocoded by latitude and longitude and added to a map of Australia built on Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Statistical Area 2 (SA2) census districts. Population data detailing the relative socio-economic disadvantage of each Statistical Area 1 (SA1) within each SA2 was superimposed on the map and used to calculate the number of dentists per 100 000 population relative to level of socio-economic disadvantage as defined by the ABS Socio-Economic Index for Areas, (SEIFA) Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD). The results were reported according to state and territory, and the Accessibility and Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA+). RESULTS: The dentist to population ratio was lower in areas of disadvantage within major cities. All regions outside major cities had population cohorts with dentist to population ratios below the 65 dentists per 100 000 benchmark, conservatively estimated to be the minimum required for reasonable access to services. CONCLUSION: There is an inequity in the distribution of dentists relative to the socio-economic profile and geographic location of the Australian population. Shortages of dentists persist across many IRSD deciles in regional and rural areas. Within major cities there are fewer dentists per capita in the lower socio-economic districts.


Asunto(s)
Atención Odontológica , Odontólogos , Australia , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos
13.
Community Dent Health ; 37(1): 51-58, 2020 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031341

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To overview current developments in e-health and digitalisation in dentistry and identify gaps in the dental literature on this topic; Basic research design: a critical narrative review of published articles and relevant online materials; Results: Four themes are identified as characterising the current dental literature on e-health and digitalisation: 1) the impact of digitalisation on dental surgeries, 2) digital technology and practice management, 3) digitalisation beyond the dental surgery and in dentist-patient communication, and 4) digital technology and education. However, gaps remain in our understanding of the impact of digital technology on dental practice, particularly in relation to its ethical considerations. Following the example of the wider medical literature, the review introduces the field of critical digital health studies and identifies areas for future investigation and exploration based on its four characteristics: devices and software, data materialisation, data practices and data mobilities; Conclusion and Clinical significance: Digital technology is changing clinical practice and patient care. Dentistry needs to expand its understanding of how dental apps, digital workflow models and digital health information are transforming and disrupting dental practice in order to anticipate how this digital shift will impact on dentistry. The emerging field of critical digital health studies can signpost ways to improve research and practice on the topic in the future.


Asunto(s)
Odontología , Telemedicina , Odontólogos , Humanos
14.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062892

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the status of blood-borne occupational exposure and protection among health care workers (HCWs) in dental practice, and provide evidence for making effective prevention. Methods: From April 1 to 15, 2019, a stratified random sampling method was conducted to investigate the data of blood-borne occupational exposure among 221 dental HCWs in 2018, and Chi-squared Test was used to evaluate the differences of status on occupational exposure and protection among different professionals, such as nurses, doctors and trainees, and among different-grade hospitals. Results: A total of 166 HCWs were exposed to occupational exposure 269 times, with the annual incidence of 75.11% (166/221) , and 37.55% (101/269) of exposures were reported. However, all source patients of exposures had failed to be traced. 89.59% (241/269) of exposures were sharp injuries. The top three instruments caused injuries were syringe/bilan needles, suture needles and vehicle needles, accounting for 35.68% (86/241) 、16.60% (40/241) and 16.18% (39/241) , respectively; and the top three exposure operations were removal/disposal of needles or instruments, suture/assisting suture and injection of anesthetic, accounting for 37.17% (100/269) 、22.30% (60/269) and 17.84% (48/269) , respectively. There were statistically significant differences among different professionals in occupational exposure frequency, reporting rate, the types of instruments caused injuries, exposure operations and hepatitis B vaccinated time (P<0.01) . The compliance rate of standard precautions, safe operation, post-exposure reporting and prevention, and training on occupational protection were generally poor among HCWs, with significant differences in different-grade hospitals (P<0.01) . Conclusion: There is a high incidence, low reporting rate and poor self-protection of blood-borne occupational exposure among dental HCWs. Strongly suggesting that standard precautions, safe use and disposal of oral instruments, active post-exposure report and prevention must be improved for everyone.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Odontología/estadística & datos numéricos , Odontólogos/estadística & datos numéricos , Lesiones por Pinchazo de Aguja/epidemiología , Exposición Profesional , Patógenos Transmitidos por la Sangre , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional
16.
J Oral Sci ; 62(1): 32-35, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996520

RESUMEN

This study aimed at determining whether oral health behavior differs between patients regularly checked by male and female dentists. The analysis was based on a cross-sectional survey of 354 Japanese community residents (median age = 54 years; 145 men and 209 women) conducted in a municipality from January to February 2017. Data on demographic characteristics and factors associated with oral health behavior were obtained through self-administered questionnaires. The association between regular dentist gender and patients' regular dental care check-up and interdental cleaning performance was examined after adjusting for potential confounders. Among respondents, 88.7% and 11.3% reported having male and female regular dentists, respectively. In a multivariate logistic regression model, patients regularly checked by female dentists had an increased likelihood of visiting their dentist for dental care check-up at least once every year (odds ratio [OR] = 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-4.55)and using an interdental cleaner (OR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.03-6.71) compared to those regularly checked by male dentists. Patients regularly checked by female dentists tended to have more preventive oral health behaviors than those regularly checked by male dentists. These findings suggest that dentist gender has important clinical implications for patients' oral health behavior.


Asunto(s)
Atención Odontológica , Odontólogos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Bucal , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(1): 16-25.e16, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902396

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The authors' objective in this systematic review was to investigate the barriers involved in the application of evidence-based dentistry principles, as reported by dentists. The authors registered the protocol in the PROSPERO database. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: Eligible studies included qualitative and quantitative approaches, constituting information about barriers, collected through interviews, questionnaires, or conversation sessions. The authors searched databases and reference lists of preselected studies. After the selection process, the authors evaluated the included studies for potential risk of bias and collected either qualitative or quantitative data. RESULTS: After the selection process, the authors included 35 studies, of which 16 were reported in this article. The authors synthesized and classified the barriers in 4 categories: self-related, evidence-related, context-related, and patient-related barriers. Shortage of time and financial constraints were the barriers most frequently studied. However, the quantification of these barriers, as well as others, was not possible because of the variability of the results and methodological issues of the included studies. CONCLUSIONS AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The authors suggest the development of valid questionnaires and their use in representative samples to quantify the effects of specific barriers. The authors encourage practitioners to participate in educational programs focused on training in evidence-based dentistry abilities, in addition to seeking accessible and synthesized formats of reliable scientific knowledge.


Asunto(s)
Odontólogos , Odontología Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos
18.
Spec Care Dentist ; 40(2): 160-167, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965591

RESUMEN

AIM: To create an accessible web-based resource of providers willing to provide dental services for patients with special health care needs (SCHNs). METHODS: With a grant from The Duke Endowment, surveys were sent to dentists in South Carolina RESULTS: Data showed that the majority of providers expressed willingness to treat patients with one or more mild SHCN, but fewer expressed willingness to treat those with one or more moderate or severe SHCN. Additionally, the data showed that among general practitioners specifically, only one-third were willing to treat mild and moderate/severe manifestations of all categories listed. The number of practitioners willing to treat moderate to severe manifestations of SHCN and accept Medicaid and willing to take new Medicaid patients dropped even further. These results demonstrated a need to increase the number of providers in South Carolina who are willing to treat patients with SHCN, and a need to provide an accessible resource for patients with SHCN to be able to find these providers. Data collected populated the web-based resource for the Special Adult Network of Dentists url:www.sandsc.org1 CONCLUSION: This resource may be used by patients, caregivers, and health care providers and could be replicated in other states or designed as a national resource.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Salud Bucal , Adulto , Odontólogos , Humanos , Medicaid , South Carolina , Estados Unidos
19.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(1): 6, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902402
20.
J Prosthodont ; 29(2): 114-123, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893566

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: In-laboratory assessment by laboratory technicians may offer insight to increase clinical success of dental crowns, and research in this area is lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dentists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network enrolled patients in a study about single-unit crowns; laboratory technicians evaluated the quality of tooth preparations and impressions. The primary outcome for each crown was clinical acceptability (CAC), as judged by the treating dentist. A secondary outcome was "Goodness of Fit (GOF)," a composite score of several aspects of clinical fit, also judged by the study dentist. A mixed-effects logistic regression was used to analyze associations between laboratory technician ratings and the CAC and GOF. RESULTS: Dentists (n = 205) evaluated 3731 crowns. Technicians ranked the marginal detail of impressions as good or excellent in 92% of cases; other aspects of the impression were ranked good or excellent 88% of the time. Regarding tooth preparation, about 90% of preparations were considered adequate (neither excessive nor inadequate reduction). Factors associated with higher CAC were more preparation taper, and use of optical imaging. Factors associated with better GOF were higher impression quality, greater occlusal reduction, more preparation taper, and optical imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Overall quality of preparations and impressions was very high, as evaluated by laboratory technicians. Several clinical parameters were associated with higher CAC and GOF. Clinicians who struggle with crown remakes might consider less conservative tooth preparation, as well as using digital impression technology.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Laboratorio , Diente , Coronas , Técnica de Impresión Dental , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Odontólogos , Humanos
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