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2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5043, 2021 03 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658596

RESUMEN

The current COVID-19 pandemic has impacted millions of people and the global economy. Tourism has been one the most affected economic sectors because of the mobility restrictions established by governments and uncoordinated actions from origin and destination regions. The coordination of restrictions and reopening policies could help control the spread of virus and enhance economies, but this is not an easy endeavor since touristic companies, citizens, and local governments have conflicting interests. We propose an evolutionary game model that reflects a collective risk dilemma behind these decisions. To this aim, we represent regions as players, organized in groups; and consider the perceived risk as a strict lock-down and null economic activity. The costs for regions when restricting their mobility are heterogeneous, given that the dependence on tourism of each region is diverse. Our analysis shows that, for both large populations and the EU NUTS2 case study, the existence of heterogeneous costs enhances global agreements. Furthermore, the decision on how to group regions to maximize the regions' agreement of the population is a relevant issue for decision makers to consider. We find out that a layout of groups based on similar costs of cooperation boosts the regions' agreements and avoid the risk of having a total lock-down and a negligible tourism activity. These findings can guide policy makers to facilitate agreements among regions to maximize the tourism recovery.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/economía , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/economía , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos , Pandemias/economía , Factores de Riesgo , Turismo
3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249121, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788886

RESUMEN

Pandemics have historically had a significant impact on economic inequality. However, official inequality statistics are only available at low frequency and with considerable delay, which challenges policymakers in their objective to mitigate inequality and fine-tune public policies. We show that using data from bank records it is possible to measure economic inequality at high frequency. The approach proposed in this paper allows measuring, timely and accurately, the impact on inequality of fast-unfolding crises, like the COVID-19 pandemic. Applying this approach to data from a representative sample of over three million residents of Spain we find that, absent government intervention, inequality would have increased by almost 30% in just one month. The granularity of the data allows analyzing with great detail the sources of the increases in inequality. In the Spanish case we find that it is primarily driven by job losses and wage cuts experienced by low-wage earners. Government support, in particular extended unemployment insurance and benefits for furloughed workers, were generally effective at mitigating the increase in inequality, though less so among young people and foreign-born workers. Therefore, our approach provides knowledge on the evolution of inequality at high frequency, the effectiveness of public policies in mitigating the increase of inequality and the subgroups of the population most affected by the changes in inequality. This information is fundamental to fine-tune public policies on the wake of a fast-moving pandemic like the COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/economía , Adulto Joven
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 632043, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777885

RESUMEN

The coronavirus pandemic has highlighted the capitalist dysfunction showing that considering profit over people can be deadly. The study reveals the LME economies were more responsive toward the impact of the disease outbreaks as compared to the CME economies wherein the impact of the disease was moderated by the government involvement. This allows us to draw that the impact of the disease outbreaks can be moderated by increasing the involvement of the government authorities.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Comercio/economía , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Brotes de Enfermedades/economía , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/economía , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(3)2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753401

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We characterised the impact of COVID-19 on the socioeconomic conditions, access to gender affirmation services and mental health outcomes in a sample of global transgender (trans) and non-binary populations. METHODS: Between 16 April 2020 and 3 August 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with a global sample of trans and non-binary people (n=849) through an online social networking app. We conducted structural equational modelling procedures to determine direct, indirect and overall effects between poor mental health (ie, depression and anxiety) and latent variables across socioecological levels: social (ie, reduction in gender affirming services, socioeconomic loss impact) and environmental factors (ie, COVID-19 pandemic environment). RESULTS: Anxiety (45.82%) and depression (50.88%) in this sample were prevalent and directly linked to COVID-19 pandemic environment. Adjusted for gender identity, age, migrant status, region, education and level of socioeconomic status, our final model showed significant positive associations between relationships of (1) COVID-19 pandemic environment and socioeconomic loss impact (ß=0.62, p<0.001), (2) socioeconomic loss impact and reduction in gender affirming services (ß=0.24, p<0.05) and (3) reduction in gender affirming services and poor mental health (ß=0.19, p<0.05). Moreover, socioeconomic loss impact and reduction in gender affirming services were found to be partial mediators in this model. CONCLUSION: The study results supported the importance of bolstering access to gender affirming services and strengthening socioeconomic opportunities and programmatic support to buffer the impact of COVID-19 pandemic environment on poor mental health among trans and non-binary communities globally.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Pandemias/economía , Personas Transgénero/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Prevalencia , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Factores Socioeconómicos
12.
Am J Prev Med ; 60(4): 453-461, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602534

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the rates of food insecurity and mental illness have been projected to increase in the U.S. owing to significant social and economic disruption. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of food insufficiency (often the most extreme form of food insecurity), the correlates of food insufficiency, and the associations between food insufficiency and symptoms of poor mental health in the U.S. during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 63,674 participants of the U.S. Census Household Pulse Survey were collected and analyzed in 2020. Multiple Poisson regression models were used to estimate associations with food insufficiency. RESULTS: Food insufficiency rose from 8.1% to 10.0% from March to June 2020. Factors associated with food insufficiency included lower age, Black/African American or Latinx race/ethnicity, being unmarried, larger household size, recent employment loss, income below the federal poverty line, and lower education (all p<0.001). Food insufficiency was independently associated with all symptoms of poor mental health, adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic factors (adjusted RRs ranged from 1.16 to 1.42, all p<0.001). The association between food insufficiency and poor mental health was attenuated among people who received free groceries or meals. CONCLUSIONS: Food insufficiency has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic and affects vulnerable populations, placing individuals at higher risk for symptoms of poor mental health. Particularly in the current crisis, clinicians should regularly screen patients for food insufficiency and mental health outcomes as well as provide support in accessing appropriate resources.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/economía , Adulto , /economía , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/economía , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Salud Mental/economía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(8)2021 02 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547252

RESUMEN

Crises lay bare the social fault lines of society. In the United States, race, gender, age, and education have affected vulnerability to COVID-19 infection. Yet, consequences likely extend far beyond morbidity and mortality. Temporarily closing the economy sent shock waves through communities, raising the possibility that social inequities, preexisting and current, have weakened economic resiliency and reinforced disadvantage, especially among groups most devastated by the Great Recession. We address pandemic precarity, or risk for material and financial insecurity, in Indiana, where manufacturing loss is high, metro areas ranked among the hardest hit by the Great Recession nationally, and health indicators stand in the bottom quintile. Using longitudinal data (n = 994) from the Person to Person Health Interview Study, fielded in 2019-2020 and again during Indiana's initial stay-at-home order, we provide a representative, probability-based assessment of adverse economic outcomes of the pandemic. Survey-weighted multivariate regressions, controlling for preexisting inequality, find Black adults over 3 times as likely as Whites to report food insecurity, being laid off, or being unemployed. Residents without a college degree are twice as likely to report food insecurity (compared to some college), while those not completing high school (compared to bachelor's degree) are 4 times as likely to do so. Younger adults and women were also more likely to report economic hardships. Together, the results support contentions of a Matthew Effect, where pandemic precarity disproportionately affects historically disadvantaged groups, widening inequality. Strategically deployed relief efforts and longer-term policy reforms are needed to challenge the perennial and unequal impact of disasters.


Asunto(s)
Factores de Edad , Grupos de Población Continentales , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Pandemias/economía , Pobreza , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , /etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/etnología
15.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(2): e102-e107, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581061

RESUMEN

The scale of the COVID-19 pandemic is a consequence of international trade and globalisation, with the virus spreading along established trade and travel routes. However, the pandemic also affects international trade through reductions in both supply and demand. In this Viewpoint we describe the many implications for health and propose ways to mitigate them. Problems include reduced access to medical supplies (in particular, personal protective equipment and tests), budgetary shortfalls as a result of reduced tariffs and taxes, and a general decline in economic activity-leading, in many cases, to recessions, threats to social safety nets, and to increased precariousness of income, employment, and food security. However, in exceptional cases, the pandemic has also brought some transient benefits, including to the environment. Looking ahead, there will be great pressure to further liberalise rules on trade to encourage economic recovery, but it is essential that trade policy be informed by its many consequences for health to ensure that the benefits are maximised and threats are minimised through active identification and mitigation.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Comercio , Pandemias/economía , Salud Pública , Comercio/economía , Comercio/tendencias , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Salud Pública/economía , Salud Pública/tendencias
16.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245011, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596219

RESUMEN

We analyze the trade-offs between health and the economy during the period of social distancing in São Paulo, the state hardest hit by the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. We use longitudinal data with municipal-level information and check the robustness of our estimates to several sources of bias, including spatial dependence, reverse causality, and time-variant omitted variables. We use exogenous climate shocks as instruments for social distancing since people are more likely to stay home in wetter and colder periods. Our findings suggest that the health benefits of social distancing differ by levels of municipal development and may have vanished if the COVID-19 spread was not controlled in neighboring municipalities. In turn, we did not find evidence that municipalities with tougher social distancing performed worse economically. Our results also highlight that estimates that do not account for endogeneity may largely underestimate the benefits of social distancing on reducing the spread of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Cuarentena/economía , Brasil/epidemiología , /prevención & control , Ciudades/economía , Ciudades/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias/economía , Pandemias/prevención & control , Cuarentena/psicología , /aislamiento & purificación
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546396

RESUMEN

This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the Taiwan stock market and investigates whether companies with a commitment to corporate social responsibility (CSR) were less affected. This study uses a selection of companies provided by CommonWealth magazine to classify the listed companies in Taiwan as CSR and non-CSR companies. The event study approach is applied to examine the change in the stock prices of CSR companies after the first COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan. The empirical results indicate that the stock prices of all companies generated significantly negative abnormal returns and negative cumulative abnormal returns after the outbreak. Compared with all companies and with non-CSR companies, CSR companies were less affected by the outbreak; their stock prices were relatively resistant to the fall and they recovered faster. In addition, the cumulative impact of the COVID-19 on the stock prices of CSR companies is smaller than that of non-CSR companies on both short- and long-term bases. However, the stock price performance of non-CSR companies was not weaker than that of CSR companies during times when the impact of the pandemic was lower or during the price recovery phase.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Comercio/economía , Cultura Organizacional , Pandemias/economía , Responsabilidad Social , Humanos , Taiwán
18.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(2): 112-124, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551505

RESUMEN

Objective: To estimate the economic cost of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) in 31 provincial-level administrative regions and in total, in China. Methods: We used data from government reports, clinical guidelines and other publications to estimate the main cost components of COVID-19 during 1 January-31 March 2020. These components were: identification and diagnosis of close contacts; suspected cases and confirmed cases of COVID-19; treatment of COVID-19 cases; compulsory quarantine of close contacts and suspected cases; and productivity losses for all affected residents. Primary outcomes were total health-care and societal costs. Findings: The total estimated health-care and societal costs associated with COVID-19 were 4.26 billion Chinese yuan (¥; 0.62 billion United States dollars, US$) and ¥ 2646.70 billion (US$ 383.02 billion), respectively. Inpatient care accounted for 44.2% (¥ 0.95 billion/¥ 2.15 billion) of routine health-care costs followed by medicines, accounting for 32.5% (¥ 0.70 billion/¥ 2.15 billion). Productivity losses accounted for 99.8% (¥ 2641.61 billion/¥ 2646.70 billion) of societal costs, which were mostly attributable to the effect of movement-restriction policies on people who did not have COVID-19. Societal costs were most sensitive to salary costs and number of working days lost due to movement-restriction policies. Hubei province had the highest health-care cost while Guangdong province had the highest societal cost. Conclusion: Our results highlight the high economic burden of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. The control measures to prevent the spread of disease resulted in substantial costs from productivity losses amounting to 2.7% (US$ 382.29 billion/US$ 14.14 trillion) of China's annual gross domestic product.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Costo de Enfermedad , Pandemias/economía , China , Eficiencia , Producto Interno Bruto , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Humanos , Modelos Económicos
19.
Sci Adv ; 7(6)2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547077

RESUMEN

Despite numerous journalistic accounts, systematic quantitative evidence on economic conditions during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic remains scarce for most low- and middle-income countries, partly due to limitations of official economic statistics in environments with large informal sectors and subsistence agriculture. We assemble evidence from over 30,000 respondents in 16 original household surveys from nine countries in Africa (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda, Sierra Leone), Asia (Bangladesh, Nepal, Philippines), and Latin America (Colombia). We document declines in employment and income in all settings beginning March 2020. The share of households experiencing an income drop ranges from 8 to 87% (median, 68%). Household coping strategies and government assistance were insufficient to sustain precrisis living standards, resulting in widespread food insecurity and dire economic conditions even 3 months into the crisis. We discuss promising policy responses and speculate about the risk of persistent adverse effects, especially among children and other vulnerable groups.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Países en Desarrollo/economía , Empleo/tendencias , Renta/tendencias , Pandemias/economía , Adulto , África/epidemiología , Agricultura/economía , Asia/epidemiología , Niño , Colombia/epidemiología , Violencia Doméstica , Recesión Económica , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Programas de Gobierno/economía , Humanos , Masculino , Estaciones del Año , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525330

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic stressed the importance of understanding the sources of vulnerabilities that can lead to a financial crisis and highlighted the predominant impact on health systems. Firstly, the paper aims to conduct a retrospective analysis of the Romanian health care system, over the period of time 1985-2019, based on our own computed sustainability index for public health. Secondly, using the Gregory-Hansen cointegration method, we provide new evidence on the causal relationship between health expenditure and GDP for Romania over the period of time 1985-2017. Based on the retrospective analysis of the long-run co-movement between health spending and GDP, the study allows one to prospectively examine not only the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on health care spending, but also to reveal the government's fiscal position and vulnerabilities. Our results highlight the intergenerational costs related to the policy incoherence roadmap and regulatory fragmentation, stressing the importance of economic system resilience through fiscal diligence and the consolidation of the institutional context.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Gastos en Salud , Pandemias/economía , Salud Pública/economía , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Rumanía/epidemiología
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