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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 102: 99-109, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637269

RESUMEN

Increase of sewage sludge (SS) has led to the construction of more incineration plants, exacerbating to the production of SS incineration residues. However, few studies have considered the mass balance of elements in large-scale SS incineration plants, affecting the residues treatment and utilization. In this study, flow analysis was conducted for major and trace elements in the SS, the fly ash (sewage sludge ash, SSA) and bottom ash from two large-scale SS incineration plants. The elemental characteristics were compared with those of coal fly ash (CFA), and air pollution control residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWIA), as well as related criteria. The results showed that the most abundant major element in SSA was Si, ranging from 120 to 240 g/kg, followed by Al (76-348 g/kg), Ca (26-113 g/kg), Fe (35-80 g/kg), and P (26-104 g/kg), and the trace elements were mainly Zn, Ba, Cu, and Mn. Not all the major elements were derived from SS. Most trace elements in the SS incineration residues accounted for 82.4%-127% of those from SS, indicating that SS was the main source of trace elements. The partitioning of heavy metals in the SS incineration residues showed that electrostatic precipitator ash or cyclone ash with high production rates were the major pollutant sinks. The differences in some major and trace elements could be indicators to differentiate SSA from CFA and MSWIA. Compared with related land criteria, the pollutants in SSA should not be ignored during disposal and utilization.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Oligoelementos , Ceniza del Carbón , Incineración , Metales Pesados/análisis , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Residuos Sólidos/análisis
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(3): 122, 2021 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580837

RESUMEN

As a historic gold mining area, the City of Benoni has numerous water bodies close to major tailings dams and mine dumps. Here we assess spatial patterns in the sediment geochemistry of five dams and four natural pans within a 5-km radius of the core mining area to determine the degree of contamination7 by mining-associated pollutants. XRF analysis was used with a geoaccumulation index to assess the degree of contamination above background levels. Prevailing winds blow from the north and north-west with less dominant winds from the east. Sediment concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn are highly correlated across the region, suggestive of a common source. Except for one pan showing evidence of local industrial pollution, the most contaminated sites are the dams to the west of the mine dumps where concentrations of As, Cu, Pb and Zn increase towards the central mining area, with highest trace metal concentrations in Kleinfontein Dam, adjacent to a reworked mine dump. Sites upwind of the central mining area showed little evidence of mining-related contamination. Trace contaminant concentrations in sediments of these dams are much greater than those found in the nearby Springs-Blesbokspruit wetlands adjacent to more recently active mines. The potential risks to aquatic ecosystems and recreational users of these urban and suburban water bodies from these wind-blown, legacy mining contaminants merit further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Oligoelementos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Oro , Metales Pesados/análisis , Minería , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Sudáfrica , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
3.
J Environ Qual ; 50(1): 264-277, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616977

RESUMEN

Thermal treatment by pyrolysis has been proposed as a sustainable alternative to enable the agricultural use of sewage sludge. The solid product obtained via pyrolysis of sewage sludge is called sewage sludge biochar and presents several advantages for its use as a fertilizer or soil conditioner. However, there are concerns about the accumulation and dynamics of trace elements in soil amended with sewage sludge biochar over the years. This study examined the effect of sewage sludge biochar, under field conditions for 5 yr, on the accumulation and availability of trace elements in a tropical soil. For this, 15 t ha-1 of sewage sludge biochar produced at 300 and 500 °C were applied in the first two growing seasons. Application was interrupted from the third to the fifth seasons to assess the residual effect of sewage sludge biochar in the soil. The total and available trace element concentrations were determined. The total contents of trace elements showed the following variation in the soil over the 5 yr (mg kg-1): Cd (16.8-20.0), Co (19.5-21.5), Cr (98.2-125.7), Cu (8.1-17.1), Mn (62.9-85.7), Ni (20.3-35.0), Pb (27.0-52.4), and Zn (20.3-35.8). There was no change in the availability of Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb over the years. Additionally, a residual effect of the sewage sludge biochar was the increase in availability of trace elements that are considered essential (Cu, Mn, and Zn) and beneficial elements (Co) for plants. Therefore, in relation to contamination by trace elements, the pyrolysis of sewage sludge of domestic origin proved to be an adequate strategy to enable the safe use of this residue in tropical agriculture.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Oligoelementos , Carbón Orgánico , Metales Pesados/análisis , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210369, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576820

RESUMEN

Importance: There is limited evidence regarding early treatment of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection to mitigate symptom progression. Objective: To examine whether high-dose zinc and/or high-dose ascorbic acid reduce the severity or duration of symptoms compared with usual care among ambulatory patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, single health system randomized clinical factorial open-label trial enrolled 214 adult patients with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed with a polymerase chain reaction assay who received outpatient care in sites in Ohio and Florida. The trial was conducted from April 27, 2020, to October 14, 2020. Intervention: Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio to receive either 10 days of zinc gluconate (50 mg), ascorbic acid (8000 mg), both agents, or standard of care. Outcomes: The primary end point was the number of days required to reach a 50% reduction in symptoms, including severity of fever, cough, shortness of breath, and fatigue (rated on a 4-point scale for each symptom). Secondary end points included days required to reach a total symptom severity score of 0, cumulative severity score at day 5, hospitalizations, deaths, adjunctive prescribed medications, and adverse effects of the study supplements. Results: A total of 214 patients were randomized, with a mean (SD) age of 45.2 (14.6) years and 132 (61.7%) women. The study was stopped for a low conditional power for benefit with no significant difference among the 4 groups for the primary end point. Patients who received usual care without supplementation achieved a 50% reduction in symptoms at a mean (SD) of 6.7 (4.4) days compared with 5.5 (3.7) days for the ascorbic acid group, 5.9 (4.9) days for the zinc gluconate group, and 5.5 (3.4) days for the group receiving both (overall P = .45). There was no significant difference in secondary outcomes among the treatment groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial of ambulatory patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, treatment with high-dose zinc gluconate, ascorbic acid, or a combination of the 2 supplements did not significantly decrease the duration of symptoms compared with standard of care. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04342728.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapéutico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Zinc/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Atención Ambulatoria , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Tos/tratamiento farmacológico , Tos/etiología , Disnea/tratamiento farmacológico , Disnea/etiología , Fatiga/tratamiento farmacológico , Fatiga/etiología , Femenino , Fiebre/tratamiento farmacológico , Fiebre/etiología , Gluconatos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Nivel de Atención , Oligoelementos/uso terapéutico , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Nutr Rev ; 79(3): 289-300, 2021 02 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570583

RESUMEN

Worldwide, there is an array of clinical trials under way to evaluate treatment options against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Concurrently, several nutritional therapies and alternative supportive treatments are also being used and tested to reduce the mortality associated with acute respiratory distress in patients with COVID-19. In the context of COVID-19, improved nutrition that includes micronutrient supplementation to augment the immune system has been recognized as a viable approach to both prevent and alleviate the severity of the infection. The potential role of micronutrients as immune-boosting agents is particularly relevant for low- and middle-income countries, which already have an existing high burden of undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. A systematic literature review was performed to identify nutritional interventions that might prevent or aid in the recovery from COVID-19. The PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched electronically from February to April 2020. All abstracts and full-text articles were examined for their relevance to this review. The information gathered was collated under various categories. Deficiencies of micronutrients, especially vitamins A, B complex, C, and D, zinc, iron, and selenium, are common among vulnerable populations in general and among COVID-19 patients in particular and could plausibly increase the risk of mortality. Judicious use of need-based micronutrient supplementation, alongside existing micronutrient fortification programs, is warranted in the current global pandemic, especially in low- and middle-income economies.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Dieta , Micronutrientes , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Estado Nutricional , /inmunología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , Sistema Inmunológico , Hierro , Selenio , Oligoelementos , Vitamina A , Zinc
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111729, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396060

RESUMEN

In this work, carboxyl-functionalized hollow polymer microspheres (CHPMs) was successfully fabricated using poly (styrene-itaconic anhydride) particles as the core template and itaconic anhydride and trans-anethole cross-linked with divinylbenzene as the shell. The desirable microspheres and hollow structure of CHPMs were demonstrated by scanning and transmission electron microscopies, respectively. The characterized CHPMs as an adsorbent was packed into a solid phase extraction column to simultaneously detect the V(V), Cr(III), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) in digested food samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A series of experimental parameters of solid-phase extraction (SPE) were investigated through vast experiments to improve sensitivity of the proposed method in metal ions detection. The detection limits of the method reached 0.8-3.2 ng L-1 for the target elements, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 1.2% to 3.5% were obtained from eleven parallel experiments using a 1.0 µg L-1 sample solution. The stability allowed the material to withstand more than 15 cycling while the recoveries remained above 88%. In food samples, the detection limits were at 0.20-0.80 µg kg-1, and satisfactory recoveries of 85-104% were obtained in spike tests of laver, fish as well as chicken.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Extracción en Fase Sólida/métodos , Oligoelementos/análisis , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Microesferas , Polímeros/química , Análisis Espectral
7.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116447, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516125

RESUMEN

Historical variations (1966-2016) in the exposure to inorganic elements in raptors of South West Spain have been little studied. Therefore, uncertainty exists concerning whether environmental or anthropogenic inputs, as well as dietary strategy shift, may cause changes in exposure patterns. To address this gap, essential and non-essential inorganic elements were measured in Common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) feathers from museum specimens and free-living individuals spanning a 50-year period. Moreover, stable isotopes of δ13C and δ15N were also measured as proxies of Common kestrel feeding ecology over time. In general, all elements showed significant increasing trends overtime, suggesting changes of inputs from local sources. Moreover, δ15N signatures were correlated to the variations in Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, V and Zn concentrations, suggesting trophic changes in this kestrel population as well as possible biomagnification processes. Finally, some values of Cr, Mn and Pb were above the threshold concentrations of potential toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Falconiformes , Oligoelementos , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plumas/química , Humanos , España , Oligoelementos/análisis
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111598, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396119

RESUMEN

Within the domain of phytoremediation research, the proper disposal of harvestable plant parts, that remove pollutants from contaminated soil, has been attracted extensive attention. Here, the bioenergy generation capability of trace metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, and As) polluted plants was assessed. The biogas production potential of accumulators or hyperaccumulator plants, Elsholtzia haichowensis, Sedum alfredii, Solanum nigrum, Phytolacca americana and Pteris vittata were 259.2 ± 1.9, 238.7 ± 4.2, 135.9 ± 0.9, 129.5 ± 2.9 and 106.8 ± 2.1 mL/g, respectively. The presence of Cu (at approximately 1000 mg/kg) increased the cumulative biogas production, the daily methane production and the methane yield of E. haichowensis. For S. alfredii, the presence of Zn (≥500 mg/kg) showed a significant negative impact on the methane content in biogas, and the daily methane production, which decreased the biogas and methane yield. The biogas production potential increased when the content of Mn was at 5 000-10,000 mg/kg, subsequently, decreased when the value of Mn at 20,000 mg/kg. However, Cd (1-200 mg/kg), Pb (125-2000 mg/kg) and As (1250-10,000 mg/kg) showed no distinctive change in the cumulative biogas production of S. nigrum, S. alfredii and P. vittata, respectively. The methane yield showed a strong positive correlation (R2 =0.9704) with cumulative biogas production, and the energy potential of the plant residues were at 415-985 kWh/ton. Thus, the anaerobic digestion has bright potential for the disposal of trace metal contaminated plants, and has promising prospects for the use in energy production.


Asunto(s)
Anaerobiosis , Biocombustibles , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Oligoelementos/análisis , Biodegradación Ambiental , Contaminantes Ambientales , Metano , Plantas , Pteris/química , Sedum
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(2): 65, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449210

RESUMEN

In areca nut and husk, 14 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, and Zn) were determined, while 34 elements including rare earth elements were detected in the corresponding soil samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry methods, whereas the concentration levels of Hg in tested samples are negligible, perhaps, below the detection limits. No rare earth elements were detected in edible areca nut. The concentration levels of various essential elements and heavy elements such as As, Cd, and Cu present in areca nut are within the permissible levels, whereas Pb content is relatively higher than FAO/WHO's permissible levels. The order of bioaccumulation index for heavy metals in areca nut was Cd > Sb > Cu > Zn ≥ Mn ≥ Co > Pb ≥ As. Bioaccumulation index values are indicating that areca palm may not be able to accumulate other heavy elements in the edible areca nut, except for Cd. On the basis of pollution indices, Northeast Indian soil may be relatively unpolluted.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Oligoelementos , Areca , Monitoreo del Ambiente , India , Metales Pesados/análisis , Nueces/química , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Oligoelementos/análisis
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111615, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396135

RESUMEN

Thyroid tumor and thyroid goiter are prevalent disease around the world. In this case-control study, we investigated the association between exposure to a total of twelve mineral elements and thyroid disease as well as thyroid functions. Participants with thyroid tumor or goiter (N = 197) were matched with a healthy population (N = 197) by age (± 2 years old) and same sex. Questionnaires were used to collect data about the demographic characteristics and information of subjects. Serum and urine samples were collected simultaneously for each of the subjects. Mineral elements, iodine level of urine and levels of the total seven thyroid function indexes in serum were detected respectively. Conditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the associations between mineral elements and the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter through single-element models and multiple-element models. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate relationships between mineral elements and percentage changes of thyroid functions. Higher concentrations of mineral elements in the recruited population were found in this study than other comparable studies, and the levels of chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), thallium (Tl) and lead (Pb) in the case group were lower than the control group. According to the single-element models, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sb and Tl showed significant negative associations with the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter, and, Cd showed nonmonotonic dose response. Cd and mercury (Hg) showed a nonmonotonic percentage change with T4, while Tl was associated with the increased FT4 in the control group. Therefore, Cd, Hg and Tl may disturb the balance of thyroid function to some extent, and Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Sb, and Tl may become potential influencing factors for the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter.


Asunto(s)
Bocio/metabolismo , Metales Pesados/metabolismo , Minerales/metabolismo , Glándula Tiroides/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Preescolar , Femenino , Bocio/epidemiología , Bocio/orina , Humanos , Yodo/orina , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Metales Pesados/orina , Minerales/orina , Análisis Multivariante , Pruebas de Función de la Tiroides , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/orina , Oligoelementos/orina , Adulto Joven
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111887, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450535

RESUMEN

Cadmium (Cd) is an unessential trace element in plants that is ubiquitous in the environment. Anthropogenic activities such as disposal of urban refuse, smelting, mining, metal manufacturing, and application of synthetic phosphate fertilizers enhance the concentration of Cd in the environment and are carcinogenic to human health. In this manuscript, we reviewed the sources of Cd contamination to the environment, soil factors affecting the Cd uptake, the dynamics of Cd in the soil rhizosphere, uptake mechanisms, translocation, and toxicity of Cd in plants. In crop plants, the toxicity of Cd reduces uptake and translocation of nutrients and water, increases oxidative damage, disrupts plant metabolism, and inhibits plant morphology and physiology. In addition, the defense mechanism in plants against Cd toxicity and potential remediation strategies, including the use of biochar, minerals nutrients, compost, organic manure, growth regulators, and hormones, and application of phytoremediation, bioremediation, and chemical methods are also highlighted in this review. This manuscript may help to determine the ecological importance of Cd stress in interdisciplinary studies and essential remediation strategies to overcome the contamination of Cd in agricultural soils.


Asunto(s)
Biodegradación Ambiental , Cadmio/toxicidad , Restauración y Remediación Ambiental , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Agricultura , Cadmio/metabolismo , Carbón Orgánico , Compostaje , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Estiércol , Metales , Rizosfera , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Oligoelementos
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401562

RESUMEN

We measured PM2.5 in 41 underground shopping districts (USDs) in the Seoul metropolitan area from June to November 2017, and associated 18 trace elements to determine the sources and assess the respiratory risks. The PM2.5 concentrations were 18.0 ± 8.0 µg/m3 inside USDs, which were lower than 25.2 ± 10.6 µg/m3 outside. We identified five sources such as indoor miscellanea, soil dust, vehicle exhaust/cooking, coal combustion, and road/subway dust, using factor analysis. Almost 67% of the total trace element concentration resulted from soil dust. Soil dust contribution increased with the number of stores because of fugitive dust emissions due to an increase in passers-by. Vehicle exhaust/cooking contribution was higher when the entrances of the USDs were closed, whereas coal combustion contribution was higher when the entrances of the USDs were open. Although miscellanea and coal combustion contributions were 3.4% and 0.7%, respectively, among five elements with cancer risk, Cr and Ni were included in miscellanea, and Pb, Cd, and As were included in coal combustion. The excess cancer risk (ECR) was the highest at 67 × 10-6 for Cr, and the ECR for Pb was lower than 10-6, a goal of the United States Environmental Protection Agency for hazardous air pollutants.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Oligoelementos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Humanos , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis , Trastornos Respiratorios/inducido químicamente , Trastornos Respiratorios/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Seúl/epidemiología , Oligoelementos/efectos adversos , Oligoelementos/análisis
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(9): 10413-10435, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410053

RESUMEN

This review presents compiled results of complex biomonitoring studies that have been conducted in the Holy Cross Mountains, south-central part of Poland, since the 1990s. The significance of these studies results from several aspects: (i) a number and a variety of plant organisms used, e.g., mosses, lichens, coniferous and deciduous trees, and their tissues (wood, bark, needles, leaves, the aboveground parts of several vascular plants); (ii) applications of a broad scope of instrumental methods aiming at determining major and trace elements (including rare earth elements), organic compounds (PAHs, PCBs, phenols), and stable sulfur isotopes (δ34S); and (iii) different methodological and environmental issues addressed. The comparison and interpretation of results derived from seventeen sampling campaigns carried out between 1994 and 2017 are a valuable source of information on the following: (i) bioaccumulative properties of organisms used in air quality monitoring, (ii) identification and variations of local and regional pollution sources and geochemical landscape patterns and processes over years, and (iii) establishing environmental factors that variously affected chemical composition of plants growing under physiological stress, including roadside vegetation and plants from acid mine drainage areas.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminantes Ambientales , Oligoelementos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo Biológico , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Polonia , Oligoelementos/análisis
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 766: 144247, 2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421779

RESUMEN

White-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca; WWSC) and surf scoters (M. perspicillata; SUSC) have declined by over 60% in recent decades. Identifying contributing factors from within a mosaic of sublethal, multiple stressors is challenging. In urbanized Puget Sound, Washington, USA where scoters winter, changes in prey availability explained only a portion of local declines, suggesting that other "silent stressors" such as sublethal contaminants might play a role. Past studies of pollutant effects on scoters used Fisherian statistics that often revealed few correlates; however, novel statistical approaches could detect and provide more insights about sublethal impacts. Our objectives were to (1) relate pollutant accumulation to health of the birds, and (2) compare permutational multivariate statistics with traditional approaches in identifying sublethal health effects. We collected scoters from three locations in Puget Sound in December 2005 and March 2006, and measured cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) levels in livers and kidneys. To assess impacts of low contaminants levels in tissues on nutritional status (whole-body mass, lipid, and protein; and triglycerides, ß-hydroxybutyrate, and uric acid in blood), we compared statistical methods. Permutational multivariate methods use Monte Carlo techniques to assess how an integrated matrix of physiological responses in each animal respond to contaminants. Univariate regressions revealed very few and inconsistent relationships. In contrast, multivariate models showed that liver Hg and Se explained 25% of the variance in nutritional status of white-winged scoters; and in surf scoters, Cd, Hg, and Se in tissues explained 14 to 27% of nutritional status depending on site. The influence of these factors equals other aspects of habitat such as foraging conditions. Our study indicates that permutational multivariate statistics can be a powerful tool for identifying sublethal contaminant associations that, with non-contaminant stressors, can influence nutritional status and thus, contribute to population dynamics.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Selenio , Oligoelementos , Animales , Patos , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Estado Nutricional , Selenio/análisis , Selenio/toxicidad , Washingtón
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 766: 144628, 2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421782

RESUMEN

This study investigated the sex-related and spatial variation in trace elements concentrations in feathers of the Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus) inhabiting different coastal locations in the Iberian Peninsula. Feathers were sampled in a total of 50 breeding birds from 7 different locations: 3 on the Mediterranean coast (n=18), 1 on the Atlantic coast of Andalusia (n=9) and 3 on the NW Atlantic coast (n=23). The feathers were analyzed to determine the concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Hg and Pb. All of the trace elements were present at detectable concentrations, and the mean concentrations of Al, Zn and Cu were highest of those considered. The coastal section had a significant effect on 5 elements (Mn, Cu, As, Cd and Pb). The mean concentrations of almost all of the trace elements were highest in the birds from Andalusia, intermediate in the birds from the Mediterranean area and, in general, lowest in the birds from the NW Atlantic coast. Females showed significant higher Mn concentrations and high levels of exogenous elements (Al and As) in contrast with males. Less preening activity during the day of female birds, when they are occupied in incubating eggs, could favour higher concentrations of exogenous trace elements. The high levels of several trace elements observed in the samples from Mediterranean and Atlantic coast of Andalusia may pose a serious threat to these populations.


Asunto(s)
Charadriiformes , Mercurio , Oligoelementos , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plumas/química , Femenino , Masculino , Mercurio/análisis , Oligoelementos/análisis
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111953, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418344

RESUMEN

The Serinhaém River estuary is located in the Environmental Protection Area (EPA) of Pratigi, in the State of Bahia, Brazil, which is recognized for being a relatively well-preserved environment. In this work, the levels of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn) were determined to evaluate the behavior of these chemical elements through geochemical parameters. Eighty-one sediment samples were collected in five sediment cores along the estuarine region. The results of the composition of the Serinhaém river basin showed high levels of Fe, Al, and Mn in the sediment samples. By using Principal Component Analysis, it was observed that 55.8% of the elements have a significant correlation with Fe, Al, and Mn, which may have the same origin or be associated with Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides, and aluminosilicates. Although Cr, As, and V are correlated with Fe, Mn, and Al, their concentrations are above those established by NOAA, suggesting adverse effects on biota. Barium concentrations increased toward the outfall, where it meets the Camamu Bay, which is naturally enriched with this element. It was also possible to observe that along with the vertical profile, there were no variations in the concentrations of the elements, while along the estuary, it was possible to verify that the cores differ from each other. The estuary of the Serinhaém River can be considered to be influenced relatively little by human activities, and its concentrations can be considered as a base level for this coastal region.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Oligoelementos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Brasil , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estuarios , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 325: 124713, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485082

RESUMEN

The performance and microbial community dynamics in anaerobic co-digestion (ACoD) of chicken manure and corn stover with different modification methods and trace element supplementation strategy were investigated in this study. KOH and liquid fraction of digestate (LFD) were applied for modification; Fe, Co, Mn, Mo, and Ni were used for supplement. Results showed that the selected trace element was insufficient in the partial or whole digestion process. When trace element supplement was combined with KOH or LFD modifications, the ACoD obtained biomethane yields of 245.3-258.0 and 254.0-261.8 mLN·gVS-1, 26.0%-32.5% and 30.5%-34.5% more than that of the control, respectively. Microbial community analyses indicated that the composition and diversity of archaea and bacteria varied at genus level. Main pathways involved in ACoD were affected accordingly, which in turn affected co-digestion performance. This study demonstrated that the combining modification and trace element supplement could improve the digestion performance and achieve higher biomethane yield.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Oligoelementos , Anaerobiosis , Animales , Biocombustibles , Reactores Biológicos , Pollos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Digestión , Estiércol , Metano , Zea mays
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466466

RESUMEN

This study aimed to identify the relationship between selected trace elements in human milk and depression, breastfeeding self-efficacy, sleep satisfaction, and the demographic and obstetric characteristics of lactating mothers. Forty lactating mothers recovering after birth in two postpartum care centers located in Changwon, South Korea, were studied. Calcium, sodium, iron, and selenium concentrations in human milk were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at the analysis center of Kyungnam University. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the Kruskal-Wallis test, the Mann-Whiney U test, and Spearman's correlation coefficients using an SPSS 23.0 program. There were no significant differences in concentration of selected trace elements (calcium, sodium, iron, and selenium) in human milk according to demographic and obstetric characteristics. Sodium concentration was negatively correlated with breastfeeding self-efficacy (r = -0.51, CI = -0.71 to -0.24). Selenium concentration was negatively correlated with calcium concentration (r = -0.34, CI = -0.58 to 0.38). Postpartum depression was negatively correlated with sleep satisfaction (r = -0.46, CI = -0.67 to -0.17) and with breastfeeding self-efficacy (r = -0.41, CI = -0.64 to -0.11). Breastfeeding self-efficacy was positively correlated with sleep satisfaction (r = 0.48, CI = 0.20 to 0.69). This study suggests that sodium concentration in human milk is associated with breastfeeding self-efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Leche Humana/química , Madres/psicología , Autoeficacia , Oligoelementos , Animales , Cesárea , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Lactancia , Masculino , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , República de Corea , Sodio/análisis , Oligoelementos/análisis
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(2): 92, 2021 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506380

RESUMEN

The objective of this work was to determine the trace element composition in the nanometric, ultrafine, fine, and coarse particulate matters (PM) found in the surrounding area of the UERJ Chemical Technology Applications Institute, using a MSP 120 MOUDI II cascade impactor. After acid extraction, the elements were analyzed via ICP-OES, and the results obtained were treated statistically. The average concentrations of the nanometric, ultrafine, fine, and coarse particles were 11.8, 8.2, 7.7, and 7.1 µg m-3, respectively. The total average concentration of Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Fe complied with the air quality standards recommended by US EPA and WHO. When compared with other locations, the PM fractions found in this study were 1.1 to 346 times greater. Through the calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient, a high correlation was observed between most of the trace elements studied, especially in the ultrafine, fine, and coarse fractions, which suggests that they are probably caused by the same sources of vehicular emissions. The enrichment factor was calculated to estimate the possible sources. Since Cd, Cu, Pb, and Mo are enriched by anthropic sources, they are probably influenced by vehicular emissions, in particular the wear on tires and brakes, and the burning of fossil fuel.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Oligoelementos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis , Oligoelementos/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111733, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385679

RESUMEN

Both essential and non-essential elements have been associated with female reproductive function in epidemiologic investigations, including among IVF populations. To date, most investigators have used blood or urine to assess biomarkers of exposure, with few employing ovarian follicular fluid (FF). FF may offer a more direct "snapshot" of the oocyte microenvironment than blood or urine, however previous studies report follicle-to-follicle variability in FF constituents that may contribute to exposure misclassification. Our objectives were to investigate sources of trace element variability, to estimate FF biomarker reliability among women undergoing IVF (n = 34), and to determine the minimum number of follicles required to estimate subject-specific mean concentrations. We measured As, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn in FF samples using inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry. Inter-subject (between-women) variability contributed most of the variability in FF element concentrations, with ovarian, follicular, and analytical as smaller sources of variability. The proportion of variability attributable to sources between-follicles differed by age, body mass index (BMI), race, and cigarette smoking for Cu, Se, and Zn, by BMI and cigarette smoking for As, by primary infertility diagnosis for Hg, Cu, Se, and Zn, and by ovarian stimulation protocol for Mn and Se. Four to five individual follicles were sufficient to estimate subject-specific mean Cu, Se, and Zn concentrations, while >14 were necessary for As, Hg, Cd, Pb, and Mn. Overall, our results suggest that FF is a suitable source of biomarkers of As and Hg exposure in ovarian follicles. Although limited in size, our study offers the most comprehensive exploration of biological variation in FF trace elements to date and may provide guidance for future studies of ovarian trace element exposures.


Asunto(s)
Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Adulto , Femenino , Fertilización In Vitro , Líquido Folicular/química , Humanos , Mercurio/análisis , Oocitos , Folículo Ovárico , Oligoelementos/análisis
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