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2.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 396-400, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723454

RESUMEN

Fourteen months into the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, we identify key lessons in the global and national responses to the pandemic. The World Health Organization has played a pivotal technical, normative and coordinating role, but has been constrained by its lack of authority over sovereign member states. Many governments also mistakenly attempted to manage COVID-19 like influenza, resulting in repeated lockdowns, high excess morbidity and mortality, and poor economic recovery. Despite the incredible speed of the development and approval of effective and safe vaccines, the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants means that all countries will have to rely on a globally coordinated public health effort for several years to defeat this pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Salud Global , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/tendencias , Salud Global/historia , Salud Global/tendencias , Gobierno , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Pandemias/historia , Salud Pública/historia , Salud Pública/métodos , Salud Pública/tendencias , Administración en Salud Pública/métodos , Administración en Salud Pública/normas , Administración en Salud Pública/tendencias , /fisiología
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526435

RESUMEN

We have been here before. In 430 BCE, a plague struck Athens, killing as much as 25% of the population. In 1347 CE, the bubonic plague afflicted western Europe for 4 years, killing as much as 50% of the population. The plague of Athens led to a collapse of their religion, cultural norms and democracy. In contrast, the bubonic plague led eventually to the Renaissance, a growth of art, science and humanism. As we contend with the COVID-19 global pandemic, will we become Athens or Florence?


Asunto(s)
Pandemias/historia , Peste , Europa (Continente) , Antigua Grecia , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Peste/historia , Peste/mortalidad
6.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(2): 147-149, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502142

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Depictions of pandemics presented through the lens of literary authors and poets have everlasting power. In this article, we explore the psychosocial impact of pandemics, as presented through literature and poetry, and attempt to draw similarities with the current COVID-19 pandemic. We explore topics such as fear and anxiety, hopelessness, and suicide ideation. Overall, the psychological devastation caused by epidemics has influenced many major writers and will undoubtedly impact the writers of our generation. These writings are perhaps the richest source of knowledge of humanity's remarkable capacity to endure suffering.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Miedo , Medicina en la Literatura , Pandemias , Ideación Suicida , Ansiedad/psicología , Miedo/psicología , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Medicina en la Literatura/historia , Pandemias/historia
10.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 8, 2021 01 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487173

RESUMEN

The present moment is not the first time that America has found itself at war with a pathogen during a time of international conflict. Between crowded barracks at home and trenches abroad, wartime conditions helped enable the spread of influenza in the fall of 1918 during World War I such that an estimated 20-40% of U.S. military members were infected. While the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is unparalleled for most of today's population, it is essential to not view it as unprecedented lest the lessons of past pandemics and their effect on the American military be forgotten. This article provides a historical perspective on the effect of the most notable antecedent pandemic, the Spanish Influenza epidemic, on American forces with the goal of understanding the interrelationship of global pandemics and the military, highlighting the unique challenges of the current pandemic, and examining how the American military has fought back against pandemics both at home and abroad, both 100 years ago and today.


Asunto(s)
Influenza Pandémica, 1918-1919/historia , Medicina Militar/historia , Pandemias/historia , /epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Medicina Militar/organización & administración , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Primera Guerra Mundial
11.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 846-851, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437221

RESUMEN

In the last 50 years we have experienced two big pandemics, the HIV pandemic and the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Both pandemics are caused by RNA viruses and have reached us from animals. These two viruses are different in the transmission mode and in the symptoms they generate. However, they have important similarities: the fear in the population, increase in proinflammatory cytokines that generate intestinal microbiota modifications or NETosis production by polymorphonuclear neutrophils, among others. They have been implicated in the clinical, prognostic and therapeutic attitudes.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , VIH-1/patogenicidad , Pandemias/historia , /patogenicidad , /inmunología , /transmisión , Citocinas/sangre , Citocinas/inmunología , Trampas Extracelulares/inmunología , Trampas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Miedo , Carga Global de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/inmunología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , VIH-1/inmunología , VIH-1/aislamiento & purificación , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Humanos , Mediadores de Inflamación/sangre , Mediadores de Inflamación/inmunología , Mortalidad , Neutrófilos/inmunología , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Pronóstico , /aislamiento & purificación
12.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 48(1): 9-10, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337435

RESUMEN

The winter solstice marks the astronomical moment when the sun is aligned over the Tropic of Capricorn. On December 21, those who live in the Northern Hemisphere had the shortest day and longest night of the year. This was accompanied in 2020 by a rare alignment of Jupiter and Saturn, which appeared as a singular bright point of light in the night sky for the first time since the Middle Ages. Although many cultures celebrate the winter solstice, the solstice is mostly overlooked in the United States, largely because of the multitude of other holidays around this time of the year. However, the shortest day and longest night seems like a metaphor of sorts for a year like no other in the memory of most-a fitting end and a pause. From the stillness, we can reflect in the space between the past and the future, reviewing the year behind us while appreciating the challenges to be faced in 2021.


Asunto(s)
/historia , Enfermería Oncológica/historia , Enfermería Oncológica/organización & administración , Pandemias/historia , /epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333995

RESUMEN

The twenty-first century has witnessed some of the deadliest viral pandemics with far-reaching consequences. These include the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (1981), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (2002), Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1) (2009), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (2012) and Ebola virus (2013) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) (2019-present). Age- and gender-based characterizations suggest that SARS-CoV-2 resembles SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV with regard tohigher fatality rates in males, and in the older population with comorbidities. The invasion-mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, involves binding of its spike protein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors; MERS-CoV utilizes dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), whereas H1N1 influenza is equipped with hemagglutinin protein. The viral infections-mediated immunomodulation, and progressive inflammatory state may affect the functions of several other organs. Although no effective commercial vaccine is available for any of the viruses, those against SARS-CoV-2 are being developed at an unprecedented speed. Until now, only Pfizer/BioNTech's vaccine has received temporary authorization from the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Given the frequent emergence of viral pandemics in the 21st century, proper understanding of their characteristics and modes of action are essential to address the immediate and long-term health consequences.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias/historia , Virosis/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Ebolavirus , Femenino , VIH , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Masculino , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio , Salud Pública , Virus del SRAS , Virosis/fisiopatología
14.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 12 03.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332041

RESUMEN

The plague epidemics wiped out large parts of the city population from the 15th to the 17th century in the Netherlands. The plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) is transmitted to humans through infected rats and fleas and has been transferred from China to Europe via the trade routes over land and sea. Meetings were banned, plague victims were isolated at home or in pest houses, and ships quarantined. In the densely populated, poor neighborhoods of the cities, however, isolation and keeping distance were not feasible, which allowed the plague to rapidly spread. The lessons we have learned from the plague epidemics are timeless. Isolation, keeping your distance and quarantine were key principles and now apply again in the approach to the current Covid-19 pandemic. How effective these measures are depends on the social context in which they are applied.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Peste , Cuarentena , Animales , /prevención & control , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Vectores de Enfermedades , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Humanos , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Pandemias/historia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/historia , Peste/microbiología , Peste/prevención & control , Cuarentena/historia , Cuarentena/métodos , Yersinia pestis/patogenicidad
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4918, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004800

RESUMEN

In order to control and eradicate epidemic cholera, we need to understand how epidemics begin, how they spread, and how they decline and eventually end. This requires extensive sampling of epidemic disease over time, alongside the background of endemic disease that may exist concurrently with the epidemic. The unique circumstances surrounding the Argentinian cholera epidemic of 1992-1998 presented an opportunity to do this. Here, we use 490 Argentinian V. cholerae genome sequences to characterise the variation within, and between, epidemic and endemic V. cholerae. We show that, during the 1992-1998 cholera epidemic, the invariant epidemic clone co-existed alongside highly diverse members of the Vibrio cholerae species in Argentina, and we contrast the clonality of epidemic V. cholerae with the background diversity of local endemic bacteria. Our findings refine and add nuance to our genomic definitions of epidemic and endemic cholera, and are of direct relevance to controlling current and future cholera epidemics.


Asunto(s)
Cólera/microbiología , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Pandemias/prevención & control , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Argentina/epidemiología , Cólera/epidemiología , Cólera/prevención & control , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ADN Bacteriano/aislamiento & purificación , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Anotación de Secuencia Molecular , Pandemias/historia , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Vibrio cholerae/aislamiento & purificación , Vibrio cholerae/patogenicidad
20.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020501, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110584

RESUMEN

Background: The focus of the study is to assess the role of different transport means in the importation and diffusion of 1918-19 influenza and a novel 2019 corona virus designated as COVID-19 in Nigeria. Methods: The study provides a review of the means by which the two pandemics were imported into the country and the roles the transport means of each period played in the local spread of the epidemics. Results: The study notes that seaports and railways, being the emerging transportation modes in the country were significant to the importation and local diffusion of 1918-19 influenza, respectively, while air transport is significant to the importation of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The study concludes that increasing preference for the transport at a given epoch is significant to the diffusion of prevailing epidemic in the epoch.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Influenza Pandémica, 1918-1919/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Transportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Pandemias/historia , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Transportes/historia
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