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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1349046, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456081

RESUMEN

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) originate from ancestral germline infections caused by exogenous retroviruses. Throughout evolution, they have become fixed within the genome of the animals into which they were integrated. As ERV elements coevolve with the host, they are normally epigenetically silenced and can become upregulated in a series of physiological and pathological processes. Generally, a detailed ERV profile in the host genome is critical for understanding the evolutionary history and functional performance of the host genome. We previously characterized and cataloged all the ERV-K subtype HML-8 loci in the human genome; however, this has not been done for the chimpanzee, the nearest living relative of humans. In this study, we aimed to catalog and characterize the integration of HML-8 in the chimpanzee genome and compare it with the integration of HML-8 in the human genome. We analyzed the integration of HML-8 and found that HML-8 pervasively invaded the chimpanzee genome. A total of 76 proviral elements were characterized on 23/24 chromosomes, including detailed elements distribution, structure, phylogeny, integration time, and their potential to regulate adjacent genes. The incomplete structure of HML-8 proviral LTRs will undoubtedly affect their activity. Moreover, the results indicated that HML-8 integration occurred before the divergence between humans and chimpanzees. Furthermore, chimpanzees include more HML-8 proviral elements (76 vs. 40) and fewer solo long terminal repeats (LTR) (0 vs. 5) than humans. These results suggested that chimpanzee genome activity is less than the human genome and that humans may have a better ability to shape and screen integrated proviral elements. Our work is informative in both an evolutionary and a functional context for ERVs.


Asunto(s)
Retrovirus Endógenos , Animales , Humanos , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Pan troglodytes/genética , Provirus/genética , Genoma Humano , Genómica
2.
Curr Biol ; 34(6): 1364-1369.e2, 2024 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490201

RESUMEN

Though common among humans, social play by adults is an uncommon occurrence in most animals, even between parents and offspring.1,2,3 The most common explanation for why adult play is so rare is that its function and benefits are largely limited to development, so that social play has little value later in life.3,4,5,6 Here, we draw from 10 years of behavioral data collected by the Kibale Chimpanzee Project to consider an alternative hypothesis: that despite its benefits, adult play in non-humans is ecologically constrained by energy shortage or time limitations. We further hypothesized that, since they may be the only available partners for their young offspring, mother chimpanzees pay greater costs of play than other adults. Our analysis of nearly 4,000 adult play bouts revealed that adult chimpanzees played both among themselves and with immature partners. Social play was infrequent when diet quality was low but increased with the proportion of high-quality fruits in the diet. This suggests that adults engage in play facultatively when they have more energy and/or time to do so. However, when diet quality was low and most adult play fell to near zero, play persisted between mothers and offspring. Increased use of play by adult chimpanzees during periods of resource abundance suggests that play retains value as a social currency beyond development but that its costs constrain its use. At the same time, when ecological conditions constrain opportunities for young to play, play by mothers fills a critical role to promote healthy offspring development.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Pan troglodytes , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Dieta , Conducta Animal , Madres , Conducta Social
3.
Nature ; 627(8004): 491-492, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448527
4.
Biol Lett ; 20(3): 20230548, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471567

RESUMEN

During pregnancy, the mammalian immune system must simultaneously protect against pathogens while being accommodating to the foreign fetal tissues. Our current understanding of this immune modulation derives predominantly from industrialized human populations and laboratory animals. However, their environments differ considerably from the pathogen-rich, resource-scarce environments in which pregnancy and the immune system co-evolved. For a better understanding of immune modulation during pregnancy in challenging environments, we measured urinary neopterin, a biomarker of cell-mediated immune responses, in 10 wild female bonobos (Pan paniscus) before, during and after pregnancy. Bonobos, sharing evolutionary roots and pregnancy characteristics with humans, serve as an ideal model for such investigation. Despite distinct environments, we hypothesized that cell-mediated immune modulation during pregnancy is similar between bonobos and humans. As predicted, neopterin levels were higher during than outside of pregnancy, and highest in the third trimester, with a significant decline post-partum. Our findings suggest shared mechanisms of cell-mediated immune modulation during pregnancy in bonobos and humans that are robust despite distinct environmental conditions. We propose that these patterns indicate shared immunological processes during pregnancy among hominins, and possibly other primates. This finding enhances our understanding of reproductive immunology.


Asunto(s)
Inmunidad Celular , Pan paniscus , Embarazo , Animales , Humanos , Femenino , Pan paniscus/fisiología , Neopterin , Evolución Biológica , Pan troglodytes , Mamíferos
5.
Nutrients ; 16(6)2024 Mar 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542816

RESUMEN

The meat derived from mammals such as cows, sheep, and pigs is commonly referred to as red meat. Recent studies have shown that consuming red meat can activate the immune system, produce antibodies, and subsequently develop into tumors and cancer. This is due to the presence of a potential carcinogenic compound in red meat called N-ethanol neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a common sialic monosaccharide in mammals, synthesized from N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) in the body and typically present in most mammals. However, due to the lack of the CMAH gene encoding the cytidine 5'-monophosphate Neu5Ac hydroxylase, humans are unable to synthesize Neu5Gc. Compared to primates such as mice or chimpanzees, the specific loss of Neu5Gc expression in humans is attributed to fixed genome mutations in CMAH. Although Neu5Gc cannot be produced, it can be introduced from specific dietary sources such as red meat and milk, so it is necessary to use mice or chimpanzees that knock out the CMAH gene instead of humans as experimental models. Further research has shown that early pregnancy factor (EPF) has the ability to regulate CD4+T cell-dependent immune responses. In this study, we established a simulated human animal model using C57/BL6 mice with CMAH gene knockout and analyzed the inhibitory effect of EPF on red meat Neu5Gc-induced CMAH-/- C57/BL6 mouse antibody production and chronic inflammation development. The results showed that the intervention of EPF reduced slow weight gain and shortened colon length in mice. In addition, EPF treatment significantly reduced the levels of anti Neu5Gc antibodies in the body, as well as the inflammatory factors IL-6 and IL-1ß, TNF-α and the activity of MPO. In addition, it also alleviated damage to liver and intestinal tissues and reduced the content of CD4 cells and the expression of B cell activation molecules CD80 and CD86 in mice. In summary, EPF effectively inhibited Neu5Gc-induced antibody production, reduced inflammation levels in mice, and alleviated Neu5Gc-induced inflammation. This will provide a new re-search concept and potential approach for developing immunosuppressants to address safety issues related to long-term consumption of red meat.


Asunto(s)
Chaperonina 10 , Neoplasias , Proteínas Gestacionales , Carne Roja , Factores Supresores Inmunológicos , Femenino , Animales , Humanos , Ratones , Bovinos , Porcinos , Ovinos , Pan troglodytes , Formación de Anticuerpos , Primates , Inflamación , Mamíferos
6.
J Comp Psychol ; 138(1): 45-55, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483539

RESUMEN

Based on the invention and development of photography and movie in the 19th century, schools of contemporary art, such as Futurism, have emerged that express the dynamism of motion in painting. Painting techniques such as multiple stroboscopic images, motion blur, and motion lines are culturally based, but the biological basis of their perception has also been intensively investigated recently. Then what are the evolutionary origins of such pictorial representations of motion? Do nonhuman animals also have sensitivity to such representations? To address this question, we examined the effects of motion blur and motion lines on the judgments of global motion directions in chimpanzees. The results showed that the motion lines biased the chimpanzees' judgments toward the direction of motion implied by them, whereas the effect of the motion blur was either absent or weak (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, we manipulated the length and number of motion lines to examine the effect of "speed" and "distance" in addition to the motion direction implied by the motion lines. The results showed that the effect of motion lines became stronger as the length and the number of lines increased within a specific range. These results indicate that the motion lines also imply the direction of motion in chimpanzees and provide a clue to the evolutionary basis for the pictorial representations of motion. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Juicio , Pan troglodytes , Animales
7.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298230, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451921

RESUMEN

To address the issue of poor performance in the chimp optimization (ChOA) algorithm, a new algorithm called the manta ray-based chimpa optimization algorithm (MChOA) was developed. Introducing the Latin hypercube method to construct the initial population so that the individuals of the initial population are evenly distributed in the solution space, increasing the diversity of the initial population. Introducing nonlinear convergence factors based on positive cut functions to changing the convergence of algorithms, the early survey capabilities and later development capabilities of the algorithm are balanced. The manta ray foraging strategy is introduced at the position update to make up for the defect that the algorithm is prone to local optimization, which effectively improves the optimization performance of the algorithm. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, 27 well-known test reference functions were selected for experimentation, which showed significant advantages compared to other algorithms. Finally, in order to further verify the algorithm's applicability in actual production processes, it was applied to solve scheduling problems in three flexible workshop scenarios and an aviation engine job shop scheduling in an enterprise. This confirmed its efficacy in addressing complex real-world problems.


Asunto(s)
Aviación , Elasmobranquios , Humanos , Animales , Algoritmos , Investigación Empírica , Pan troglodytes
8.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 326(3): H821-H831, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305751

RESUMEN

Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide, and the predominant risk factors are advanced age and high-circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, the findings of atherosclerosis in relatively young mummified remains and a lack of atherosclerosis in chimpanzees despite high LDL-C call into question the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The inflammatory theory of atherosclerosis may explain the discrepancies between traditional risk factors and observed phenomena in current literature. Following the divergence from chimpanzees several millennia ago, loss of function mutations in immune regulatory genes and changes in gene expression have resulted in an overactive human immune system. The ubiquity of atherosclerosis in the modern era may reflect a selective pressure that enhanced the innate immune response at the cost of atherogenesis and other chronic disease states. Evidence provided from the fields of genetics, evolutionary biology, and paleoanthropology demonstrates a sort of circular dependency between inflammation, immune system functioning, and evolution at both a species and cellular level. More recently, the role of proinflammatory stimuli, somatic mutations, and the gene-environment effect appear to be underappreciated elements in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Neurobiological stress, metabolic syndrome, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors may instead function as intermediary links between inflammation and atherosclerosis. Therefore, considering evolution as a mechanistic process and atherosclerosis as part of the inertia of evolution, greater insight into future preventative and therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis can be gained by examining the past.


Asunto(s)
Aterosclerosis , Pan troglodytes , Animales , Humanos , Restos Mortales , LDL-Colesterol , Aterosclerosis/genética , Inflamación/genética
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(3): 577-580, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407249

RESUMEN

Despite zoonotic potential, data are lacking on enteric infection diversity in wild apes. We employed a novel molecular diagnostic platform to detect enteric infections in wild chimpanzees and gorillas. Prevalent Cryptosporidium parvum, adenovirus, and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli across divergent sites and species demonstrates potential widespread circulation among apes in Africa.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Animales , Gorilla gorilla , Pan troglodytes , Camerún/epidemiología , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Escherichia coli
10.
PLoS Genet ; 20(2): e1010836, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330138

RESUMEN

Genome-wide genealogies of multiple species carry detailed information about demographic and selection processes on individual branches of the phylogeny. Here, we introduce TRAILS, a hidden Markov model that accurately infers time-resolved population genetics parameters, such as ancestral effective population sizes and speciation times, for ancestral branches using a multi-species alignment of three species and an outgroup. TRAILS leverages the information contained in incomplete lineage sorting fragments by modelling genealogies along the genome as rooted three-leaved trees, each with a topology and two coalescent events happening in discretized time intervals within the phylogeny. Posterior decoding of the hidden Markov model can be used to infer the ancestral recombination graph for the alignment and details on demographic changes within a branch. Since TRAILS performs posterior decoding at the base-pair level, genome-wide scans based on the posterior probabilities can be devised to detect deviations from neutrality. Using TRAILS on a human-chimp-gorilla-orangutan alignment, we recover speciation parameters and extract information about the topology and coalescent times at high resolution.


Asunto(s)
Especiación Genética , Hominidae , Animales , Humanos , Hominidae/genética , Pan troglodytes/genética , Filogenia , Genética de Población , Modelos Genéticos
11.
J Hum Evol ; 188: 103481, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382132

RESUMEN

Since the initial discovery of Paranthropus robustus at the site of Kromdraai in 1938, the hypodigm of this species has been expanded by subsequent work at the localities of Swartkrans and Drimolen, with a few fossils also known from Cooper's D, Gondolin and Sterkfontein Member 5. Beginning in 2014, systematic excavations at Kromdraai uncovered a large and previously unknown fossiliferous area, shedding light on Units O and P in the earliest part of the site's stratigraphic sequence. The aim of this paper is to provide detailed descriptions and illustrations of 30 P. robustus craniodental specimens recovered between 2014 and 2017 within the Unit P deposits at Kromdraai. This new sample predates all prior conspecific specimens found at this site (including the holotype of P. robustus from Kromdraai, TM 1517). Its basic dental morphology dimensions and cranial features are compared in a preliminary analysis with other P. robustus samples. The P. robustus sample from Kromdraai Unit P documents previously unknown portions of the P. robustus juvenile cranium. The new dental and cranial remains aid in the exploration of potential morphological distinctions between site-specific P. robustus samples and are compared favorably in size and morphology with the small P. robustus specimens from Drimolen (e.g., DNH 7). These findings do not support the hypothesis that the specimens from Drimolen belong to a different taxonomic group. Instead, they reinforce the presence of a significant degree of sexual dimorphism within P. robustus. The Kromdraai Unit P specimens also contribute to the biodemographic profile of P. robustus. The notable prevalence of infants (i.e., juvenile individuals before the emergence of their first permanent molars) mirrors the natural mortality profiles observed in wild chimpanzees. This suggests a closer resemblance in the processes of accumulation in Kromdraai Unit P and Drimolen than at Swartkrans.


Asunto(s)
Fósiles , Hominidae , Humanos , Animales , Hominidae/anatomía & histología , Sudáfrica , Diente Molar/anatomía & histología , Pan troglodytes
12.
J Virol ; 98(3): e0156323, 2024 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323811

RESUMEN

Macrophages are important target cells for diverse viruses and thus represent a valuable system for studying virus biology. Isolation of primary human macrophages is done by culture of dissociated tissues or from differentiated blood monocytes, but these methods are both time consuming and result in low numbers of recovered macrophages. Here, we explore whether macrophages derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-which proliferate indefinitely and potentially provide unlimited starting material-could serve as a faithful model system for studying virus biology. Human iPSC-derived monocytes were differentiated into macrophages and then infected with HIV-1, dengue virus, or influenza virus as model human viruses. We show that iPSC-derived macrophages support the replication of these viruses with kinetics and phenotypes similar to human blood monocyte-derived macrophages. These iPSC-derived macrophages were virtually indistinguishable from human blood monocyte-derived macrophages based on surface marker expression (flow cytometry), transcriptomics (RNA sequencing), and chromatin accessibility profiling. iPSC lines were additionally generated from non-human primate (chimpanzee) fibroblasts. When challenged with dengue virus, human and chimpanzee iPSC-derived macrophages show differential susceptibility to infection, thus providing a valuable resource for studying the species-tropism of viruses. We also show that blood- and iPSC-derived macrophages both restrict influenza virus at a late stage of the virus lifecycle. Collectively, our results substantiate iPSC-derived macrophages as an alternative to blood monocyte-derived macrophages for the study of virus biology. IMPORTANCE: Macrophages have complex relationships with viruses: while macrophages aid in the removal of pathogenic viruses from the body, macrophages are also manipulated by some viruses to serve as vessels for viral replication, dissemination, and long-term persistence. Here, we show that iPSC-derived macrophages are an excellent model that can be exploited in virology.


Asunto(s)
Virus del Dengue , VIH-1 , Células Madre Pluripotentes Inducidas , Macrófagos , Modelos Biológicos , Orthomyxoviridae , Virología , Animales , Humanos , Diferenciación Celular/genética , VIH-1/crecimiento & desarrollo , VIH-1/fisiología , Células Madre Pluripotentes Inducidas/citología , Macrófagos/citología , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virología , Orthomyxoviridae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiología , Pan troglodytes , Virus del Dengue/crecimiento & desarrollo , Virus del Dengue/fisiología , Fibroblastos/citología , Monocitos/citología , Replicación Viral , Citometría de Flujo , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Ensamble y Desensamble de Cromatina , Tropismo Viral , Virología/métodos , Biomarcadores/análisis , Biomarcadores/metabolismo
13.
Cognition ; 246: 105747, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412760

RESUMEN

The strength of human society can largely be attributed to the tendency to work together to achieve outcomes that are not possible alone. Effective social coordination benefits from mentally representing a partner's actions. Specifically, humans optimize social coordination by forming internal action models adapted to joint rather than individual task demands. To what extent do humans share the cognitive mechanisms that support optimal human coordination and collaboration with other species? An ecologically inspired joint handover-to-retrieve task was systematically manipulated across several experiments to assess whether joint action planning in chimpanzees reflects similar patterns to humans. Chimpanzees' chosen handover locations shifted towards the location of the experimenter's free or unobstructed hand, suggesting they represent the constraints of the joint task even though their individual half of the task was unobstructed. These findings indicate that chimpanzees and humans may share common cognitive mechanisms or predispositions that support joint action.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Pan troglodytes , Animales , Humanos , Pan troglodytes/psicología , Conducta Cooperativa
14.
Elife ; 122024 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358392

RESUMEN

Although gene expression divergence has long been postulated to be the primary driver of human evolution, identifying the genes and genetic variants underlying uniquely human traits has proven to be quite challenging. Theory suggests that cell-type-specific cis-regulatory variants may fuel evolutionary adaptation due to the specificity of their effects. These variants can precisely tune the expression of a single gene in a single cell-type, avoiding the potentially deleterious consequences of trans-acting changes and non-cell type-specific changes that can impact many genes and cell types, respectively. It has recently become possible to quantify human-specific cis-acting regulatory divergence by measuring allele-specific expression in human-chimpanzee hybrid cells-the product of fusing induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells of each species in vitro. However, these cis-regulatory changes have only been explored in a limited number of cell types. Here, we quantify human-chimpanzee cis-regulatory divergence in gene expression and chromatin accessibility across six cell types, enabling the identification of highly cell-type-specific cis-regulatory changes. We find that cell-type-specific genes and regulatory elements evolve faster than those shared across cell types, suggesting an important role for genes with cell-type-specific expression in human evolution. Furthermore, we identify several instances of lineage-specific natural selection that may have played key roles in specific cell types, such as coordinated changes in the cis-regulation of dozens of genes involved in neuronal firing in motor neurons. Finally, using novel metrics and a machine learning model, we identify genetic variants that likely alter chromatin accessibility and transcription factor binding, leading to neuron-specific changes in the expression of the neurodevelopmentally important genes FABP7 and GAD1. Overall, our results demonstrate that integrative analysis of cis-regulatory divergence in chromatin accessibility and gene expression across cell types is a promising approach to identify the specific genes and genetic variants that make us human.


Asunto(s)
Cromatina , Pan troglodytes , Humanos , Animales , Cromatina/genética , Células Híbridas , Neuronas Motoras , Expresión Génica
15.
PeerJ ; 12: e16800, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38406280

RESUMEN

Using field observations from a sanctuary, Oña and colleagues (DOI: 10.7717/peerj.7623) investigated the semantics of face-gesture combinations in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). The response of the animals to these signals was encoded as a binary measure: positive interactions such as approaching or grooming were considered affiliative; ignoring or attacking was considered non-affiliative. The relevant signals are illustrated in Fig. 1 (https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7623/fig-1), together with the outcome in terms of average affiliativeness. The authors observe that there seems to be no systematicity in the way the faces modify the responses to the gestures, sometimes reducing affiliativeness, sometimes increasing it. A strong interpretation of this result would be that the meaning of a gesture-face combination cannot be derived from the meaning of the gesture and the meaning of the face, that is, the interpretation of chimpanzees' face-gesture combinations are non compositional in nature. We will revisit this conclusion: we will exhibit simple compositional systems which, after all, may be plausible. At the methodological level, we argue that it is critical to lay out the theoretical options explicitly for a complete comparison of their pros and cons.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Pan troglodytes , Animales , Pan troglodytes/fisiología , Gestos , Semántica
16.
Dev Psychobiol ; 66(2): e22470, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356136

RESUMEN

The motivational value of visual infant stimuli in humans is considered to encourage parental behavior. To explore the evolutionary roots of this preference for infants, we examined the reward value of conspecific infant videos compared to adult ones in nine chimpanzees. We employed a novel approach, a simultaneous discrimination task with differential sensory reinforcement. In Experiments 1 and 2, we tested if watching conspecific infant videos is more rewarding than watching adult ones. Participants were required to discriminate between two visual stimuli by a touch panel task. In video reward trials, a video clip featuring a chimpanzee infant followed a correct choice, while one featuring an adult followed an incorrect choice. However, the percentage of correct choices did not significantly differ from chance except in one chimpanzee, indicating that chimpanzees did not exhibit a preference for watching infant videos over those of adult. In Experiment 3, we tested if chimpanzees prefer conspecific videos over a blank screen; however, we did not find evidence either at a group level. These results suggest that the incentive salience of infant stimuli may not be universally compelling across species. Additionally, we discuss the limitations of the task using sensory reinforcement.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Discriminativo , Pan troglodytes , Adulto , Animales , Lactante , Humanos , Motivación , Recompensa , Refuerzo en Psicología
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3393, 2024 02 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336923

RESUMEN

Partner choice promotes competition among individuals to be selected as a cooperative partner, a phenomenon referred to as competitive altruism. We explored whether chimpanzees engage in competitive altruism in a triadic Ultimatum Game where two proposers can send offers simultaneously or consecutively to a responder who can only accept one of the two competing offers. In a dyadic control condition only one proposer at a time could send an offer to the responder. Chimpanzees increased their offers across trials in the competitive triadic, but not in the dyadic control condition. Chimpanzees also increased their offers after being rejected in previous triadic trials. Furthermore, we found that chimpanzees, under specific conditions, outcompete first proposers in triadic consecutive trials before the responder could choose which offer to accept by offering more than what is expected if they acted randomly or simply offered the smallest possible amount. These results suggest that competitive altruism in chimpanzees did not emerge just as a by-product of them trying to increase over previous losses. Chimpanzees might consider how others' interactions affect their outcomes and engage in strategies to maximize their chances of being selected as cooperative partners.


Asunto(s)
Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso , Altruismo , Animales , Humanos , Pan troglodytes , Juegos Experimentales , Toma de Decisiones
18.
Nat Immunol ; 25(3): 537-551, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337035

RESUMEN

A nasally delivered chimpanzee adenoviral-vectored severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine (ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S) is currently used in India (iNCOVACC). Here, we update this vaccine by creating ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-BA.5-S, which encodes a prefusion-stabilized BA.5 spike protein. Whereas serum neutralizing antibody responses induced by monovalent or bivalent adenoviral vaccines were poor against the antigenically distant XBB.1.5 strain and insufficient to protect in passive transfer experiments, mucosal antibody and cross-reactive memory T cell responses were robust, and protection was evident against WA1/2020 D614G and Omicron variants BQ.1.1 and XBB.1.5 in mice and hamsters. However, depletion of memory CD8+ T cells before XBB.1.5 challenge resulted in loss of protection against upper and lower respiratory tract infection. Thus, nasally delivered vaccines stimulate mucosal immunity against emerging SARS-CoV-2 strains, and cross-reactive memory CD8+ T cells mediate protection against lung infection by antigenically distant strains in the setting of low serum levels of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Vacunas , Cricetinae , Animales , Ratones , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos ampliamente neutralizantes , Pan troglodytes
19.
Elife ; 132024 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38275218

RESUMEN

Primate evolution has led to a remarkable diversity of behavioral specializations and pronounced brain size variation among species (Barton, 2012; DeCasien and Higham, 2019; Powell et al., 2017). Gene expression provides a promising opportunity for studying the molecular basis of brain evolution, but it has been explored in very few primate species to date (e.g. Khaitovich et al., 2005; Khrameeva et al., 2020; Ma et al., 2022; Somel et al., 2009). To understand the landscape of gene expression evolution across the primate lineage, we generated and analyzed RNA-seq data from four brain regions in an unprecedented eighteen species. Here, we show a remarkable level of variation in gene expression among hominid species, including humans and chimpanzees, despite their relatively recent divergence time from other primates. We found that individual genes display a wide range of expression dynamics across evolutionary time reflective of the diverse selection pressures acting on genes within primate brain tissue. Using our samples that represent a 190-fold difference in primate brain size, we identified genes with variation in expression most correlated with brain size. Our study extensively broadens the phylogenetic context of what is known about the molecular evolution of the brain across primates and identifies novel candidate genes for the study of genetic regulation of brain evolution.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Primates , Humanos , Animales , Filogenia , Primates/genética , Encéfalo/fisiología , Evolución Molecular , Pan troglodytes/genética , Expresión Génica , Evolución Biológica
20.
Cell Rep ; 43(2): 113697, 2024 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38294901

RESUMEN

The pandemic HIV-1, HIV-1 group M, emerged from a single spillover event of its ancestral lentivirus from a chimpanzee. During human-to-human spread worldwide, HIV-1 diversified into multiple subtypes. Here, our interdisciplinary investigation mainly sheds light on the evolutionary scenario of the viral budding system of HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C), a most successfully spread subtype. Of the two amino acid motifs for HIV-1 budding, the P(T/S)AP and YPxL motifs, HIV-1C loses the YPxL motif. Our data imply that HIV-1C might lose this motif to evade immune pressure. Additionally, the P(T/S)AP motif is duplicated dependently of the level of HIV-1 spread in the human population, and >20% of HIV-1C harbored the duplicated P(T/S)AP motif. We further show that the duplication of the P(T/S)AP motif is caused by the expansion of the CTG triplet repeat. Altogether, our results suggest that HIV-1 has experienced a two-step evolution of the viral budding process during human-to-human spread worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Seropositividad para VIH , VIH-1 , Humanos , Animales , VIH-1/genética , Pandemias , Lentivirus , División Celular , Pan troglodytes
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