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3.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 250, 2019 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286962

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Investment in research is high on the agenda of many countries in recognition of the fact that research is important for the development of society. Doctoral students have a vital role and represent a substantial part of this investment. It is therefore imperative to reduce the risk of students dropping out from doctoral studies. The aim of this qualitative study was to gain deeper insight into the working conditions of, and obstacles and opportunities for, doctoral students at an institute of medicine in Sweden. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2013 with 17 doctoral students-of varying genders, professions and fields of research-from the Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using systematic text condensation. RESULTS: Four categories emerged from the data. They were: Safety, Frustrating Structures, Others - not me, and the future. They included positive as well as negative perceptions. Among the positive perceptions were recognition of the importance of the supervisor, as well as secure conditions, and personal development. Frustrating structures in the academic culture, stress and differences in career building constituted the negative points. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that there is a need for structures within the university that support doctoral students who feel they are not receiving the assistance they need, who believe they have unreasonable working conditions, or who may need to change supervisors in order to complete their graduate research studies. Our study also highlights the fact that supervisors have a major influence on the work environment of doctoral students, and that the general and academic perception of the research area likewise has an effect on the successful completion of the research project and dissertation. Providing leadership training for supervisors could be an important measure that may help improve conditions for the doctoral students they supervise.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/educación , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/normas , Docentes Médicos , Investigadores/psicología , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Curriculum , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Medio Social , Suecia , Orientación Vocacional/normas
5.
Rev. bras. orientac. prof ; 20(1): 57-66, jan.-jun. 2019. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1042397

RESUMEN

No presente artigo é apresentado e descrito um projeto de intervenção no domínio da psicologia vocacional designado Keep-on-Going. A intervenção em causa visa apoiar jovens na fase final do processo formativo, na escolha estratégica do contexto de estágio curricular. Tem como base teórica o Modelo de Exploração Reconstrutiva do Investimento Vocacional, e estrutura-se em seis momentos-chave num total de 10 sessões com duas a três horas cada. Participaram na 1.ª edição cinco estudantes (do sexo feminino) do 1.º ano do Mestrado em Psicologia da Educação. Os resultados da avaliação contínua apontam para valores médios de seis numa escala de 1 a 7, em termos da qualidade geral do projeto. Na avaliação de follow-up as dimensões "Evolução na capacidade de escolher" e "Utilidade do projeto", são as mais pontuadas confirmando que a participação no projeto se revelou uma experiência de valor para as estudantes.


This article presents and describes an intervention project in the field of vocational psychology named Keep-on-Going. This intervention aims to support young people in the final stage of the training process, in the strategic choice of the context of curricular internship. Its theoretical basis is the Reconstructive Exploitation Model of Vocational Investment, and it is structured into six key moments in a total of 10 sessions with two to three hours each. Five female students participated in the first edition of the 1st year of the Master's in Educational Psychology. The results of the continuous evaluation point to average values ​​of six on a scale of 1 to 7, in terms of the overall quality of the project. In the follow-up assessment, the dimensions "Evolution in the ability to choose" and "Project usefulness" are the highest scores confirming that participation in the project has proved to be a valuable experience for the students.


En el presente artículo se presenta y describe un proyecto de intervención en el ámbito de la psicología vocacional designado Keep-on-Going. La intervención en cuestión pretende apoyar a los jóvenes en la fase final del proceso formativo para la elección estratégica del contexto de la práctica curricular. Se tiene como base teórica el Modelo de Exploración Reconstructiva de la Inversión Vocacional, y se estructura en seis momentos clave en un total de 10 sesiones de dos a tres horas cada una. Participaron en la primera edición cinco estudiantes (sexo femenino) del primer año de la Maestría en Psicología de la Educación. Los resultados de la evaluación continua apuntan valores medios de seis en una escala de 1 a 7, en términos de la calidad general del proyecto. En la evaluación de seguimiento, las dimensiones "Evolución en la capacidad de escoger" y "Utilidad del proyecto" son las más puntuadas, confirmando que la participación en el proyecto constituyó una experiencia de valor para las estudiantes.


Asunto(s)
Psicología , Orientación Vocacional , Capacitación Profesional
6.
Rev. bras. orientac. prof ; 20(1): 67-77, jan.-jun. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1042398

RESUMEN

Da escolha de uma profissão à sua efetivação há um longo caminho a percorrer. Visando compreender como se dá esse percurso, analisou-se as trajetórias educacionais e profissionais de cinco egressos de um programa de Orientação Profissional, enfocando a relação dialética entre os elementos do contexto e as escolhas e ações dos próprios sujeitos. O trabalho foi metodologicamente guiado pela Epistemologia Qualitativa de González Rey. Para a produção de dados utilizou-se análise documental, entrevistas abertas e genoprofissiograma. Como resultado identificou-se zonas de sentido relacionadas a: influências dos pares e da família; família como base do desenvolvimento profissional; obstáculos relativos à condições socioeconômicas e saúde; estratégias para acesso a cursos e melhor colocação profissional; oportunidades; formação e atuação profissional; projetos de futuro.


From choosing a profession to its effectiveness, there is a long path to go. Aiming to understand how this path is taken, we analyzed the educational and professional trajectories of five graduates from a Professional Orientation program, focusing on the dialectical relationship between context elements and subjectsˈ choices and actions. The research was methodologically guided by the Qualitative Epistemology of González Rey. Documentary analysis, open interviews and geno-job-profile diagram were used for data production. As a result, we identified areas of meaning related to: peer and family influences; family as the basis of professional development; obstacles to socio-economic and health conditions; strategies for access to courses and better job placement; opportunities; training and professional performance; future projects.


Desde la elección de una profesión hasta su concretización hay un largo camino por recorrer. Con el objetivo de entender cómo se configura este recorrido, se analizaron las trayectorias educativas y profesionales de cinco ex-participantes de un programa de orientación profesional, puntualizando la relación dialéctica entre el contexto y las elecciones y acciones de los sujetos. Metodológicamente, el trabajo estuvo basado en la Epistemología Cualitativa de González Rey. Para la producción de los datos se realizaron análisis de documentos, entrevistas abiertas y genoprofesiograma. Como resultado, se identificaron zonas de sentido relacionadas con las influencias de los pares y de la familia, familia sobre la base del desarrollo profesional; obstáculos relacionados conlas condiciones socioeconómicas y de salud; estrategias para el acceso a las carreras y mejor ubicación profesional; formación y actuación profesional; proyectos futuros.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Orientación Vocacional , Selección de Profesión , Investigación Cualitativa
8.
Acad Med ; 94(5): 688-691, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021874

RESUMEN

PROBLEM: Reapplicants make up over one-quarter of U.S. medical school applicants. Postapplication advisement (PAA) can provide potential reapplicants with concrete strategies for improvement, a contextualized basis for their scores, and a realistic idea of their chances for success. However, more data showing the effectiveness of PAA and an analysis of best practices are needed for PAA programs to be more widely adopted. APPROACH: In 2010, the University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNM SOM) created a PAA program that involves a postapplication seminar (PAS), mandatory self-assessment and action plan development, and an individual consult with an admissions dean to prepare participants for reapplication. OUTCOMES: From 2010 to 2016, 892 applicants who interviewed and were rejected at UNM SOM were eligible to participate in PAA. Of these, 478 (53.6%) chose to participate in PAA over the seven-year period. Males had a higher participation rate (246/430; 57.2%) compared with females (232/461; 50.3%; P = .04). African Americans had a higher participation rate (12/17; 70.6%) and American Indian/Alaska Natives had a lower participation rate (17/64; 26.6%) than any other race/ethnicity. Of reapplicants who were subsequently accepted, 140/178 (78.7%) attended PAS and a consult, and 7/178 (3.9%) attended PAS only, compared with 31/178 (17.4%) of subsequently accepted reapplicants who did not participate in any PAA (P < .001). NEXT STEPS: Additional research should focus on the best approach for assisting reapplicants with prioritizing areas for improvement in their application. Demographic data may be used to target outreach to specific populations.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/normas , Guías como Asunto , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Facultades de Medicina/normas , Estudiantes de Medicina , Orientación Vocacional/normas , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , New Mexico , Adulto Joven
9.
Work ; 62(2): 327-336, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829643

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Young people recovering from drug addiction often face challenges in returning to the job market and in maintaining their jobs. Many of them feel they have no choice but to do entry-level work, and they are often unsure about their work ability and vocational choice. OBJECTIVE: In collaboration with a youth outreach service, this study aims to provide a package of vocational assessment, guidance, and support for these clients. METHODS: Using a strength-based case management framework, we conducted a comprehensive vocational evaluation for each participant (N = 17), which covered self-perception of abilities, work and occupational interests, work readiness, work-related self-efficacy, and work aptitudes. We presented assessment results to each client and provided guidance on their education, training, or vocational choice. RESULTS: The results of aptitude tests indicate that most participants can cope with an entry-level job. Many participants are strong in jobs that require quick decision-making, sorting, assembly, and clerical tasks, but many are weak in fine manual dexterity and eye-hand-foot coordination. Many participants preferred jobs that are creative, indefinite, and autonomous in nature. CONCLUSION: Longer-term vocational counseling and coaching is needed to help clients make vocational choices and extend their job tenure. Many clients will also need training in job seeking and job maintenance skills.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Orientación Vocacional/métodos , Evaluación de Capacidad de Trabajo , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Rehabilitación Vocacional/métodos , Rehabilitación Vocacional/psicología , Autoeficacia , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Orientación Vocacional/normas
12.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(4): 433-443, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843706

RESUMEN

Two-generation human capital programs for families provide education and workforce training for parents simultaneously with education for children. This study uses a quasi-experimental design to examine the effects of a model two-generation program, CareerAdvance, which recruits parents of children enrolled in Head Start into a health care workforce training program. After 1 year, CareerAdvance parents demonstrated higher rates of certification and employment in the health care sector than did matched-comparison parents whose children were also in Head Start. More important, there was no effect on parents' short-term levels of income or employment across all sectors. CareerAdvance parents also experienced psychological benefits, reporting higher levels of self-efficacy and optimism, in addition to stronger career identity compared with the matched-comparison group. Notably, even as CareerAdvance parents juggled the demands of school, family, and employment, they did not report higher levels of material hardship or stress compared with the matched-comparison group. These findings are discussed in terms of the implications of a family perspective for human capital programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Educación/organización & administración , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Padres/educación , Orientación Vocacional/organización & administración , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Masculino , Pobreza , Desarrollo de Programa , Bienestar Social
13.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(4): 449-460, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702320

RESUMEN

Dysfunctional career decision-making beliefs can impede individuals' ability to make career decisions. The present research focused on evaluating the effectiveness of a group intervention aimed at facilitating the transition to civilian life of 1,194 young adults before discharge from military service using multivariate multilevel analysis. The results showed gender differences in the strength of dysfunctional career decision-making beliefs, as well as in the workshop's effectiveness in reducing them. Before the workshop men reported stronger dysfunctional beliefs than women that involved chance or fate (ß = .22) and perceived gender constraints (ß = .47). The workshop had a greater effect on women than on men (ß = 0.16) in reducing all five types of belief, especially those involving the criticality of the decision (ß = 0.20) and perceived gender constraints (ß = 0.22). The effectiveness of the workshop in reducing gender-related dysfunctional beliefs varied-it was greater for participants whose gender differed from that of their group facilitator. Implications for theory, future research, and counseling are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Selección de Profesión , Orientación Vocacional/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ocupaciones , Factores Sexuales , Sexismo/psicología , Adulto Joven
14.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(3): 280-307, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777774

RESUMEN

The protean/boundaryless career concepts refer to people becoming more self-directed and flexible in managing their careers in response to societal shifts in work arrangements. A sizable literature has emerged on protean/boundaryless career orientations/preferences (PBCO). Questions remain, however, about the structure of PBCO and whether they predict important criteria. The PBCO literature is largely disconnected from broader individual-level career research, making it unclear how PBCO intersect with career models based on other characteristics. We address these questions by systematically reviewing/meta-analyzing PBCO research. On the basis of 135 demographically/occupationally diverse samples from 35 countries (45,288 individuals), we find no support for traditional distinctions between protean and boundaryless orientations-protean self-directed, protean values-driven, and boundaryless psychological mobility all load onto a single general factor, labeled proactive career orientation, and are only weakly related to boundaryless physical mobility preferences. We also find that PBCO predict career self-management behaviors and career satisfaction but are less related to non-career-focused attitudes, objective success, or physical mobility behavior. PBCO are strongly related to proactivity-related and self-efficacy personality traits. We use these findings to propose an integrative model for how PBCO and other dispositions mutually influence career behavior. We discuss when PBCO may have advantages over broad traits for understanding careers, implications for counseling practice, and directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Movilidad Laboral , Autoeficacia , Orientación Vocacional , Actitud , Objetivos , Humanos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Investigación
15.
J Behav Health Serv Res ; 46(1): 1-14, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374934

RESUMEN

This study examined careers services provided to young adults with serious mental health conditions. Based on an internet survey and key informant telephone interview of 31 programs nominated for delivering innovative practices for young adults, the state of the field for career services was described. Most programs offered supported education and supported employment along with mental health services. Detailed and written planning was a key feature. Programs emphasized working closely with families, inter-agency collaboration, and use of normative community resources. Programs provided direct skills training for school and work and other life skills. Largely, existing models are being applied. However, providers described unique adaptations including greater flexibility in service delivery, attending to the turbulence and developmental changes characteristic of this age group, use of social media, and a heightened willingness to meet young people where "they are at" both literally and figuratively.


Asunto(s)
Selección de Profesión , Servicios Comunitarios de Salud Mental/métodos , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/rehabilitación , Orientación Vocacional/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interinstitucionales , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Innovación Organizacional , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Joven
17.
Int J Aging Hum Dev ; 88(1): 82-104, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29345142

RESUMEN

This study focuses on career development processes and options for older workers in South Korea and explores how career coaching enhances their career development efforts and transition needs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural relationship between older employees' goal-setting, self-efficacy, and job-search behavior mediated by career coaching. A total of 249 participants were recruited in a metropolitan city in South Korea. Based on the literature review, hypotheses were developed and tested on the structural model and the following findings were revealed. First, the findings indicate a positive effect of self-efficacy on older workers' job-search behavior. Second, the value of career coaching was found to affect older workers' job-search behavior in the South Korean context. Third, career-goal commitment alone did not have a positive significant effect on job-search behavior, but it was influential through the mediating process of the perceived quality of the career coaching program provided by an employment center in South Korea.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/psicología , Tutoría/métodos , Autoeficacia , Orientación Vocacional/métodos , Adulto , Conducta , Femenino , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Horm Behav ; 111: 3-6, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578819

RESUMEN

As the 2018 recipient of the Daniel S. Lehrman Lifetime Achievement Award from the Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, I was asked to give a short lecture in the Young Investigator Symposium of the combined Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology/International Congress on Neuroendocrinology meeting in Toronto. This lecture focused on one person's thoughts on what it takes to be successful in an academic science career. In this paper, I elaborate on success, on traits that may be useful for success in science, and on where the field of Behavioral Neuroendocrinology may be going.


Asunto(s)
Logro , Ciencia , Distinciones y Premios , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Ciencia/educación , Ciencia/normas , Orientación Vocacional
19.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(4): 279-284, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951686

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects mostly lungs but also other organs. Modern treatment has transformed once fatal disease of childhood into the chronic disease of adulthood. Hence more patients enter the job market. Very few adolescents with cystic fibrosis receive some formal career guidance. There is still no professional career guidance for them in Slovenia. METHODS: Literature on workability of patients with cystic fibrosis was reviewed. Following the articles and Slovenian and foreign manuals the guidelines on career counselling of young patients with cystic fibrosis is proposed, as well as the suggestions for professional qualification of these patients. RESULTS: The results of the studies present that workability of patients with cystic fibrosis is associated to forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (p < 0.05), the achieved educational level more than 3 years of faculty study (p < 0.001-p < 0.013), self-assessment of quality of life (p = 0.005), age (p = 0.01), and the number of admissions to the hospital (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The interactions among work, quality of life and survival require that healthcare workers strive to help their patients with cystic fibrosis to succeed in their professional lives. The young patients should achieve the highest level of education possible and follow their wishes in line with the realistic possibilities.


Asunto(s)
Fibrosis Quística , Orientación Vocacional , Adolescente , Humanos , Eslovenia
20.
Rev. ABENO ; 19(3): 50-57, 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1048032

RESUMEN

Neste estudo objetivou-se analisar os conteúdos de "Orientação Profissional" nas estruturas curriculares dos cursos de graduação em Odontologia do Brasil. As variáveis estudadas foram nomenclatura, período ministrado, carga horária e características das aulas (teórico/prático). Foi também realizada análise qualitativa dos conteúdos descritos nos planos de ensino das disciplinas. No endereço eletrônico do Conselho Federal de Odontologia foi obtida a lista com os 242 cursos de Odontologia. Destes, 192 disponibilizavam o plano de ensino, projeto pedagógico ou matriz curricular. Do total, 72,2% apresentavam alguma disciplina relacionada à "Orientação Profissional" e 3,2% eram ofertadas como disciplinas optativas. A carga horária média era de 46,5±26,96 horas (mediana = 40), sendo ministrada com maior frequência entre o 3º e 4º semestres (33,9%). Na maioria dos cursos (54,4%) os conteúdos são trabalhados de forma teórica. A nomenclatura apresenta variações, sendo a mais utilizada "Orientação Profissional". Conclui-se que em todas variáveis estudas há uma grande heterogeneidade, destacando-se, assim, a dificuldade do ensino do tema de forma articulada e contínua nos cursos (AU).


This study aimed to analyze the contents of "Professional Guidance" in the curricular structures of undergraduate dentistry courses in Brazil. The variables studied were: nomenclature, period taught, workload and class characteristics (theoretical/practical). A qualitative analysis of the contents described in the subjects' teaching plans, was also performed. The e-mail address of the Federal Council of Dentistry obtained the list with the 242 courses of Dentistry. Of these, 192 provided the teaching plan, pedagogical project or curriculum matrix. Of the total, 72.2% had some subject related to "Vocational Guidance" and 3.2% were offered as optional subjects. The average workload was 46.5 ± 26.96 hours (median = 40), being given more frequently between the 3rd and 4th semesters (33.9%). In most courses (54.4%) the contents are worked theoretically. The nomenclature presents variations, being the most used "Professional Orientation". It is concluded that in all variables studied there is a great heterogeneity, thus highlighting the difficulty of teaching the theme in an articulated and continuous way in the courses (AU).


Asunto(s)
Facultades de Odontología , Orientación Vocacional/métodos , Brasil , Selección de Profesión , Educación en Odontología , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Investigación Cualitativa , Legislación en Odontología/normas
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