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1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127555, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711268

RESUMEN

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of ruminant milk reported in published research papers (n = 65) from January 1995 to March 2020 around the world were analyzed to estimate the overall mean CLA value. The CLA content of ruminant milk samples was grouped according to geographical regions (Europe, South America, North America, Oceania, Asia, and Africa). The total CLA content of milk samples from cows, sheep, goats, yaks, and llama retrieved from the collected data ranged between 0.06 and 2.96% of total fatty acids. There is a wide variation of pooled estimated mean content of CLA in milk among the study regions and were highest in Oceania with 1.33% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16 - 1.49%) of total fatty acids. Though several factors have been reported to influence the CLA content of milk, the effect of the "geographical origin" was only considered in the present manuscript as one of the main factors in this respect.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/análisis , Leche/química , África , Animales , Asia , Bovinos , Europa (Continente) , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Cabras , América del Norte , Oceanía , Rumiantes , Ovinos , América del Sur
2.
Chemosphere ; 265: 129083, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280842

RESUMEN

The present research was attempted to examine the human health risks due to nitrate contamination in the groundwater of Texvalley (Tiruppur region) of southern India. Groundwater samples (n = 40) were picked up from open wells (shallow aquifer) and tube wells (deep aquifer) during January 2020, and laboratory examination was conducted for various major physicochemical constituents. Nitrate concentration varied from 10 to 290 mg/l with a mean of 83.45 mg/l. About 58% (n = 23) of the wells exceeded the recommended limit (>45 mg/l) of World Health Organisation, which spread over an area of 335.16 km2. Among this, 45% of the samples (n = 18) represented shallow aquifers (depth < 15 m), and 13% of them (n = 5) represented deep aquifers (depth > 15 m). Synthetic fertilizers, cow dung and sheep manure, industrial discharge, septic tank leakage and municipal solid waste disposal are the major sources of nitrate pollution in this region. The USEPA health risk assessment model was applied in this study to assess hazard quotients (HQ) according to the NO3- exposure in various age groups of inhabitants through two different pathways such as drinking (HQoral) and skin contact (HQdermal). Eventually, total hazard index (THI) was obtained for all the groundwater samples for different age groups. According to THI, 87%, 78%, 66%, 60%, 56% and 48% of the samples contain health risks (THI >1) for infants, kids, children, teens, adults and aged people, respectively. The study finally recommended seven environmental friendly actions for the groundwater quality improvements and for the sustainable health management.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , India , Nitratos/análisis , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Ovinos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
3.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 79(1): 109-132.e6, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800758

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Several animal models of temporomandibular joint ankylosis (TMJA) have been described for more than the past 2 decades. The aim of this study was 2-fold: 1) to compile and summarize the evidence of animal studies that compare different forms to induce, treat (disease already established), or prevent (after trauma) TMJA; and 2) to address the following focused question: what is the quality of reporting in these studies? MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was conducted. Animal studies conducted up to October 2019 comparing at least 2 procedures to induce, treat (disease already established), or prevent (after trauma) TMJA were considered. Compliance with the Animal Research Reporting In Vivo Experiments guidelines was checked for all studies. Studies evaluating treatment of TMJA or preventive measures also were evaluated using the SYstematic Review Center for Laboratory animal Experimentation's risk of bias tool for animal studies. RESULTS: A total of 24 studies were included. The studies were evaluated for feasibility regarding data synthesis, and a meta-analysis was not suitable because of methodological differences, mainly regarding the animal model chosen and surgical procedures performed to induce TMJA. In 17 articles, authors aimed to investigate different procedures to induce TMJA (fibrous, fibro-osseous, or bony). In 7 articles, different treatment or preventive strategies were compared. The sheep was the most used animal in models of TMJA. Only 25% (6 of 24) of studies reported some step to minimize bias (ie, blinding of investigators, randomization procedures, or allocation concealment). Approximately 54% (13 of 24) of articles clearly commented on study limitations and potential sources of bias. Further animal studies on TMJA should consider improving their reporting standards to increase their validity and improve the reproducibility of animal experiments.


Asunto(s)
Anquilosis , Trastornos de la Articulación Temporomandibular , Animales , Anquilosis/prevención & control , Anquilosis/cirugía , Artroplastia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Ovinos , Articulación Temporomandibular/cirugía , Trastornos de la Articulación Temporomandibular/prevención & control , Trastornos de la Articulación Temporomandibular/cirugía
5.
Food Chem ; 343: 128489, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153809

RESUMEN

Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein present in different tissues, body fluids and milk. Different milk has different level of OPN content. To determine the amount of osteopontin in bovine, buffalo, yak, sheep and goat milk, we developed an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method to detect an osteopontin signature peptide. The signature peptides selected by searching Uniprot database for trypsin digested osteopontin. The sample preparation procedure includes trypsin digestion, dimethyl labeling of tryptic peptides, purification and concentration of labeled tryptic peptide with solid phase extraction. The limit of detection and limit of quantification are 0.5 mg L-1 and 2.0 mg L-1, respectively. The method has satisfactory analytical performance with a linearity of R2 ≥ 0.998, recoveries of 103.7-111.0%, and precision of 1.8-6.2%. It is also validated and successfully applied to quantifying osteopontin content in bovine, buffalo, yak, sheep and goat milk.


Asunto(s)
Búfalos , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Cabras , Leche/química , Osteopontina/análisis , Ovinos , Animales , Bovinos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Marcaje Isotópico , Límite de Detección , Osteopontina/aislamiento & purificación , Péptidos/química , Extracción en Fase Sólida , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(2): 693-696, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841531

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Culicoides obsoletus is an important pest for animal husbandry. In the world, it is a major vector of bluetongue disease, which has been added to the list of Class A Animal Diseases by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and must be reported in the event of an outbreak. Although numerous studies on Culicoides sampling in farms exist, the distribution of C. obsoletus in different landscapes remains unclear. RESULTS: This study aimed to assess the effect of landscape type on the distribution of C. obsoletus. Samples were collected using light traps during spring and fall. The effect of landscape type on the distribution of C. obsoletus samples was measured by the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). Results show that C. obsoletus mainly appears in forests and pastures. CONCLUSION: Our results may provide references for controlling the C. obsoletus population and provide suggestions of other areas that may also face the challenge of bluetongue.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Lengua Azul , Lengua Azul , Ceratopogonidae , Animales , China , Insectos Vectores , Ovinos
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 759: 143508, 2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218809

RESUMEN

Environmental and management pressures are considered a threat for preserving plant communities worldwide. Identification of long-term impacts of changing management practices on plant community composition must, therefore, be a major priority to ensure improvement in conservation value. Land abandonment/wilding is one topical area where there is little available information on long-term impacts. To address this, here, we describe plant species compositional change over relatively long-time scales in a range of four British upland communities (high-level grasslands, intermediate grasslands, blanket bogs and high-level bogs) and its relationships with a series of life-history and plant trait variables. Our aims were to determine whether the business-as-usual sheep grazing practice was maintaining these communities, and if grazing was to be removed as part of abandonment/wilding strategies, would there be a conservation benefit. We used a series of long-term experimental grazing-exclosure studies at twelve sites (>40 years) on the Moor House National Nature Reserve in northern England. Each site consisted of paired plots; i.e. sheep-grazed versus ungrazed. Our results showed that there was relatively little change in dominant plant species with most change occurring within sub-dominant species. Similarly, different temporal responses in plant species richness were detected between the experiments (richness was reduced in three experiments, only one increased). In any case, the vegetation temporal trajectories were moving in similar direction in grazed and ungrazed plots at most sites. Interestingly, blanket bog experiments showed a clear compositional convergence for both grazed and ungrazed plots, although, the between-site differences related to a combination of elevation and past burning testament. Finally, the bryophytes (especially liverworts) and lichens were the groups that contributed most to the reductions in species richness. Moreover, implementation of a no-stock grazing strategy under a land abandonment/wilding approach will not bring about much plant change in the short-term in the plant communities studied here.


Asunto(s)
Pradera , Plantas , Animales , Ecosistema , Inglaterra , Ovinos
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(3): 3533-3543, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918689

RESUMEN

Considering one health concept, human health is thought to be affected by many factors. Heavy metal toxicity is now gaining its place as one of the major factors contributing to detrimental outcomes for human health. The study encompassed to target sites close to the industrial area of Lahore where heavy metal levels are believed to be higher, as industrial waste is drained into the two main drains. Sheep and goats (n = 5 from each species) reared in the locality were included in the study, and effects of heavy metal toxicity were evaluated in the selected organs (intestine, kidneys, liver, and muscles) via histopathological examination along with residual concentration of these heavy metals in the aforementioned organs. Heavy metals chromium, copper, zinc, lead, iron, magnesium, manganese, and nickel were detected in sample of selected organs by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) along with digestion method. The findings of the study indicated a statistically significant difference of residual concentrations of almost all the selected elements in almost all the tissue samples between the two sites where the values of site 1 (close to the drain) were higher compared with site 2 (away from the drain). Similar trend was depicted in histopathological examination where a higher degree of tissue degeneration, necrosis, and hence organ damage was observed in tissue samples collected from site 1 compared with site 2.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Aguas Residuales , Animales , Cromo/análisis , Cobre/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales Pesados/análisis , Rumiantes , Ovinos
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 252: 108933, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278734

RESUMEN

There is strong evidence that severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, originated from an animal reservoir. However, the exact mechanisms of emergence, the host species involved, and the risk to domestic and agricultural animals are largely unknown. Some domestic animal species, including cats, ferrets, and minks, have been demonstrated to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while others, such as pigs and chickens, are not. Importantly, the susceptibility of ruminants to SARS-CoV-2 is unknown, even though they often live in close proximity to humans. We investigated the replication and tissue tropism of two different SARS-CoV-2 isolates in the respiratory tract of three farm animal species - cattle, sheep, and pigs - using respiratory ex vivo organ cultures (EVOCs). We demonstrate that the respiratory tissues of cattle and sheep, but not of pigs, sustain viral replication in vitro of both isolates and that SARS-CoV-2 is associated to ACE2-expressing cells of the respiratory tract of both ruminant species. Intriguingly, a SARS-CoV-2 isolate containing an amino acid substitution at site 614 of the spike protein (mutation D614G) replicated at higher magnitude in ex vivo tissues of both ruminant species, supporting previous results obtained using human cells. These results suggest that additional in vivo experiments involving several ruminant species are warranted to determine their potential role in the epidemiology of this virus.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Cultivo de Órganos , Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Rumiantes/virología , Tropismo Viral , Replicación Viral , /genética , Animales , Bovinos/virología , Especificidad del Huésped , Ovinos/virología , Porcinos/virología
10.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128304, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155548

RESUMEN

Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is necessary for ovarian function, and it is temporospatially regulated during follicular development and ovulation. At outermost layer of the antral follicle, theca cells provide structural, steroidogenic, and vascular support. Inter- and extra-thecal GJIC is required for intrafollicular trafficking of signaling molecules. Because GJIC can be altered by hormones and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), we tested if any of five common EDCs (bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), and triphenyltin chloride (TPT)) can interfere with theca cell GJIC. Since most chemicals are reported to repress GJIC, we hypothesized that all chemicals tested, within environmentally relevant human exposure concentrations, will inhibit theca cell GJICs. To evaluate this hypothesis, we used a scrape loading/dye transfer assay. BPS, but no other chemical tested, enhanced GJIC in a dose- and time-dependent manner in ovine primary theca cells. A signal-protein inhibitor approach was used to explore the GJIC-modulatory pathways involved. Phospholipase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors significantly attenuated BPS-induced enhanced GJIC. Human theca cells were used to evaluate translational relevance of these findings. Human primary theca cells had a ∼40% increase in GJIC in response to BPS, which was attenuated with a MAPK inhibitor, suggestive of a conserved mechanism. Upregulation of GJIC could result in hyperplasia of the theca cell layer or prevent ovulation by holding the oocyte in meiotic arrest. Further studies are necessary to understand in vitro to in vivo translatability of these findings on follicle development and fertility outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Sustancias Peligrosas/toxicidad , Fenoles/toxicidad , Sulfonas/toxicidad , Células Tecales/fisiología , Animales , Compuestos de Bencidrilo , Comunicación Celular , Comunicación , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Femenino , Uniones Comunicantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Oocitos/metabolismo , Ovinos , Transducción de Señal , Células Tecales/efectos de los fármacos , Células Tecales/metabolismo
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141779, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890800

RESUMEN

Climate change is a major world-wide challenge to livestock production because food security is likely to be compromised by increased heat stress of the animals. The objective of this study was to characterize, using bioclimatic indexes, two livestock regions located in an arid zone of México, and to use this information to predict the impact of global warming on animal production systems of these regions located in the state of Baja California (México). A 5-year database (i.e., 2011 to 2015) consisting of about one million data points from two zones (i.e., coast, valley) from four meteorological stations in the north of Baja California were used. Bioclimatic indexes were constructed for the four types of livestock production systems most common in this region, being: dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, pigs. The temperature-humidity index (THI) thresholds used to classify heat stress were determined and scaled for each livestock species as: THIbeef and THIpig 74 units; THImilk 72 units; and THIsheep 23 units. Statistical differences between indices were detected (P < 0.01) during summer for the valley and coast zones as (THIbeef = 72.9 and 51.8; THImilk = 80.6 and 67.4; THIpigs = 83.9 and 65.2; THIsheep = 29.5 and 20.1 units). Coast zone weather did not suggest vulnerability of livestock production systems to heat stress at any time of the year, but heat stress risk during summer for valley zone dairy cattle, sheep and pigs was classified as severe, but lower for feedlot cattle. Prediction models showed significant adjustment just in the coastal zone for THImilk, THIsheep, and THIsheep, suggesting more impact of global warming during summer in the coastal zone. Use of management strategies to reduce heat load of domestic animals during summer in northern Baja California is essential to maintain their productivity, with more emphasis in the valley zone.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Trastornos de Estrés por Calor , Animales , Bovinos , Trastornos de Estrés por Calor/veterinaria , Calor , Humedad , Ganado , México , Ovinos , Porcinos
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141790, 2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890869

RESUMEN

We aimed to evaluate the effect of different grazing management strategies on carcass characteristics traits, meat quality and CH4 intensity and yield of lambs grazing Italian ryegrass pastures in Southern Brazil. A grazing trial was performed (2014 and 2015) in a randomized complete block design with two grazing management targets and four replicates. Treatments were traditional rotational stocking (RT), with pre- and post-grazing sward heights of 25 and 5 cm, respectively, and 'Rotatinuous' stocking (RN), with pre- and post-grazing sward heights of 18 and 11 cm, respectively. Castrated crossbred Texel and Polwarth lambs were used. Results indicated that diet cost per kg of dry matter (p = 0.001) and per hectare (p < 0.001) were lower for RN than for RT treatment. Final live weight (p = 0.022) and hot and cold carcass weight (p = 0.006) were greater for the RN treatment. All commercial cuts were greater for RN than for RT treatment. The RN treatment presented greater (p < 0.001) production of carcass, edible food and crude protein. Feed efficiency and feed cost conversion were better for RN than for RT treatment. CH4 intensity per kg of carcass, edible food and crude protein gain were 2.6, 2.7 and 2.1 times lower (p < 0.001) for RN. Moreover, CH4 yield was lower (p = 0.014) for RN than for RT treatment, with an average of 7.6 and 8.3% of the gross energy intake, respectively. We conclude that the 'Rotatinuous' stocking results in a greater carcass production, carcass quality and lower diet cost, and CH4 intensity and yield of grazing lambs. Adopting this grazing management strategy could enhance both lamb production and mitigation of CH4 intensity and yield in grazing ecosystems, which could be considered a good example of climate-smart livestock production.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Lolium , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Brasil , Clima , Dieta , Ecosistema , Ovinos
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111563, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254417

RESUMEN

Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been hypothesized as a cause of declining sheep reproductive efficiency. Understanding the long-term effects of EDCs such as heavy metals on reproductive health requires investigation in 'real life' of sheep that are reared in industrial areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term exposure of Kermani rams to high levels of environmental heavy metals probably emitted from a copper smelter at KhatoonAbad in ShahreBabak, Kerman province. Testicular characteristics were determined in randomly-selected rams (3-4 years old) at 4 directions (south, north, east, and west) and 4 distances (10, 20, 30, and 40 km) from the smelter. Testicular trace element contents, size, serum testosterone, histological attributes and seminal characteristics, except semen volume, were affected by both the direction and the distance from the smelter (P < 0.05). Testicular contents of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni, and sperm abnormalities were higher at 10 km south from the smelter and lower at 40 km west. Other parameters were higher at 40 km west and lower at 10 km south. Interestingly, the testicular contents of Cu at 10 km south were lower and associated with higher sperm abnormalities in the rams reared closer to the smelter. The highest weight, length and circumference of the testis were found at 40 km west. The lowest concentration of testosterone was observed at 10 km south, being 92.6% lower than the highest values obtained at 40 km west. The diameter of seminiferous tubules and epithelial height at 10 km south were 8.9% and 27.5% lower than the highest values obtained at 40 km west. A positive correlation between Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni contents in the testis with sperm abnormalities, and a negative correlation between these elements with the other parameters were found. It was concluded that long-term exposure to heavy metals might have been a cause of decreased fertility in rams and probably other living species in this region.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Testículo/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Cobre/toxicidad , Masculino , Reproducción , Análisis de Semen/veterinaria , Ovinos , Espermatozoides/efectos de los fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiología , Testículo/fisiología , Testosterona/sangre , Pruebas de Toxicidad Crónica , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142029, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254863

RESUMEN

Agriculture, and livestock production in particular, is criticized for being a contributor to global environmental change, including emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Methane (CH4) from grazing ruminants accounts for most of livestock's carbon footprint because a large share of them are reared under suboptimal grazing conditions, usually resulting in both low herbage intake and animal performance. Consequently, the CH4 quota attributed to animal maintenance is spread across few or no animal outputs, increasing the CH4 intensity [g CH4/kg live weight (LW) gain or g CH4/kg milk yield]. In this review, the generalized idea relating tropical pastures with low quality and intrinsically higher CH4 intensity is challenged by showing evidence that emissions from animals grazing tropical pastures can equal those of temperate grasses. We demonstrate the medium-to-high mitigation potential of some grazing management strategies to mitigate CH4 emissions from grazing ruminants and stress the predominant role that sward canopy structure (e.g., height) has over animal behavioral responses (e.g., intake rate), daily forage intake and resulting CH4 emissions. From this ecological perspective, we identify a grazing management concept aiming to offer the best sward structure that allows animals to optimize their daily herbage intake, creating opportunities to reduce CH4 intensity. We show the trade-off between animal performance and CH4 intensity, stressing that mitigation is substantial when grazing management is conducted under light-to-moderate intensities and optimize herbage intake and animal performance. We conclude that optimizing LW gain of grazing sheep and cattle to a threshold of 0.14 and 0.7 kg/day, respectively, would dramatically reduce CH4 intensity to approximately 0.2 kg CH4/kg LW gain, as observed in some intensive feeding systems. This could represent a mitigation potential of around 55% for livestock commodities in pasture-based systems. Our results offer new insights to the debate concerning mitigation of environmental impacts of pastoral ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Metano , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Ecosistema , Metano/análisis , Leche/química , Rumiantes , Ovinos
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 2): 142469, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065510

RESUMEN

Finding the best management strategies to restore grassland diversity and achieve a compromise between agricultural use and biodiversity protection is a global challenge. This paper reports novel data relating to the impacts of 19 years of restoration managements predicted to increase botanical diversity within reseeded upland temperate grassland common in less favoured areas in Europe. The treatments imposed were: continuous sheep grazing, with and without lime application; hay cutting only, with and without lime application; hay cutting followed by aftermath grazing, with and without lime application; and a control treatment continuing the previous site management (liming, NPK application and continuous sheep grazing). Defoliation type, irrespective of liming, was the key driver influencing plant species diversity (hay cutting followed by aftermath grazing > hay cutting > grazing). Grazing only managements supported grasses at the expense of forbs, and thus related plant species diversity significantly declined. Limed treatments had higher concentrations of Ca and Mg in the soil compared to those receiving no lime. However, no effects on species richness or plant species composition were found. Potassium was the only element whose plant-available concentration in the soil tended to decrease in response to cutting treatments with herbage removal. Postponing the first defoliation to the middle of the growing season enables forbs to reach seed production, and this was the most effective restoration management option for upland grassland (as hay cutting only, and as hay cut followed by aftermath grazing). Although continuous low-density sheep grazing is often adopted as a means of improving floristic biodiversity, deleterious effects of this on plant diversity mean that it cannot be recommended as a means of long-term maintenance or restoration management of European temperate grasslands.


Asunto(s)
Pradera , Suelo , Animales , Biodiversidad , Europa (Continente) , Poaceae , Ovinos
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 1): 142653, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069476

RESUMEN

One of the main sources of plastic pollution in agricultural fields is the plastic mulch used by farmers to improve crop production. The plastic mulch is often not removed completely from the fields after harvest. Over time, the plastic mulch that is left of the fields is broken down into smaller particles which are dispersed by the wind or runoff. In the Region of Murcia in Spain, plastic mulch is heavily used for intensive vegetable farming. After harvest, sheep are released into the fields to graze on the vegetable residues. The objective of the study was to assess the plastic contamination in agricultural soil in Spain and the ingestion of plastic by sheep. Therefore, three research questions were established: i) What is the plastic content in agricultural soils where plastic mulch is commonly used? ii) Do livestock ingest the microplastics found in the soil? iii) How much plastic could be transported by the livestock? To answer these questions, we sampled top soils (0-10 cm) from 6 vegetable fields and collected sheep faeces from 5 different herds. The microplastic content was measured using density separation and visual identification. We found ~2 × 103 particles∙kg-1 in the soil and ~103 particles∙kg-1 in the faeces. The data show that plastic particles were present in the soil and that livestock ingested them. After ingesting plastic from one field, the sheep can become a source of microplastic contamination as they graze on other farms or grasslands. The potential transport of microplastics due to a herd of 1000 sheep was estimated to be ~106 particles∙ha-1∙y-1. Further studies should focus on: assessing how much of the plastic found in faeces comes directly from plastic mulching, estimating the plastic degradation in the guts of sheep and understanding the potential effects of these plastic residues on the health of livestock.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Suelo , Agricultura , Animales , Granjas , Heces , Microplásticos , Ovinos , España , Verduras
17.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128057, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297065

RESUMEN

Samples of adipose tissue, meat and livers from pigs, cows, sheep and goats from Curaçao were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like (dl-) and non-dioxin-like (ndl-) PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). Levels in many samples of adipose tissue were higher than the EU maximum levels (MLs) for PCDD/Fs and the sum of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs (sum-TEQ), indicating unusually high levels. Median sum-TEQ (Toxic Equivalents) levels for pigs, cows, sheep and goats were 0.9 (range 0.3-35), 3.0 (0.5-14), 5.7 (0.3-28) and 6.5 (0.5-134) pg TEQ g-1 fat. For most samples, the congener pattern pointed to the burning of waste as the major source, in line with the fact that most animals forage outside. MLs for ndl-PCBs were also exceeded in some of the samples, indicating that some areas are additionally contaminated with PCBs. Meat levels showed similar lipid based levels as adipose tissue, contrary to liver levels, which were much higher in most animals. Pigs showed liver sequestration at lower levels in adipose tissue than the ruminants. The relatively high levels observed in this study are likely to result in high exposure of consumers and measures were taken to reduce the contamination of areas where animals forage.


Asunto(s)
Benzofuranos , Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Animales , Benzofuranos/análisis , Bovinos , Curazao , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Dioxinas/análisis , Femenino , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Cabras , Islas , Hígado/química , Carne/análisis , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análisis , Ovinos , Porcinos
18.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 101: 117-122, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334507

RESUMEN

Gangba sheep are known for having typical sensory characteristics attributed to free range conditions and grazing on wild plants. The genuine Gangba mutton was selected as the experimental group, and the commercial Tibetan mutton was selected as the control group, the nutritive composition of basic chemical components, amino acids and fatty acids in mutton were investigated to correlate its unique meat quality and eating satisfaction. The results showed that fatty acids were significantly higher (P<0.05) in Gangba mutton than in commercial mutton, and the higher content of flavoring amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartame) were primarily responsible for the taste attributes umami of meat juices. Moreover, the trace elements analysis in mutton and grazing factors (forage, water source and soil) were conducted, to explain the source of essential trace elements in mutton. The concentrations of essential trace elements show that the Gangba mutton was a valuable source for highly available Cu and Zn in human nutrition, and well managed with few detected of toxicity metal. The concentrations of essential trace elements in mutton are closely related to the trace elements in environmental grazing factors. In conclusion, the congenital grazing conditions (a highly mineralized water resource, natural forages and clean soils) were shown to contribute to the unique meat characteristics of Gangba sheep.


Asunto(s)
Carne , Oligoelementos , Animales , Análisis Factorial , Ácidos Grasos , Carne/análisis , Ovinos , Tibet
19.
Am J Vet Res ; 82(1): 63-70, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369498

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (PAG1) concentrations in maternal (jugular vein) and fetal (uterine vein) circulations and amniotic fluid samples between pregnant ewes that were and were not experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). ANIMALS: 11 healthy pregnant yearling ewes. PROCEDURES: Before study initiation, all ewes were naïve to BVDV and confirmed pregnant by transabdominal ultrasonography at approximately 60 days of gestation. At 65 days of gestation, ewes were intranasally inoculated with a noncytopathic BVDV type 1b strain (concentration, 107 TCID50/mL; 2 mL/nostril; n = 6) or an equal volume of BVDV-free viral culture medium (control; 5). A blood sample was collected for measurement of PAG1 concentration before inoculation. At 80 days of gestation, each ewe was anesthetized and underwent an ovariohysterectomy. While sheep were anesthetized, blood samples from the jugular and uterine veins and an amniotic fluid sample were collected for measurement of PAG1 concentration. Fetal tissues underwent real-time PCR analysis for BVDV RNA, and placental specimens underwent histologic evaluation and immunohistochemical staining for BVDV antigen. RESULTS: At 80 days of gestation, BVDV RNA in fetal tissues and mild placentitis were detected in 5 of 6 BVDV-inoculated ewes. Mean PAG1 concentrations in the maternal and fetal circulations of BVDV-inoculated ewes were significantly less than those in control ewes. Mean amniotic fluid PAG1 concentration did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Concentration of PAG1 in the maternal circulation may be a useful biomarker for determining placental health in sheep after viral infection of the reproductive tract.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea Mucosa Bovina Viral , Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina Tipo 1 , Virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina , Enfermedades de las Ovejas , Animales , Bovinos , Diarrea/veterinaria , Femenino , Feto , Glicoproteínas , Placenta , Embarazo , Ovinos
20.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 164, 2020 12 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308147

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic protein-coding genes consist of exons and introns. Exon-intron borders are conserved between species and thus their changes might be observed only on quite long evolutionary distances. One of the rarest types of change, in which intron relocates over a short distance, is called "intron sliding", but the reality of this event has been debated for a long time. The main idea of a search for intron sliding is to use the most accurate genome annotation and genome sequence, as well as high-quality transcriptome data. We applied them in a search for sliding introns in mammals in order to widen knowledge about the presence or absence of such phenomena in this group. RESULTS: We didn't find any significant evidence of intron sliding in the primate group (human, chimpanzee, rhesus macaque, crab-eating macaque, green monkey, marmoset). Only one possible intron sliding event supported by a set of high quality transcriptomes was observed between EIF1AX human and sheep gene orthologs. Also, we checked a list of previously observed intron sliding events in mammals and showed that most likely they are artifacts of genome annotations and are not shown in subsequent annotation versions as well as are not supported by transcriptomic data. CONCLUSIONS: We assume that intron sliding is indeed a very rare evolutionary event if it exists at all. Every case of intron sliding needs a lot of supportive data for detection and confirmation.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Molecular , Intrones/genética , Mamíferos/genética , Animales , Exones/genética , Humanos , Primates/genética , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Ovinos/genética , Incertidumbre
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