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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19004, 2020 11 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149153

RESUMEN

Ecuador is one of the most affected countries, with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, in Latin America derived from an ongoing economic crisis. One of the most important methods for COVID-19 detection is the use of techniques such as real time RT-PCR based on a previous extraction/purification of RNA procedure from nasopharyngeal cells using functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). This technique allows the processing of ~ 10,000 tests per day in private companies and around hundreds per day at local Universities guaranteeing to reach a wide range of the population. However, the main drawback of this method is the need for specialized MNP with a strong negative charge for the viral RNA extraction to detect the existence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Here we present a simplified low cost method to produce 10 g of nanoparticles in 100 mL of solution that was scaled to one litter by parallelizing the process 10 times in just two days and allowing for the possibility of making ~ 50,000 COVID-19 tests. This communication helps in reducing the cost of acquiring MNP for diverse biomolecular applications supporting developing country budgets constraints and chemical availability specially during the COVID-19 International Health Emergency.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Países en Desarrollo , Humanos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/economía , ARN Viral/química , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa/economía
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 137, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193952

RESUMEN

Sudan is facing a formidable task of fighting COVID-19. The country is suddenly challenged by this health issue that will test its path towards peace, stability, and development. The fragile task of handling COVID-19 epidemic in Sudan is brought about by several factors such as the weak healthcare system and political conflicts, that have been intertwined with the recent regime. Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, there was already high unemployment, soaring inflation and lack of social protection and safety nets for its populace. The government has been trying its best to address the pandemic, however, much still needs to be done. Neglecting Sudan by the international community in terms of support towards containment of COVID-19 has grievous implications for transition out of military dictatorship and efforts to curb the pandemic globally. As no country is safe if all is not safe. It is essential that Sudan should leverage on innovations, country-compatible measures, and other tailor-made strategies for effective responses.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Conflictos Armados , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Países en Desarrollo , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Política de Salud , Prioridades en Salud , Recursos en Salud/provisión & distribución , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Pobreza , Refugiados , Condiciones Sociales , Sudán/epidemiología , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 140, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193955

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic and its public health control measures have led to worldwide interruptions in healthcare service delivery, and cancer services are no exception. These interruptions have exacerbated the effects of previously reported barriers to accessing cancer care which was reportedly low even before the pandemic. If these effects are not mitigated, the achievements in cancer control that had already been made could be watered down. Measuring the impact of COVID-19 pandemic control measures on delivery of and access to cancer services in Uganda as well as other countries worldwide can inform the design of current and future responses to epidemics while putting into context other diseases like cancer that have a high burden.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Países en Desarrollo , Promoción de la Salud , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Cuarentena , Sistema de Registros , Uganda/epidemiología
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 149, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193964

RESUMEN

HIV/AIDS is an infectious disease that has claimed the lives of millions of people worldwide. Currently, there is no vaccine that has been developed in a bid to fight this deadly infection, however, antiretrovirals (ARVs), which are drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection are routinely prescribed to infected persons. They act via several mechanisms of action to reduce the severity of infection and rate of infectivity of the virus by decreasing the viral load while increasing CD4 counts. COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented events affecting almost all areas of humans' life including availability of medicines and other consumables. This paper analyses the availability of ARVs during COVID-19 era and offered recommendations to be adopted in order to prevent shortages.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-VIH/economía , Fármacos Anti-VIH/provisión & distribución , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Antirretrovirales/economía , Antirretrovirales/provisión & distribución , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa/economía , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo , Costos de los Medicamentos/tendencias , Industria Farmacéutica , Infecciones por VIH/economía , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Seguro de Servicios Farmacéuticos , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Nigeria/epidemiología , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5203, 2020 10 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060603

RESUMEN

Ending all forms of hunger by 2030, as set forward in the UN-Sustainable Development Goal 2 (UN-SDG2), is a daunting but essential task, given the limited timeline ahead and the negative global health and socio-economic impact of hunger. Malnutrition or hidden hunger due to micronutrient deficiencies affects about one third of the world population and severely jeopardizes economic development. Staple crop biofortification through gene stacking, using a rational combination of conventional breeding and metabolic engineering strategies, should enable a leap forward within the coming decade. A number of specific actions and policy interventions are proposed to reach this goal.


Asunto(s)
Biofortificación/métodos , Ingeniería Metabólica/métodos , Cruzamiento , Productos Agrícolas/genética , Países en Desarrollo , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Alimentos Fortificados , Salud Global , Humanos , Desnutrición/prevención & control , Micronutrientes , Minerales , Oryza , Plantas/genética , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente , Formulación de Políticas , Provitaminas , Desarrollo Sostenible/economía , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Naciones Unidas , Vitaminas
8.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e174, 2020 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070789

RESUMEN

AIMS: Observational studies have shown a relationship between maternal mental health (MMH) and child development, but few studies have evaluated whether MMH interventions improve child-related outcomes, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this review is to synthesise findings on the effectiveness of MMH interventions to improve child-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: We searched for randomised controlled trials conducted in LMICs evaluating interventions with a MMH component and reporting children's outcomes. Meta-analysis was performed on outcomes included in at least two trials. RESULTS: We identified 21 trials with 28 284 mother-child dyads. Most trials were conducted in middle-income countries, evaluating home visiting interventions delivered by general health workers, starting in the third trimester of pregnancy. Only ten trials described acceptable methods for blinding outcome assessors. Four trials showed high risk of bias in at least two of the seven domains assessed in this review. Narrative synthesis showed promising but inconclusive findings for child-related outcomes. Meta-analysis identified a sizeable impact of interventions on exclusive breastfeeding (risk ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.71, ten trials, N = 4749 mother-child dyads, I2 = 61%) and a small effect on child height-for-age at 6-months (std. mean difference = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.02-0.24, three trials, N = 1388, I2 = 0%). Meta-analyses did not identify intervention benefits for child cognitive and other growth outcomes; however, few trials measured these outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the importance of MMH to improve child-related outcomes in LMICs, particularly exclusive breastfeeding. Given, the small number of trials and methodological limitations, more rigorous trials should be conducted.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Niño , Hijo de Padres Discapacitados , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Materna , Apego a Objetos , Pobreza
9.
J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol ; 27(S Pt 1): e76-e84, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084261

RESUMEN

COVID-19 infection data of Emerging 7 (E7) countries, namely Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, and Turkey were described by an empirical model or a special case of this empirical model. Near-future forecasts were also performed. Moreover, the causalities between the Stringency Index's indicators and total cases in E7 countries in COVID-19 period were examined. Countries were grouped as "stationary," "transition," and "exponential" based on the data and model fits. The proposed models produced good fits to the COVID-19 data of E7 countries and it was possible to predict the number of cases in the near future. Some policies to control total cases in E7 countries were also proposed in the final phase of this study based on the findings and forecasting in these countries.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240503, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035244

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In this paper, we predict the health and economic consequences of immediate investment in personal protective equipment (PPE) for health care workers (HCWs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: To account for health consequences, we estimated mortality for HCWs and present a cost-effectiveness and return on investment (ROI) analysis using a decision-analytic model with Bayesian multivariate sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. Data sources included inputs from the World Health Organization Essential Supplies Forecasting Tool and the Imperial College of London epidemiologic model. RESULTS: An investment of $9.6 billion USD would adequately protect HCWs in all LMICs. This intervention would save 2,299,543 lives across LMICs, costing $59 USD per HCW case averted and $4,309 USD per HCW life saved. The societal ROI would be $755.3 billion USD, the equivalent of a 7,932% return. Regional and national estimates are also presented. DISCUSSION: In scenarios where PPE remains scarce, 70-100% of HCWs will get infected, irrespective of nationwide social distancing policies. Maintaining HCW infection rates below 10% and mortality below 1% requires inclusion of a PPE scale-up strategy as part of the pandemic response. In conclusion, wide-scale procurement and distribution of PPE for LMICs is an essential strategy to prevent widespread HCW morbidity and mortality. It is cost-effective and yields a large downstream return on investment.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/economía , Equipo de Protección Personal/economía , Neumonía Viral/patología , Teorema de Bayes , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Países en Desarrollo , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Método de Montecarlo , Pandemias/economía , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología
11.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 182, 2020 10 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059674

RESUMEN

COVID-19 which started in Wuhan, China and swiftly expanded geographically worldwide, including to Low to Middle Income Countries (LMICs). This in turn raised numerous ethical concerns in preparedness, knowledge sharing, intellectual property rights, environmental health together with the serious constraints regarding readiness of health care systems in LMICs to respond to this enormous public health crisis. From the restrictions on public freedom and burgeoning socio-economic impacts to the rationing of scarce medical resources, the spread of COVID-19 is an extraordinary ethical dilemma for resource constrained nations with less developed health and research systems. In the current crisis, scientific knowledge and technology has an important role to play in effective response. Emergency preparedness is a shared responsibility of all countries with a moral obligation to support each other. This review discusses the ethical concerns regarding the national capacities and response strategies in LMICs to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the deep link between the environment and the increasing risk of pandemics.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Países en Desarrollo , Ambiente , Ética , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Predicción , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(10)2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028701

RESUMEN

In health outcomes terms, the poorest countries stand to lose the most from these disruptions. In this paper, we make the case for a rational approach to public sector health spending and decision making during and in the early recovery phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on ethics and equity principles, it is crucial to ensure that patients not infected by COVID-19 continue to get access to healthcare and that the services they need continue to be resourced. We present a list of 120 essential non-COVID-19 health interventions that were adapted from the model health benefit packages developed by the Disease Control Priorities project.


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Países en Desarrollo , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/normas , Humanos , Pobreza , Salud Pública
15.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 7363242, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029402

RESUMEN

Introduction: Reduction of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality has continued to be a challenge in developing countries. The majority of maternal and neonatal mortality occurred during the early postpartum period. This is mostly due to low postnatal care service utilization. There is a discrepancy of evidence on the effect status of antenatal care on the improvement of postnatal care service utilization. Therefore, this review study is aimed at estimating the pooled effect of antenatal care on postnatal care service utilization. Methods: We searched from PubMed and Cochrane library database, Google Scholar, and Google. Initially, we found 265 articles; after duplication was removed and screened by the relevance of the titles and abstracts, 36 studies were considered for assessment of eligibility. Finally, 14 articles passed the inclusion and exclusion criteria and are included in the meta-analysis. Study quality assessment was done using Janna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools. The main information was extracted from each study. Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using I 2 = 70% and more considered having high heterogeneity. The publication bias was checked using funnel plot and big test. Meta-analysis using a random effect model was conducted. A forest plot was used to show the estimated size effect of odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. Results: A total of 14 articles were included with 15,765 participants for synthesis and meta-analysis. We found that a pooled estimate of women who had antenatal care was 1.53 times more likely to have postnatal care compared with those who had no antenatal care (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.38-1.70, I 2 = 0%). Conclusions: This review results revealed a low utilization of postnatal care service. Antenatal care service utilization has a positive effect on postnatal care service utilization. Policymakers and programmers better considered more antenatal care service use as one strategy of enhancing the utilization of postnatal care service.


Asunto(s)
Muerte Materna/prevención & control , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Muerte Perinatal/prevención & control , Atención Posnatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Mortalidad Infantil , Mortalidad Materna , Embarazo
16.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(9): 968-970, 2020 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031082

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has created new challenges on multiple fronts including a few ethical concerns. Timely and appropriate access to health services and the need to protect vulnerable people are some of them. An important aspect to consider, at the global level, is the frailty of health systems in many developing countries and the constant threat of these collapsing due to shortage of resources and medical supply. Special attention should be placed towards protecting the health of care workers who are highly exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Research and clinical trials involving COVID-19 patients and healthy human volunteers must be done in strict adherence to the fundamental principles of bioethics, even if finding a solution is an urgent need. Shared responsibility must be assumed as we collectively face a common problem and ethical conflicts must be resolved using, as reference, the guidelines developed by the World Health Organization and other relevant international and national organizations. This would allow responsible action in the face of the pandemic without harming human rights, the individual and collective well-being.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Salud Global/ética , Pandemias/ética , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/ética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Países en Desarrollo , Personal de Salud/ética , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/ética , Derechos Humanos/ética , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Triaje/ética
19.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36Suppl 2(Suppl 2): e00128819, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111747

RESUMEN

We examine the implications of the very low competitiveness of the Brazilian vaccine RD&I system, which precludes the development of all the important vaccines required by the National Immunization Program (NIP), severely impacting the healthcare of the population. In a country dramatically affected by COVID-19 pandemic and by an exponential increase in emerging and neglected diseases, particularly the poor, these RD&I constraints for vaccines become crucial governance issues. Such constraints are aggravated by a global scenario of limited commercial interest from multinational companies in vaccines for neglected and emerging diseases, which are falling into a "valley of death," with only two vaccines produced in a pipeline of 240 vaccines. We stress that these constraints in the global pipeline are a window of opportunity for vaccine manufacturers in Brazil and other developing countries in the current paradigm transition towards Vaccinology 4.0. We conclude with recommendations for a new governance strategy supporting Brazilian public vaccine manufacturers in international collaborations for a sustainable national vaccine development and production plan by 2030.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Vacunas , Vacunología , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Países en Desarrollo , Humanos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239797, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027272

RESUMEN

The current coronavirus pandemic is an unprecedented public health challenge that is having a devastating economic impact on households. Using a sample of 230,540 respondents to an online survey from 17 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, the study shows that the economic impacts are large and unequal: 45 percent of respondents report that a household member has lost their job and, among households owning small businesses, 59 percent of respondents report that a household member has closed their business. Among households with the lowest income prior to the pandemic, 71 percent report that a household member lost their job and 61 percent report that a household member has closed their business. Declines in food security and health are among the disproportionate impacts. The findings provide evidence that the current public health crisis will exacerbate economic inequality and provides some of the first estimates of the impact of the pandemic on the labor market and well-being in developing countries.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo/economía , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Región del Caribe/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Humanos , Renta , América Latina/epidemiología , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/virología , Pobreza , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Desempleo
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