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1.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(3): 259-260, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385982

RESUMEN

The epidemic caused by COVID-19 has been highly concerned by the international community including World Health Organization (WHO). This is an ongoing battle for human life and health. We should always remember and learn lessons from the past, which could be promoted to all over the country, even the world. Many phenomena and problems in the work of epidemic prevention, control and treatment are worthy of our deep reflection. We should use scientific approach and dialectical materialism to make a practical and realistic summary. The purpose is to win the battle as soon as possible, and more importantly, to avoid repeating the same mistakes and prevent pestilence before it happens.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Organización Mundial de la Salud
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354081

RESUMEN

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus first identified in Wuhan, China, and the etiological agent of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). This infection spreads mainly through direct contact with Flügge micro droplets or core droplets that remain suspended as aerosol. Moreover, it has been reported that infected subjects, both with and without clinical signs of COVID-19, can transmit the virus. Since the infection typically enters through mouth, nose, and eyes, dentistry is one of the medical practices at highest risk of infection due to the frequent production of aerosol and the constant presence of saliva. The World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested that only emergency/urgent procedures should be performed during the coronavirus outbreak. Considering the virus' route of transmission, a specific protocol should be applied to reduce the risk of infection in addition to measures that prevent the spread of infection from a patient to another person or medical tools and equipment (cross-infection). This protocol should be implemented by modifying both patient management and clinical practice, introducing particular devices and organizational practices. This paper aims to discuss and suggest the most appropriate procedures in every aspect of dental practice to reduce infection risk.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Coronavirus , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Administración de la Práctica Odontológica , Pautas de la Práctica en Odontología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Odontología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/transmisión , Estados Unidos , Organización Mundial de la Salud
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19900, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312018

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: A novel coronavirus, tentatively designated as 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), now called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, emerged in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019 and which continues to expand. On February 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) named the disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). On February 28, WHO increased our assessment of the risk of spread and the risk of impact of COVID-19 to very high at a global level. The COVID-19 poses significant threats to international health.Computed tomography (CT) has been an important imaging modality in assisting in the diagnosis and management of patients withCOVID-19. Some retrospective imaging studies have reported chest CT findings of COVID-19 in the past 2 months, suggesting that several CT findings may be characteristic. To our knowledge, there has been no prospective multicentre imaging study of COVID-19 to date.We proposed a hypothesis: There are some specific CT features on Chest CT of COVID-19 patients. And the mechanism of these CT features is explicable based on pathological findings. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the specific CT features of COVID-19 and the formation mechanism of these CT features. METHOD: This study is a prospective multicenter observational study. We will recruit 100 patients with COVID-19 at 55 hospitals. All patients undergo chest CT examination with the same scan protocol. The distribution and morphology of lesions on chest CT, clinical data will be recorded. A number of patients will be pathologically examined after permission is granted. The data of these three aspects will be analyzed synthetically. DISCUSSION: This study will help us to identify the chest CT features of COVID-19 and its mechanism. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This retrospective study was approved by the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee of West China Hospital of Sichuan University (No. 2020-140). Written informed consent will be obtained from all study participants prior to enrollment in the study. To protect privacy of participants, all private information were kept anonymous. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and will be disseminated electronically and in print regardless of results.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Organización Mundial de la Salud/organización & administración , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , China/epidemiología , Coronavirus/inmunología , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/patología , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/estadística & datos numéricos
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295188

RESUMEN

At the end of 2019 a novel virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing severe acute respiratory syndrome expanded globally from Wuhan, China. In March 2020 the World Health Organization declared the SARS-Cov-2 virus a global pandemic. We performed a narrative review to describe existing literature with regard to Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and future perspective. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched for relevant articles. Although only when the pandemic ends it will be possible to assess the full health, social and economic impact of this global disaster, this review represents a picture of the current state of the art. In particular, we focus on public health impact, pathophysiology and clinical manifestations, diagnosis, case management, emergency response and preparedness.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virología , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Neumonía Viral/virología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Salud Pública , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/virología , Organización Mundial de la Salud
13.
West J Emerg Med ; 2020 03 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223871

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: On March 10, 2020, the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic due to widespread infection of the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). We report the preliminary results of a targeted program of COVID-19 infection testing in the ED in the first 10 days of its initiation at our institution. METHODS: We conducted a review of prospectively collected data on all ED patients who had targeted testing for acute COVID-19 infection at two EDs during the initial 10 days of testing (March 10-19, 2020). During this initial period with limited resources, testing was targeted toward high-risk patients per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Data collected from patients who were tested included demographics, clinical characteristics, and test qualifying criteria. We present the data overall and by test results with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: During the 10-day study period, the combined census of the study EDs was 2157 patient encounters. A total of 283 tests were ordered in the ED. The majority of patients were 18-64 years of age, male, non-Hispanic white, had an Emergency Severity Index score of three, did not have a fever, and were discharged from the ED. A total of 29 (10.2%) tested positive. Symptoms-based criteria most associated with COVID-19 were the most common criteria identified for testing (90.6%). All other criteria were reported in 5.51-43.0% of persons being tested. Having contact with a person under investigation was significantly more common in those who tested positive compared to those who tested negative (63% vs 24.5%, respectively). The majority of patients in both results groups had at least two qualifying criteria for testing (75.2%). CONCLUSION: In this review of prospectively collected data on all ED patients who had targeted testing for acute COVID-19 infection at two EDs in the first 10 days of testing, we found that 10.2% of those tested were identified as positive. The continued monitoring of testing and results will help providers understand how COVID-19 is progressing in the community.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Femenino , Fiebre , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Estados Unidos , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Adulto Joven
14.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 77(2): 47-53, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226003

RESUMEN

Before the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in 2003, coronaviruses (CoVs) were not considered to be highly pathogenic to humans. However, it was this epidemic that highlighted this group of viruses and included them among the causative agents of emerging epidemic diseases. In addition, in 2012, another new CoV responsible for the Middle East respiratory syndrome was identified. Both infections were considered a threat to global health security. At present, the third epidemic caused by a CoV is being faced. This new CoV, called 2019-nCoV, was originated in the city of Wuhan, China, and has been linked to severe respiratory infections in humans. Thanks to the collaboration of experts worldwide, more information about this virus and its infection is reported each day, which allows modifying the recommendations for its prevention and treatment, without forgetting that the ultimate goal is to control this epidemic. In this review, the important aspects of this new coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, and its disease, COVID-19, have been summarized with the information available up to February 2020.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Coronavirus , Brotes de Enfermedades , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , China , Salud Global , Humanos , Pandemias , Organización Mundial de la Salud
15.
Gac Med Mex ; 156(2): 132-137, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285862

RESUMEN

On December 31, 2019, the Chinese health authorities informed the international community, through the mechanisms established by the World Health Organization (WHO), of a pneumonia epidemic of unknown etiology in Wuhan, Hubei Province. The first cases were reported early in that month and were linked to a history of having visited a market where food and live animals are sold. On January 7, 2020, isolation and identification of the culprit pathogen was achieved using next-generation sequencing, while the number of affected subjects continued to rise. The publication of full-genomes of the newly identified coronavirus (initially called 2019-nCoV, now called SARS-CoV2) in public and private databases, of standardized diagnostic protocols and of the clinical-epidemiological information generated will allow addressing the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), declared on January 30 by the WHO. With this document, we intend to contribute to the characterization of the pneumonia epidemic, now designated coronavirus disease (Covid-19) review the strengths Mexico has in the global health concert and invite health professionals to join the preparedness and response activities in the face of this emergency.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Salud Global , Humanos , México , Pandemias , Salud Pública , Organización Mundial de la Salud
16.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(1): 1-4, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291365

RESUMEN

In late 2019, a mass of patients showing symptoms of a pneumonia-like disease of unknown origin emerged in Wuhan, China. Little did the world know it was the prelude of what would be a devastating pandemic. Samples were collected from these patients and the use of unbiased sequencing, and subsequent isolation of the pathogen using human airway epithelial cells led to the discovery of a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The disease caused by this virus is officially called the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Organización Mundial de la Salud
17.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 53(2): 98-105, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268464

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Obesity is regarded as one of the most prominent health threats worldwide and a serious risk factor for non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 2, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, and some types of cancer. Given the role that societal development-as reflected by the Human Development Index (HDI)-may play in the prevalence of obesity and overweight, this study aimed to investigate the degree to which the prevalence of obesity and overweight is affected by HDI and its components. METHODS: In this ecological study, the required data on HDI and its components were gathered from the latest report of the United Nations Development Program, and data on obesity and overweight were acquired from the latest reports published on the World Health Organization website. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS version 24.0. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity was determined to be significantly higher among females than males, and the gross national index per capita was found to be significantly higher for males than females (p<0.05). Significant positive correlations were found between HDI and its components and sex, as well as indices of obesity and overweight. CONCLUSIONS: A significant positive correlation exists between HDI and obesity. As policy-makers attempt to improve the general welfare of the people, they should be aware of potential unwanted effects of development on the risk of obesity and overweight among the population.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Desarrollo Industrial , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Región Mediterránea/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/etiología , Prevalencia , Salud Pública , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Urbanización , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Adulto Joven
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299333

RESUMEN

Australia conducts surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children less than 15 years as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the main method to monitor its polio-free status. Cases of AFP in children are notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance System and faecal specimens are referred for virological investigation to the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory. In 2015, no cases of poliomyelitis were reported from clinical surveillance and Australia reported 1.2 non-polio AFP cases per 100,000 children, meeting the WHO performance criterion for a sensitive surveillance system. Two non-polio enteroviruses, enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus B3, were identified from clinical specimens collected from AFP cases. Australia complements the clinical surveillance program with enterovirus and environmental surveillance for poliovirus. Two Sabin-like polioviruses were isolated from sewage collected in Melbourne in 2015, which would have been imported from a country that uses the oral polio vaccine. The global eradication of wild poliovirus type 2 was certified in 2015 and Sabin poliovirus type 2 will be withdrawn from oral polio vaccine in April 2016. Laboratory containment of all remaining wild and vaccine strains of poliovirus type 2 will occur in 2016 and the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory was designated as a polio essential facility. Globally, in 2015, 74 cases of polio were reported, only in the two remaining countries endemic for wild poliovirus: Afghanistan and Pakistan. This is the lowest number reported since the global polio eradication program was initiated.


Asunto(s)
Informes Anuales como Asunto , Notificación de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Enterovirus/epidemiología , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Adolescente , Australia/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Enterovirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Enterovirus/virología , Heces/virología , Humanos , Lactante , Paraplejía/diagnóstico , Paraplejía/epidemiología , Paraplejía/virología , Poliovirus , Organización Mundial de la Salud
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299334

RESUMEN

Australia monitors its polio-free status by conducting surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children less than 15 years of age, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Cases of AFP in children are notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance System and faecal specimens are referred for virological investigation to the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory. In 2016, no cases of poliomyelitis were reported from clinical surveillance and Australia reported 1.38 non-polio AFP cases per 100,000 children, meeting the WHO performance criterion for a sensitive surveillance system. Several non-polio enteroviruses, coxsackievirus A6, enterovirus A71, enterovirus A74 and enterovirus D68, were identified from clinical specimens collected from AFP cases. The global withdrawal of Sabin poliovirus type 2 from oral polio vaccine occurred in April 2016. This event represents the start of the polio endgame with an increased focus on the laboratory containment of all remaining wild and vaccine strains of poliovirus type 2. The National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory was designated as a polio essential facility as part of this process. In 2016, 37 cases of wild polio were reported with three countries remaining endemic: Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan. Nigeria was declared polio-free in 2015, after 12 months without detection of wild poliovirus, but was reinstated as an endemic country after the reporting of four cases in August 2016. This is a salient reminder of the need to maintain sensitive surveillance for poliovirus until global eradication is certified.


Asunto(s)
Informes Anuales como Asunto , Notificación de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Enterovirus/epidemiología , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Adolescente , Australia/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Enterovirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Enterovirus/virología , Heces/virología , Humanos , Lactante , Paraplejía/diagnóstico , Paraplejía/epidemiología , Paraplejía/virología , Poliovirus , Organización Mundial de la Salud
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